SBF15: Halina on Competence in Communication and Interpersonal Skills

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María Jesús García San Martín

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Competence in Communication And Interpersonal Skills : C ompetence in C ommunication And I nterpersonal S kills Introduction Halina Ostańkowicz - Bazan March 2015

Slide2 : Management Fundamentals - Chapter 17 2

Questions : Questions What happens in the communication process? How can communication be improved? How does our perception influence the communication? How can we deal positively with conflict? How can we negotiate successful agreements? 3

What happens in the communication process? : What happens in the communication process? Communication. An interpersonal process of sending and receiving symbols with messages attached to them. Key components of the communication process: Sender. Message. Communication channel. Receiver. Interpreted meaning. Feedback. 4

Slide5 : 5 Types of Communication There are three types of communication, including: verbal communication involving listening to a person to understand the meaning of a message, written communication in which a message is read, and nonverbal communication involving observing a person and inferring meaning.

Slide6 : 6 V erbal communication is the most common form of communication. What is verbal communication ? The sharing of information between individuals by using speech. Individuals need to effectively use verbal communication that listeners can easily underst and spoken words, as well as ensuring that the expression, stress and tone of voice is appropriate.

The Process of Interpersonal Communication. : The Process of Interpersonal Communication. 7

Slide8 : More effective and efficient communication Potential trade-offs between effectiveness and efficiency must be acknowledged. 8

Slide9 : 9 Effective C ommunication Occurs when the intended meaning of the sender is identical to the interpreted meaning of the receiver.

Slide10 : Persuading and integrity in communication. Communication is used for sharing information and influencing other people. Persuasion is getting someone else to support the message being presented. Straight structures and authorization are important contexts for persuasion. 10

Slide11 : Persuasion and integrity in communication Expert power and referent power are essential for persuasion. Reliability involves trust, respect, and integrity in the eyes of others. Honesty can be built through expertise and relationships. 11

Slide12 : Sources of noise in communication Poor choice of channels. Poorly written or oral expression. Failure to recognize nonverbal signals. Physical distractions. Status effects. 12

Slide13 : Choose the channel that works best. Written channels work for messages that: Are simple and easy to convey. Require extensive dissemination quickly. Convey formal policy or authoritative directives. Spoken channels work best for messages that: Are complex or difficult to convey where immediate feedback is needed. Attempt to create a supportive, even inspirational, climate. 13

Slide14 : M aking oral presentations Be prepared. Set the right tone. Sequence points. Support your points. Accent the presentation. Check your technology. Be professional. 14

Slide15 : 15

Slide16 : Be aware of nonverbal signs. Nonverbal communication takes place through gestures, facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and habit of interpersonal distance. Mixed messages occur when a person’s words and nonverbal signals communicate different things. The growing use of communication technologies may cause important nonverbal communication to be vanished. 16

Slide17 : Physical distractions. Include interruptions from telephone calls, drop-in visitors, a lack of privacy, etc. Can interfere with the effectiveness of a communication attempt. Can be avoided or at least minimized through proper preparation. 17

How can we improve communication? : How can we improve communication? Active listening The process of taking action to help someone say exactly what he or she really means. Listen for message content. Listen for feelings. Respond to feelings. Note all cues, verbal and nonverbal. Paraphrase and restate. 18

Slide19 : 19

Slide20 : Guidelines of good listening Stop talking. Make the other person feel comfortable and at ease. Show that you are willing to listen. Eliminate any potential distractions. Don’t answer too quickly; be patient. Don’t get annoyed; hold your temper. Treat gently arguments and critique. Keep asking questions. 20

Slide21 : 21 Active Listening Hear What People are Really Saying How well we listen has a major impact on the quality of our relationships with others. For instance: We listen to obtain information. We listen to understand. We listen for enjoyment. We listen to learn.

Constructive feedback can improve communication : Constructive feedback can improve communication As a listener, your role is to understand what is being said. This may require you to reflect what is being said and ask questions. Reflect what has been said by paraphrasing. " What I'm hearing is," and "Sounds like you are saying," are nice ways to reflect back . Ask questions to clarify certain points. "What do you mean when you say." "Is this what you mean?" Summarize the speaker's comments periodically. 22

Slide23 : 23 Communication Channels is the term given to the way in which we communicate. There are multiple communication channels available to us today, for example face-to-face conversations , telephone calls, text messages, email, the Internet (including social media such as Facebook and Twitter), radio and TV, written letters, brochures and reports to name just a few.

Slide24 : 24 Communication theory states that communication involves a sender and a receiver (or receivers) conveying information through a communication channel . Choosing an appropriate communication channel is vital for effective communication as each communication channel has different strengths and weaknesses.

Channel richness and the use of communication media. : Channel richness and the use of communication media. 25

Slide26 : 26 Top 10 Ways to Improve Your Communication Skills 1. Listen, Really Listen 2. Up Your Empathy 3. Be Brief Yet Specific 4. Tailor Your Message to Your Audience 5. Put Away the Distractions 6. Ask Questions and Repeat the Other Person 7. Tell a Story 8. Have a Script for Small Talk and Other Occasions 9. Get Rid of Unnecessary Conversation Fillers Um's and Ah's 10. Watch Your Body Language

Slide27 : 27 Diversity provides a lesson for each of us to be okay with and open to those things that set us apart – race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, physical and mental ability, language (the list goes on) and understanding and accepting of people for who they are. “Diversity is the one true thing we have in common.” Being culturally aware provides an opportunity to stand back and consider that there are certain backgrounds, personal values, beliefs and upbringings that shape the things we all do. Something that is considered inappropriate behavior in one culture may be perfectly appropriate in another.

Slide28 : Valuing culture and diversity. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to consider one’s culture superior to any and all others. Ethnocentrism can cause people to: Not listen to others. Address, or speak to others in ways that isolate them. Use inappropriate stereotypes in dealing with someone from another culture. 28

How does perception influence communication? : How does perception influence communication ? Perception. The process through which people receive and interpret information from the environment. People can perceive the same things or situations differently. People behave on the basis of their perceptions . 29

Perception and communication. : Perception and communication. 30

Perception and attribution. : Perception and attribution. The Attribution Theory explains the ways in which we give reasons, for behaviors that we observe, in real life. In other words, it's how we explain the reasons for our own behaviors, as well as the behaviors of other people. 31

Slide32 : 32 There are TWO types of Attribution: 1. Internal attribution 2. External attribution In an internal , or dispositional, attribution, people infer that an event or a person's behavior is due to personal factors such as traits, abilities, or feelings. They explain a behavior, based on a person's personality.

Slide33 : 33 In an external , or situational, attribution, People infer that a person's behavior is due to situational factors. They don't explain the behavior, based on a person's personality.

Perceptual tendencies and distortions : Perceptual tendencies and distortions Stereotypes A stereotype is used to categorize a group of people. People don't understand that type of person, so they put them into classifications, thinking that everyone who is that needs to be like that, or anyone who acts like their classifications is one. The stereotype for Goths are black clothes, black makeup, depressed, hated by society. The stereotype for Punks are mohawks , spikes, chains, menace to society, always getting in trouble. 34

Slide35 : 35 Halo effects Occur when one attribute is used to develop an overall impression of a person or situation. The tendency for an estimate or judgment to be influenced by an irrelevant or only loosely associated factor, impression, etc.

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