Alvarado Zingrone Intro Parapsychology MOOC 2015 new

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Introduction to the Scientific Study of Psychic Phenomena, for the Parapsychology MOOC 2015, prepared by Drs. Carlos S. Alvarado & Nancy L. Zingrone, presented by Alvarado.


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Introduction to the Scientific Study of Psychic Phenomena : Introduction to the Scientific Study of Psychic Phenomena Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD Nancy L. Zingrone, PhD Parapsychology Foundation

Outline : Outline Definitions, areas, and brief history Phenomena Methodology Approaches Importance Bibliography

Definitions of Parapsychology : D efinitions of Parapsychology Variety of explanations : “The discipline which strives to explain apparently aberrant phenomena in terms of science, be this through fraud, illusion, or by the use of a “classic” or new psychological function” Robert Amadou, La parapsychologie (1954 ). Nonphysicality : “The branch of inquiry which deals with nonphysical personal operations or phenomena.” J. B. Rhine & J . G. Pratt Parapsychology : Frontier Science of the Mind (1957). Phenomena outside accepted boundaries : “The scientific study of experiences which, if they are as they seem to be, are in principle outside the realm of human capabilities as presently conceived by conventional scientists.” Harvey J. Irwin & Caroline Watt (2007). An Introduction to Parapsychology (5th ed .). The mind connecting directly with the world : The study of “a group of experiences which seem . . . to connect the human mind in a direct way to external reality . . . without the usual mediation of the body (the nervous system) and the workings of logic.” Massimo Biondi & Patrizio E. Tressoldi, Parapsicologia (2007)

Areas : Areas Many Ways to Classify Areas of Parapsychology Another option: Agency Phenomena experienced by human beings Phenomena experienced/produced by animals Phenomena suggestive of survival of death Method (experiments/cases) Approach (quantitative/qualitative) Disciplinary emphasis (psychology, physics, sociology) Phenomena

Anomalistic Psychology Includes Wider Topics than Parapsychology : Anomalistic Psychology I ncludes Wider T opics t han P arapsychology Paranormal beliefs Altered states of consciousness Hypnosis Dissociative states Unexplained psychophysiology The psychology of coincidences P lacebo effects Hallucinations Religious experiences Synesthesia

PRE-18TH CENTURY Divination Apparitions Miracles Witchcraft MESMERISM Animal magnetism Trance Healing Clairvoyance SPIRITUALISM Contacting the dead Mental and physical mediumship PSYCHOLOGY/ PSYCHICAL RESEARCH PSYCHIATRY Telepathy experiments Subconscious mind Telepathy case studies Dissociative pathology Mediumship studies Automatism MODERN PARAPSYCHOLOGY Laboratory and other studies : PRE-18 TH CENTURY Divination Apparitions Miracles Witchcraft MESMERISM Animal magnetism Trance Healing Clairvoyance SPIRITUALISM Contacting the dead Mental and physical mediumship PSYCHOLOGY / PSYCHICAL RESEARCH PSYCHIATRY Telepathy experiments Subconscious mind Telepathy case studies Dissociative pathology Mediumship studies Automatism MODERN PARAPSYCHOLOGY Laboratory and other studies

Phenomena : Phenomena

Parapsychological Phenomena : Parapsychological Phenomena Person Acquires Information Extrasensory Perception (ESP) Telepathy Clairvoyance Precognition Environment is Affected Psychokinesis (PK) On Objects On Biological Organisms On Electrical and Mechanical Systems

ESP and Other Phenomena Connected to the Unconscious Mind : ESP and Other Phenomena Connected to the Unconscious Mind Myers Warcollier Tyrrell Rhine Carpenter Rhine & Pratt (1957): “Psi function is an unconscious one.” “Even the subjects who have succeeded most consistently and strikingly could not reliably tell the experimenter how they were able to succeed so well” Experimental findings such as declines and psi- missing are indicator of the unconsciousness of psi.

Expression of ESP : Expression of ESP Myers (1903) Automatisms Tyrrell ( 1946) Vehicles L.E . Rhine (1953 ) Forms Forms of Manifestation of Spontaneous ESP According to Louisa E. Rhine (1962) N = 7119 Dreams 65% Literal 68%* Symbolic 32%* Intuition 26% Hallucinations 9 % Other Aspects Complete/incomplete cases Conviction Louisa E. Rhine (1953). Subjective forms of spontaneous psi experiences. Journal of Parapsychology . (1962). Psychological processes in ESP experiences: Part I. Waking experiences . Journal of Parapsychology . (1965). Comparison of subject matter of intuitive and realistic ESP experiences . Journal of Parapsychology 10

Spontaneous Precognition Appears Frequently in Dreams : Spontaneous Precognition Appears Frequently in Dreams Sidgwick (1888) 69% Saltmarsh (1934) 68% Green (1960) 69% Rhine (1954) 68% Sannwald (1959) 60%

Experimental Work Connecting ESP to: : Experimental Work Connecting ESP to: Altered states of consciousness Belief in ESP (Sheep-Goat Effect) Experimenter effects Extraversion Hypnotic susceptibility Perceptual defense (low) Smith, M. (2003). The role of the e xperimenter in parapsychological research. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10 , 69-84 . Storm, L., Tressoldi, P. E., & Di Risio, L. (2010). Meta-analysis of free-response studies, 1992–2008: Assessing the noise reduction model in parapsychology. Psychological Bulletin , 136 , 471–485 .

Apparitions : Apparitions HE DEAD Of the dead Recurrent At the moment of death Soon and long after death Of the living Crisis (dying/ill/accident) Arrival Experimental Person well (OBE/sleeping/other) Frequency Single Recurrent Apparitions seen: By the dying (deathbed visions) By those having NDEs

PowerPoint Presentation : Haraldsson’s (2012) Study of Apparitions in Iceland 2012 *28% of appearers died in a violent way, as compared to 8% of the general Icelandic population. *High number of apparition occur within 24 hours of death. 25% felt deceased conveyed a message 449 cases from survey in Iceland in 1974-1975 (128 cases); questionnaire in 5 magazines (321 cases) “Have you ever been aware of the presence of a deceased person? 449 cases, persons were interviewed Haraldsson

PowerPoint Presentation : Cheltenham Ghost Haunting apparitions Recurrent apparitions seen around the same place Morton, R. (1892). Record of a haunted house. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research , 8, 311-332.

PowerPoint Presentation : Mediumship Mediums: Individuals believed to produce phenomena via the agency of spirits of the dead Mental mediumship: Speaking / Writing / Visions / Voices / Drawing / Painting / Music Physical mediumship: Raps / Table Tilting / Movement of Objects / Appearance of Writing and Objects / Photography of Spirits / Materializations

PowerPoint Presentation : Chico Xavier’s Mirror Writing Chico Xavier’s mirror-writing Brazilian medium Chico Xavier

PowerPoint Presentation : Parapsychology Foundation’s Founder, Eileen J. Garrett in Trance, in the 1930s

PowerPoint Presentation : Out-of-Body Experiences “Have you ever had an experience in which you felt that ‘you’ were located ‘outside of’ or ‘away from’ your physical body; that is, the feeling that your consciousness, mind, or center of awareness was at a different place than your physical body?”

Frequent OBE Features (Scotland OBE Study) : Frequent OBE Features (Scotland OBE Study) Feature N Percentage Floating sensations 78 71 Stayed in usual surroundings 74 69 Saw physical body 81 65 Saw surroundings from above 81 63 Sensation of rising leaving body 81 56 Could not move physical body before OBE 75 35 Aware of sensations of returning to body 79 35 Aware of sensations of leaving body 84 33 Saw lights around or at a distance 80 33 Alvarado, C.S., & Zingrone, N.L. Features of Out-of-Body Experiences : Relationships to Frequency, Willfullness of and Previous Knowledge about the Experience. Submitted for publication. 20

PowerPoint Presentation : Angelique Cottin 1846 Poltergeists Spontaneous physical m anifestations a round a person *movement of objects *raps

Features of Poltergeists in Roll’s Study of Published Cases (N = 116) : Features of Poltergeists in Roll’s Study of Published Cases (N = 116) Features % Movement of objects 91% Sounds 54% Apparitions 23% Effects over people 12% Voices 11% Lights 9% Temperature changes 6% Fires 3% Writing 2% Roll , W. G. (1977). Poltergeists. In B.B.Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of Parapsychology (pp. 382-413). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

PowerPoint Presentation : Auras Zingrone, N.L., Alvarado, C.S ., & Agee, N. (2009). Psychological correlates of aura vision: Psychic experiences , dissociation, absorption , and synaesthesia- like experiences . Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis .

PowerPoint Presentation : Recollections of Previous Lives *Verbal statements *Behaviors (phobias, likes and dislikes, talents) *Birthmark and birth defects Work of Ian Stevenson Malformed ear, Turkish boy who remembered being a man killed by a shotgun injury to the right side of the head . Stevenson

Children’s Recollections of Previous Lives: 2 : Children’s Recollections of Previous Lives: 2 C hildren between the ages of two and five Stop talking: 6-7 years of age Most cases from Asian countries (Burma , India , Sri Lanka, and Thailand). Stevenson travelled to many villages I nterviewed: *The child *Child’s family *Family of the “previous personality” *Other witnesses Checked written documents such as death certificates and hospital records.

PowerPoint Presentation : Dowsing Healing Near-death experiences Materializations Luminous effects Photographic effects Other Phenomena Ted Serios, Psychic photographs Dowsing

Other Unexplained Phenomena Generally Not Considered Part of Parapsychology : Other Unexplained Phenomena Generally Not Considered Part of Parapsychology Psychological Phenomena Hallucinations Hypnosis Dissociative identity disorder Dreams Strange Creatures Yeti Bigfoot Loch Ness creature El Chupacabras Practices/Systems Acupuncture Homeopathy Astrology Yoga Religious Phenomena Stigmata Marian apparitions UFO Phenomena -- Spaceships -- Encounters -- Abductions Mr. Ed, famous American TV s how about a talking horse

Methodology : Methodology

How Are the Phenomena Studied? : How Are the Phenomena Studied? Laboratory Correlational Experimental Studies of Spontaneous Cases Case collections Surveys Field studies Other Bibliographical Meta-analysis

Correlational Experiments (Also applies to quantitatively evaluated case studies) : Correlational Experiments (Also applies to quantitatively evaluated case s tudies) Correlational: *Relationships between phenomena. *A correlatio n is a measure of the strength of a positive or negative relationship between two variables . *A correlation does not demonstrate a causal relationship between the variables. 30

True Experiment : True Experiment Manipulation of an independent variable to affect a dependent variable. Control condition, random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups . Allows assessment of possible cause and effect .

Case Collections : Case Collections Analyses of cases compiled through: *Appeals for cases *Cases received unsolicited *Published cases

Stevenson’s Telepathic Impressions (1970) : Stevenson’s Telepathic Impressions (1970) Analyses of veridical imageless experiences (thoughts, feelings, emotions, physical symptoms, or raw impulses to take action ) 63 % Referred to member of immediate family 41% About a dying person 41% About someone ill or accident 18% Nothing serious Ian Stevenson

Single Case Studies : Single Case Studies Study of a specific case Bender, H. (1966). The Gotenhafen case of correspondence between dreams and future events: A study of motivation . International Journal of Neuropsychiatry. Mackenzie, A. (1967). A case of haunting in Kent. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. Stevenson, I. (1963). A postcognitive dream illustrating some aspects of the pictographic process. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.

Examples of Modern Single Case Reports in the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research : Examples of Modern Single Case Reports in the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research Beloff, J. (1973). A Note on an Ostensibly Precognitive Dream. Rogo, D.S. (1986). An Analysis o f a Precognitive Dream. Hearne, K. M. T. (1982 ). An Ostensible Precognition of the 1974 Flixborough Disaster . Tart, C.T. (1989). A Case of Predictive Psi, with Comments on Analytical and Theoretical Overlay. John Beloff (1920-2006) D. Scott Rogo (1950-1990) Charles T. Tart Keith Hearne

Surveys : Surveys Compilation of Information from a Group of Individuals A sking the Same Q uestions With randomly and non-randomly selected samples (students magazine readers) Kokubo, H. (2014). A questionnaire survey for the digital native generation on their anomalous experiences and trust for other persons.   Journal of International Society of Life Information Science . Palmer , J. (1979). A community mail survey of psychic experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. Parra, A. (2013). A phenomenological examination of premonition experiences in dreams and waking states : A survey study. Australian Journal of Parapsychology.

Survey Studies of ESP, Apparitions, OBEs, & Auras Associated with: : Survey Studies of ESP, Apparitions, OBEs, & Auras Associated with: * Lucid Dreams * Dream Recall * Absorption Experiences * Dissociative Experiences * Hypnotic Susceptibility * Fantasy Proneness * Other Parapsychological Experiences Alvarado, C.S., & Zingrone, N.L. ( 2007–2008). Interrelationships of psychic experiences, dream recall and lucid dreams in a survey with Spanish participants . Imagination, Cognition and Personality , 27 , 63–69 . Irwin, H.J. (1985). Parapsychological phenomena and the absorption domain. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research , 79 , 1-11. Pekala, R.J., Kumar, V.K., & Cummings, J. (1992 ). Types of high hypnotically-susceptible individuals and reported attitudes and experiences of the paranormal and the anomalous . Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 86 , 135-150 . Richards, D. (1991). A study of the correlation between subjective psychic experiences and dissociative experiences. Dissociation, 4 , 83–91.

Alvarado, C.S., & Zingrone, N.L. (2007-2008). Interrelationships of Parapsychological Experiences, Dream Recall and Lucid Dreams in a Survey With Predominantly Spanish Participants. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. : Alvarado, C.S., & Zingrone, N.L. (2007-2008). Interrelationships of Parapsychological Experiences, Dream Recall and L ucid D reams in a Survey With Predominantly Spanish Participants. Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Questionnaire About Psychic Experiences Printed in New Age/Psychic Magazine Published in Spain, Mas Allá de la Ciencia Significant intercorrelations between: Waking ESP Dream ESP Apparitions OBEs Auras

Alvarado, C.S., Zingrone, N.L., & Agee, N. (2009). Experiencias parapsicológicas y de despersonalización: Una encuesta con una muestra norteamericana de la comunidad. In F.E. da Silva (Ed.), V Encontro Psi: A Variedade das Experiencias Humanas. : Alvarado, C.S., Zingrone, N.L., & Agee, N. (2009). Experiencias parapsicológicas y de despersonalización: Una encuesta con una muestra norteamericana de la comunidad. In F.E. da Silva (Ed.), V Encontro Psi: A Variedade das Experiencias Humanas . Parapsychological Experiences and their Relation to Scores in the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale     Mean CDS Mann- Experience Yes No Whitney U z p   OBEs 31.13 13.86 11172.00 6.51 < .0001   Waking ESP 26.81 13.71 11152.00 5.42 <. 0001   ESP Dreams 27.52 13.46 11101.50 5.47 <. 0001   Apparitions 29.61 15.17 9827.00 4.98 <.0001   Auras 30.19 18.87 3904.00 2.37 = .018

Field Studies : Field Studies Studies of phenomena in a particular location Active or inactive phenomena phenomena Gauld, A. (1972). The haunting of Abbey House , Cambridge . Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. Haraldsson, E. (1991). Children claiming past-life memories : Four cases in Sri Lanka. Journal of Scientific Exploration. Osis, K. (1986). Characteristics of purposeful action in an apparition case. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. Roll , W . G., & Pratt, J. G. (1971). The Miami disturbances. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. Ian Stevenson investigating a reincarnation case 40

Bibliographical : Bibliographical Studies based on published materials Qualitative or quantitative analyses or descriptions of phenomena William G. Roll, Poltergeists. In Handbook of Parapsychology (1977) Carlos S. Alvarado, Observations of luminous phenomena around the human body: A review . Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (1987) Roll Alvarado

Other Qualitative Approaches : Other Qualitative Approaches Explorations of the Meaning and Interpretation of Experience Main purpose if to describe not to predict Ethnography Phenomenological Analysis Discourse Analysis Historical analysis Murray, C.D., Wilde , D., & Murray, J. (2009 ). Finding meaning in near-death experiences . In C.D. Murray (Ed.), Psychological Scientific Perspectives on Out-of-body and Near-death Experiences . New York: Nova Science. Roxburg, E.C., & Roe, C.A. (2014). “Say from whence you owe this strange intelligence”: Investigating explanatory systems of Spiritualist mental mediumship using interpretative phenomenological analysis. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 32 , 27-42 . Stowell, M.S. (1997). Precognitive Dreams: A Phenomenological Study (Part 1 and 2). Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research. Through analysis of : Interviews , observations, participant observation, language , text

Meta-Analysis : Meta-Analysis Quantitative analyses of published quantitative studies Many studies are analyzed to find : *If an effect is significant *How strong is the effect *What variables affect or are related the effect Storm, L., Tressoldi, P.E., & Di Risio, L. (2010). “Meta-analysis of free-response studies, 1992–2008: Assessing the noise reduction model in parapsychology .” Psychological Bulletin .

PowerPoint Presentation : A P P R O A C H E S

The Scientific Method : The Scientific Method

The Approach in Parapsychology (like in science in general) : The Approach in Parapsychology (like in science in general) Conclusions are not supposed to based on: Personal experiences The opinions of others Psychic impressions Meditation Inspiration Messages from the spirits

Nonetheless, Hypotheses May Be Generated Via: : Nonetheless, Hypotheses May Be Generated Via: *Opinions of others *Informal observations *Intuitions *Dreams *Psychic sources of information But they need to be tested scientifically

How do We Learn About Phenomena? : How do We Learn About Phenomena? Studying the Features of Phenomena Studying Interactions of Features Studies of Apparitions Studying the Circumstances of Occurrence Studying How Common the Experience Is Associating the Phenomena (or Features) to Other Variables: Psychological Social Biological Medical Physical Finding Possible Causal Relationships

Conceptual Approaches to Parapsychology : Conceptual Approaches to Parapsychology Explanatory Conventional Principles New Principles Disciplinary Views and Emphases Questions about Phenomena (e.g., ESP) Psychological Psychological profile of an experiencer Physical Physical mechanism Anthropological Cultural context Medical Relationship to conditions Mainly in anomalistic psychology

Variety of Studies of Mental Mediumship : Variety of Studies of Mental Mediumship Evidential Life History Psychological M E D I U Communication M Psychophysiological Process S H I P Biological S ociological Medical 50

The Critical Mentality : The Critical Mentality Opinions depend on: Conditions of observation Methodology Frame of reference Sources of information Conventional Explanations: Movies ( Poltergeist ) TV ( X Files, other programs) Books Suggestion Coincidence Memory mistakes Hallucinations Subconscious elaboration Fraud

PowerPoint Presentation : 1891 1907 Fraud

PowerPoint Presentation : Stanislawa Popielska Fraud: 2

PowerPoint Presentation : Unidentified handsome g uy at the 2001 Convention of the Parapsychological Association, New York City Floating phantom (“Katie King” materialization) b ehind him. Thanks t o Photo Shop. Sent to me by a colleague With no intention to defraud. Fraud: 3

Importance : Importance of Parapsychology

Importance of Parapsychology: 1 : Importance of Parapsychology: 1 Helps us to Understand Better the Complexity of the Mind and its Operations * New mechanisms not accepted by science currently * Mind-body problem * Extension of known processes

Importance of Parapsychology: 2 : Importance of Parapsychology: 2 Variety of Human Experiences Implications for Behavior (aftereffects/clinical issues) Combat Superstition & Evaluate Popular Claims ****

Bibliography: Overviews : Bibliography: Overviews Cardeña , E., Lynn, S.J., & Krippner, S. (Eds.) (2014). Varieties of Anomalous Experiences (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Edge, H.L., Morris, R.L., Palmer, J., & Rush, J. (1986). Foundations of Parapsychology. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Henry , J. (Ed.) (2005). Parapsychology: Research on Exceptional Experiences . London : Routledge. Holt, N. J., Simmonds-Moore, C., Luke, D. & French, C. C. (2012). Anomalistic Psychology . Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Irwin, H.J., & Watt, C. (2007). Introduction to Parapsychology (5th ed.) Jefferson , NC : McFarland Radin, D. (1997). The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena . San Francisco: HarperEdge. Smith, M. (Ed.). (2009). Anomalous Experiences . Jefferson, NC: McFarland . Stokes, D.M. (1997). The Nature of Mind: Parapsychology and the Role of Consciousness in the Physical World. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. For bibliographies about other topics see the poster paper “Parapsychology: A Selected Bibliography in English”

For Information About Past and Current Developments Check This Blog: : For Information About Past and Current Developments Check This Blog: Parapsychology: News, History, Research (https://carlossalvarado.wordpress.com/) Current Experimental Parapsychology: Evidence for Psi, Edited by Damien Broderick and Ben  Goertzel https://carlossalvarado.wordpress.com/2014/12/16/current-experimental-parapsychology-evidence-for-psi-edited-by-damien-broderick-and-ben-goertzel/ People in Parapsychology: XVII: Lance Storm https://carlossalvarado.wordpress.com/2014/11/05/people-in-parapsychology-xvii-lance-storm/ Quality Courses in Parapsychology https://carlossalvarado.wordpress.com/2014/10/27/quality-courses-in-parapsychology/ Recent Articles About Out-of-Body Experiences https://carlossalvarado.wordpress.com/2014/10/23/recent-articles-about-out-of-body-experiences-ii/ Recent Meta-Analyses of Parapsychological Studies https://carlossalvarado.wordpress.com/2013/05/09/recent-meta-analyses-of-parapsychological-studies/

Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD Nancy L. Zingrone, PhD : Carlos S. Alvarado, PhD Nancy L. Zingrone, PhD Research Fellows Parapsychology Foundation New York, NY carlos@theazire.org

Nancy Zingrone
Teaching psychology, scientific parapsychology, English for academics
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