1.5.1 Costs of Production

Add to Favourites
Post to:

Description
Cost of Production


Type: ppt

Discussion
Presentation Transcript Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Costs of production in the short-run The law of diminishing returns Total, average and marginal product Total, average and marginal cost Explicit and implicit costs Costs of p roduction in the long-run Economies of scale The relationship between SR ATC and LR ATC Revenues Total, average and marginal revenue Profit Normal profit Economic profit Profit maximization rule U nit Overview Costs of Production Online: Costs of production Cost-minimization Profit maximization Law of diminishing returns Economies of scale Costs of Production Video Lessons Practice Activities

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Introduction to Costs of Production Firms in a market economy are the provides of the goods and services that households demand in the product market. The incentive that drives firms to provide households with products is that of Profit maximization: The goal of most firms is to maximize their profits. To do so, they must produce at a level of output at which the difference between their revenues and their costs is maximized. To determine whether it will earn a profit at a particular level of output, a firm must, therefore, consider two economic variables: its costs and its revenues Economic Costs: These are the explicit money payments a firm makes to resources owners for the use of land, labor and capital: Includes variable costs (payments for those resources which vary with the level of output) And fixed costs (payments for those resources which do not vary in quantity with the level of output), A s well as the opportunity cost of the business owner Economic Revenues: This is the money income a firm earns from the sale of its products to households. At a particular level of output, a firm’s total revenue equals the price of its product times the quantity sold.   Introduction to Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Short-run versus Long-run Costs of Production When examining a firm’s costs, we must consider two periods of time. The short-run: The period of time in which firms can vary only the amount of labor and the raw materials it uses in its production. Capital and land resources are fixed, and cannot be varied. Example: When the demand for American automobiles fell in the late 2000s, Ford and General Motors responded in the short-run by reducing the size of their workforces. The long-run: The period of time over which firms can vary the quantities of all resources they use in production. The quantities of labor, capital and land resources can all be varied in the long-run. Example: When demand for American automobiles remained week for over two years, Ford and General Motors began closing factories and selling off their capital equipment to foreign car manufacturers. Variable costs and fixed costs: A firm’s variable costs are those which change in the short-run as the firm changes its level of output. Fixed costs, on the other hand, remain constant as output varies in the short-run. In the long-run, all costs are variable, since all resources can be varied… Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Determining Short-run Costs of Production The primary determinant of a firm’s short-run production costs is the productivity of its short-run variable resources (primarily the labor the firm employs). Productivity: The output produced per unit of input The greater the average product of variable resources, the lower the average costs of production in the short-run The lower the productivity of the variable resource, the higher the average costs of production Since in the short-run, only labor and raw materials can be varied in quantity, LABOR IS THE PRIMARY VARIABLE RESOURCE… Labor productivity in the short-run: As different amounts of labor are added to a fixed amount of capital, the productivity of labor will vary based on the law of diminishing returns , which states… The Law of Diminishing Returns: As more and more of a variable resource (usually labor) is added to fixed resources (capital and land) towards production, the marginal product of the variable resource will increase until a certain point, beyond which marginal product declines. Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Short-run Costs of Production THE LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS IN A TOY TRUCK FACTORY

PowerPoint Presentation : Productivity in the Short-run The productivity of labor is the primary determinant of a firm’s short-run production costs. The table below presents some of the key measures of productivity we must consider when determining short-run costs. 1.5.1 Costs of Production Productivity: The amount of output attributable to a unit of input. Examples of productivity: "Better training has increased the productivity of workers" "The new robot is more productive than older versions" "Adding fertilizer has increased the productivity of farmland" Total product (TP) TP is the total output of a particular firm at a particular period of time Example of TP: "After hiring more workers the firm's total product increased." Marginal product of labor (MP L ) is the change in total product divided by the change in the quantity of labor Average product of labor (AP L ) is the output per worker, or the total product divided by the quantity of labor employed Productivity: The amount of output attributable to a unit of input. Examples of productivity: " Better training has increased the productivity of workers" "The new robot is more productive than older versions" "Adding fertilizer has increased the productivity of farmland " Total product (TP) TP is the total output of a particular firm at a particular period of time Example of TP: "After hiring more workers the firm's total product increased." Marginal product of labor (MP L ) Average product of labor (AP L ) Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Quantity of labor (Q L ) Total Product Marginal Product Average Product 0 0 - - 1 4 4 4 2 9 5 4.5 3 15 6 5 4 20 5 5 5 24 4 4.8 6 26 2 4.33 7 26 0 3.7 8 24 -2 3 Productivity in the Short-run Assume a bakery with three ovens wishes to start making bread. To do so, it must hire workers. How many workers should the bakery hire? That depends on the productivity of the labor as more workers are added to the three ovens. The table presents a realistic estimate of the productivity of labor in the short-run Total product increases as more workers are hired, UNTIL the 8 th worker, then total product decreases Marginal product (the output contributed by the last worker hired) increases until the 4 th worker, and then marginal product begins decreasing. Average product (the output per worker) increases until the marginal product becomes lower than AP (at the 5 th worker) and then begins decreasing. The productivity of labor is at its greatest at around 3 or 4 workers, which means the bakery’s average costs will be minimized when employing approximately 4 workers. Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Productivity in the Short-run The data from our productivity table can be plotted in a graph, with the quantity of labor on the horizontal axis and the total, marginal and average product on the vertical axis. Short-run Costs of Production Quantity of labor (Q L ) Total Product Marginal Product Average Product 0 0 - - 1 4 4 4 2 9 5 4.5 3 15 6 5 4 20 5 5 5 24 4 4.8 6 26 2 4.33 7 26 0 3.7 8 24 -2 3

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Productivity in the Short-run The data from our productivity table can be plotted in a graph, with the quantity of labor on the horizontal axis and the total, marginal and average product on the vertical axis. Key observations about short-run production relationships: The MP is the rate of change in the TP. As MP is increasing, TP becomes steeper, but when MP decreases, TP becomes flatter. When MP becomes negative, TP begins decreasing. MP intersects AP at its highest point. Whenever MP>AP, AP is increasing, but when MP

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Productivity in the Short-run If we look more closely at just the marginal product and average product curves, we can learn more about the relationship between these two production variables. Explanation for diminishing returns: With only three ovens in the bakery, the output attributable to the 4 th – 8 th worker becomes less and less. This is because there is not enough capital to allow additional workers to continue to be more and more productive! Up to the 5 th worker, adding additional workers caused the average product to rise, since the marginal product was greater than the average. But beyond the 5 th worker, diminishing returns was causing marginal product to fall at such a rate that it was pulling average output down with it. Worker productivity declines rapidly after four workers. A bakery wanting to minimize costs will not hire more than four workers. Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Short-run Costs of Production UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TOTAL, MARGINAL AND AVERAGE PRODUCT

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Resource costs in the short-run Fixed Costs in the short-run Rent - the payment for land: Rent is fixed in the short-run since firms cannot add this resource to production. Rents must be paid regardless of the level of the firm's output. Interest - the payment for capital: Interest is fixed in the short-run since firms cannot add this resource to production. Interest must be paid on loans regardless of the level of the firm's output. Normal profit - the minimum level of profit needed just to keep an entrepreneur operating in his current market. If he does not earn normal profit, an entrepreneur will direct his skills towards another market. Normal profit is a cost because if a firm does not earn normal profit, it is not covering its costs and may shut down. Variable Costs in the short-run Wages - the payment for labor: Wages are variable in the short-run, since firms can hire or fire workers to use existing land and capital resources. Wage costs increase when new workers are hired, and decrease when workers are laid off. Transportation costs: Firms pay lower transport costs at lower levels of output. Raw material costs: vary with the level of output Manufactured inputs: fewer parts are needed from suppliers when a firm lowers output. Total Costs in the Short-run A firm’s costs in the short-run can be either fixed or variable. The table below presents some of the primary costs a firm faces, and indicates whether they are fixed costs or variable costs. Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Total Costs in the Short-run Total fixed costs (TFC): These are the costs a firm faces that do not vary with changes in short-run output. Could include rent on factory space, interest on capital (already acquired). Total variable costs (TVC): These are the costs a firm faces which change with the level of output in the short-run. Could include payment for raw materials, fuel, power, transportation services, wages for workers, etc… To tal cost: TFC + TVC at each level of output Total Costs in the Short-run A firm’s total costs include the costs of labor (variable costs) and the costs of capital and land resources (fixed costs). The firm above pays total fixed costs of $100. Its TVC increases at a rate determined by the law of diminishing returns Its total cost equal its TFC + TVC Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Diminishing Returns and the short-run costs of production: Notice that TC and TVC increase at a decreasing rate at first. This is when marginal product is increasing as more labor is employed (firms get "more for their money") However, beyond some point, costs begin to increase at an increasing rate. This is where diminishing returns set in and MP is decreasing. The firm is getting less additional output from each worker hired, but must pay the same wages regardless. (The firm gets "less for its money") Total Costs in the Short-run A firm’s total costs include the costs of labor (variable costs) and the costs of capital and land resources (fixed costs). TFC: Notice that regardless of the level of output, TFC remains constant. This is because these are costs that do not vary with output. TVC: Notice that when output is zero, TVC is zero, because you do not need to hire any workers or use any raw materials if you're not producing anything. As output increases, TVC continues to increase TC: Notice that when output is zero, TC = TFC. But once the factory begins pumping out products, TC rises with TVC. TC is the sum of TFC and TVC, since both fixed and variable costs make up total cost. Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Per-unit Costs in the Short-run Firms make decisions about their levels of output based not on total costs, rather on per-unit and marginal costs. Per-unit Costs in the Short-run Average fixed cost: AFC=TFC/Q AFC will decline as output rises, but it will never increase. This is because the fixed cost (which never goes up) is “spread out” as output increases. This is called “spreading the overhead” Average variable cost: AVC = TVC/Q For simplicity, we will assume that labor is the only variable input, the labor cost per unit of output is the AVC Average total cost: ATC = TC/Q Sometimes called unit cost or per unit cost. ATC also equals AFC + AVC Marginal Cost: MC = ∆TVC/∆Q The additional cost of producing one more unit of output. Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : The relationship between productivity and costs When productivity of its workers is rising, a firm’s per unit costs are falling, since they're getting more output for each dollar spent on worker wages. When marginal product is increasing (increasing returns) marginal cost is falling. When average product is rising, average variable cost is falling. When MP and AP are maximimized , MC and AVC are minimized When workers begin experiencing diminishing returns, MP falls and MC begins to rise. MP intersects average product at its highest point, and MC intersects average variable cost at its lowest point From Short-run Productivity to Short-run Costs As worker productivity increases, firms get "more for their money", meaning per-unit and marginal cost decrease. When productivity decreases, costs increase. 1.5.1 Costs of Production Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Short-run Costs of Production SHORT-RUN PRODUCTIVITY, COSTS AND THE LAW OF DIMINISHING MARGINAL RETURNS

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Short-run Cost Relationships ATC=AFC + AVC The vertical distance between ATC and AVC equals the AFC at each level of output. MC and ATC/AVC MC intersects both AVC and ATC at their minimum. This is because if the last unit produced cost less than the average, then the average must be falling, and vis versa (just like your test scores!) MC and diminishing returns MC is at its minimum when MP is at its maximum, because beyond that point diminishing returns sets in and the firm starts getting less for its money! Graphing Per-unit Costs in the Short-run The relationships between a firm’s short-run per unit costs are dictated by the law of diminishing marginal returns Short-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Short-run Costs of Production THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SHORT-RUN COSTS OF PRODUCTION

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Three ranges of a firm’s long-run Average Total Cost curve Increasing Returns to Scale ( Economies of scale) : the range of plant size over which increasing output leads to lower and lower average total cost. As new plants open, ATC declines. WHY? · better specialization, division of labor, bulk buying, lower interest on loans, lower per unit transport costs, larger and more efficient machines, etc... Constant Returns to Scale : The minimum level of output a firm must achieve to achieve the lowest average total cost. Decreasing Returns to Scale (Diseconomies of Scale): When a firm becomes "too big for its own good" it experiences diseconomies of scale. Continuing to add plants and increase output causes ATC to rise. WHY? Mostly due to control and communications problems, trying to coordinate production across a wide geographic may make firm less efficient. Costs of Production in the Long-run Long-run is the variable plant period, meaning that firms can open up new plants, add capital to existing plants, or close plans and remove capital if need be . Because capital and land are variable in the long-run, the law of diminishing returns no longer applies. A firm’s long-run average costs depend on how productivity of land, labor and capital change as a firm’s output increases in the variable plant-period . As a firm’s output increases in the long-run, the firm’s ATC will initially decrease, but eventually increase, based on the following concepts… Long-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Costs of Production in the Long-run The concept of economies of scale explain why a firm adding new plants and capital equipment to its production will become more efficient as it expands: Examine the long-run average total cost curve below (the orange line) The blue lines represent the short-run ATC curves experienced as the firm opens several factories in the long-run (from 1 to 7 factories). As the firm opens its first 4 factories, its ATC continuously decreases. The firm is becoming more efficient in its production. With the 5 th factory, the firm is no longer experiencing increasing returns , and instead has experienced constant returns to scale . With the 6 th and 7 th factories, the firm’s ATC is rising, indicating it is becoming less efficient . The firm is experiencing decreasing returns to scale. As a firm increases its output in the long-run (the variable plant period), it at first becomes more and more efficient, but eventually inefficiencies cause its ATC to rise as the firm gets “too big for its own good” Long-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Costs of Production in the Long-run – Economies of Scale Economies of scale arise due to several factors: Better prices for raw materials such as plastic and rubber parts for the toys due to larger bulk orders made by the firm as it grows. Lower costs due to higher quality and more technologically advanced machinery operating in larger factories.  Lower average shipping and transportation costs as the firm produces and ships larger quantities of toys to the market when operating four factories than when operating only one. More favorable interest rates from banks for new capital as the firm becomes larger and therefore more "credit worthy". More bargaining power with labor unions for lower wages as the firm employers larger numbers of factory workers. Improved manufacturing techniques and more highly specialized labor, capital and managerial expertise.  Diseconomies of scale: When a firm becomes to big to manage efficiently, it becomes less efficient and average costs rise, making the firm less and less competitive. The best thing a firm experiencing diseconomies of scale can do is reduce its size or break into smaller firms. Long-run Costs of Production

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Long-run Costs of Production LONG-RUN AVERAGE TOTAL COST AND ECONOMIES OF SCALE

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Revenues Costs are only half the calculation a firm must make when determining its level of economic profits. A firm must also consider its revenues. Revenues are the income the firm earns from the sale of its good. Total Revenue = the price the good is selling for X the quantity sold Average Revenue = The firm’s total revenue divided by the quantity sold, or simply the price of the good Marginal Revenue = the change in total revenue resulting from an increase in output of one unit Market Structure and Price Determination: For some firms, the price it can sell additional units of output for never changes. These firms are known as “price-takers”, and sell their output in highly competitive markets For other firms, the price must be lowered to sell additional units of output. These firms are known as “price-makers” and have significant market power, selling their products in markets with less competition. Revenues

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Revenues for a Perfect Competitor A firm selling it product in a perfectly competitive market is a “price-taker”. This means the firm can sell as much output as it wants at the equilibrium price determined by the market. The marginal revenue the firm faces, therefore, is equal to the price determined in the market. The average revenue is also the price in the market. The MR=AR=P line for a perfectly competitive firm also represents the demand for the individual firm’s product. Because a perfectly competitive seller is one of hundreds of firms selling an identical product, the firm cannot raise its price above that determined by the market. Demand for the perfectly competitive firm’s output: Demand is perfectly elastic The firm has no price-making power. The price in the market equals the firm’s marginal revenue and average revenue Revenues

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Revenues for an Imperfect Competitor A firm with a large share of the total sales in a particular market is a “price-maker”, because to sell more output, it must lower its prices. For this reason… The marginal revenue the firm faces is less than the price at each level of output. The average revenue is also the price in the market. Because a firm with market power is selling a unique or differentiated product, it faces a downward sloping demand curve. Consider the data in the table below, which shows the price, total revenue and marginal revenue for an imperfectly competitive firm: Quantity of  output  (Q) Price (P) = Average Revenue (AR) Total Revenue (TR ) Marginal Revenue  ( MR) 0 450 0 - 1 400 400 400 2 350 700 300 3 300 900 200 4 250 1000 100 5 200 1000 0 6 150 900 -100 7 100 700 -200 8 50 400 -300 Revenues

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Revenues for an Imperfect Competitor The firm whose revenues were in the table on the previous slide will see the following Demand, Average Revenue, Marginal Revenue and Total Revenue: Points to notice about the imperfect competitor: To sell more output, this firm must lower its price As it sells more output, its MR falls faster than the price, so the MR curve is always below the Demand curve (except at an output of 1 unit, when MR=P) The firm’s total revenues rise as its output increases, until the 6 th unit, when the firm’s MR has become negative. MR is the change in TR, so when MR is negative, TR begins to fall. The firm would never want to sell more than 5 units. This would cause the firm’s costs to rise while its revenues fall, meaning the firm’s profits would be shrinking. The demand curve has a n elastic range and an inelastic range, based on the total revenue test of elasticity Revenues

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production The Profit Maximization Rule Considering its costs and revenues, a firm must decide how much output it should produce to maximize its economic profits. Economic Profits = Total Revenues – Total Costs Per-unit Profit = Average Revenue – Average Total Cost The Profit- Maximizaton Rule: To maximize its total economic profits, a firm should produce at the level of output at which its marginal revenue equals its marginal cost For a perfect competitor, the P=MR, so the profit-maximizing firm should produce where its MC=P. For an imperfect competitor, the P>MR, so the profit-maximizing firm will produce at a quantity where its MC=MR. Rationale for the MC=MR Rule: If a firm is producing at a point where its MR>MC, the firm’s total profits will rise if it continues to increase its output, since the additional revenue earned will exceed the additional costs. If a firm is producing at a point where MC>MR, the firm should reduce its output because the additional costs of the last units exceed the additional revenue. When MC=MR, the firm’s total profits are maximized Profit Maximization

PowerPoint Presentation : Perfectly Competitive Firm Imperfectly Competitive Firm 1.5.1 Costs of Production The Profit Maximization Rule Consider the firms below. The competitive, price-taking firm on the left will produce where its MC=MR, at a quantity of 6 units and at the market price of $50. The firm on the right, a price-making monopolist, will produce a lower quantity and sell at a higher price. Profit Maximization Normal profit: the minimum level of profit needed just to keep an entrepreneur operating in his current market. If he does not earn normal profit, an entrepreneur will direct his skills towards another market. Economic profit: also called “abnormal profits". When revenues exceed all costs and normal profit. Firms are attracted to industries where economic profits are being earned.

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Profit Maximization DEMAND, MARGINAL REVENUE AND PROFIT MAXIMIZATION FOR A PERFECT COMPETITOR

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Explain the relationship in the short run between the marginal costs of a firm and its average total costs. (10 marks) The short-run refers to the "fixed-plant period" when capital and land are fixed and labor is the only variable resource. As output increases in the SR, marginal product of labor increases at first due to increased specialization, then diminishes as more labor is added to fixed land and capital. Marginal cost, which is the cost to the firm of the last unit produced, will fall as MP increases since the firm gets more output per dollar spent on inputs, then increases as MP decreases. Average total cost, which is the cost per unit of output, will fall as long as the marginal cost is lower than the average. MC will eventually increase due to diminishing returns, and intersect ATC at its lowest point. When MC is higher than ATC, ATC will begin to rise since the last unit produced cost more to the firm than the average cost. State the law of diminishing returns and explain how it affects a firm's short-run costs of production? (10 marks) The law of diminishing returns states that as more units of a variable resource (such as labor) are added to fixed resources, the amount of output attributable to additional units will eventually decline, due to the lack of tools and space available to additional workers. Assuming constant wages, a firm's short-run costs are inversely related to the output of its workers. As additional labor creates increasing marginal product, the firm's marginal costs will decline. When diminishing returns result in less additional output for each worker hired, the marginal cost to the firm of increasing output will begin to increase. Costs of Production Practice Questions and Answers Quiz

PowerPoint Presentation : 1.5.1 Costs of Production Quiz SHORT-RUN COSTS OF PRODUCTION QUIZ – WORKED SOLUTION

13 Members Recommend
91 Followers

Your Facebook Friends on WizIQ