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Presentation Transcript Presentation Transcript

Router Basics : Router Basics

Router components: At a glance : Router components: At a glance

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Router Startup Sequence : Router Startup Sequence

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How Does Loading Take Place In RAM? : How Does Loading Take Place In RAM?

Stuffs are Arranged Like This Internally : Stuffs are Arranged Like This Internally RAM NVRAM Flash ROM Interfaces Console Auxiliary

PowerPoint Presentation : RAM NVRAM Flash ROM Interfaces Console Auxiliary As the router is booted, the following is loaded into RAM’s Working Storage. RAM Command Executive Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Programs Active Config File Tables Buffers

PowerPoint Presentation : Programs include the bootstrap program that tests the equipment (POST) and locates the IOS. RAM Programs

PowerPoint Presentation : RAM Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Programs Once the IOS is located by the bootstrap program, it is loaded in to RAM.

PowerPoint Presentation : RAM Command Executive Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Programs Part of the IOS is the Command EXEC. This is the program that translates the commands you type into a language that the IOS can understand.

PowerPoint Presentation : RAM Command Executive Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Programs Active Config File Once the IOS is initialized, it looks for an active configurations file (usually in NVRAM) and loads it. This file tells the router specifically what to do.

PowerPoint Presentation : RAM Command Executive Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Programs Active Config File Tables The tables are loaded from the configuration file including, ARP Tables and Routing Tables

PowerPoint Presentation : RAM Command Executive Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Programs Active Config File Tables Buffers Finally, all leftover memory in RAM is used as the buffer for processing incoming and outgoing packets.

Router Boot Sequence In Detail : Router Boot Sequence In Detail

Router Startup Routine : Router Startup Routine When a Cisco router powers up, it performs a power-on self test (POST). Executes diagnostics from ROM on all hardware Verifies the basic operation of the CPU, memory, and network interface ports Proceeds with software initialization

Router Startup Routine : Router Startup Routine A router initializes by loading the bootstrap, the IOS, and a configuration file. If the router cannot find a configuration file, then it enters setup mode NVRAM stores a backup copy of the new configuration from setup mode

Why Start up routines ? : Why Start up routines ? The goal of the startup routines for Cisco IOS software is to start the router operations. The router must deliver reliable performance in its job of connecting the user networks it was configured to serve. To do this, the startup routines must do following tasks:

Why Start up routines ? : Why Start up routines ? Make sure that the router comes up with all its hardware tested. Find and load the Cisco IOS software that the router uses for its operating system. Find and apply the configuration statements about the router, including protocol functions and interface addresses.

What happens after POST ? : What happens after POST ? The generic bootstrap loader, in ROM, executes on the CPU card. A bootstrap is a simple, preset operation to load instructions that in turn cause other instructions to be loaded into memory, or cause entry into other configuration modes. The operating system (Cisco IOS) can be found in one of several places. The location is disclosed in the boot field of the configuration register. If the boot field indicates a Flash, or network load, boot system commands in the configuration file indicate the exact location of the image.

What happens after POST ? : What happens after POST ? The operating system image is loaded. Then, when it is loaded and operational, the operating system locates the hardware and software components and lists the results on the console terminal. The configuration file saved in NVRAM is loaded into main memory and executed one line at a time. These configuration commands start routing processes, supply addresses for interfaces, set media characteristics, and so on.

What happens after POST ? : What happens after POST ? If no valid configuration file exists in NVRAM, the operating system executes a question-driven initial configuration routine referred to as the system configuration dialog , also called the setup dialog . Setup is not intended for entering complex protocol features in the router. It is used to bring up a minimal configuration.

CISCO IOS software is responsible for… : CISCO IOS software is responsible for… Carrying Network protocols and functions. Connecting high speed traffic between devices. Adding security to control access and stop unauthorized network use. Providing scalability for ease of network growth and redundancy. Supplying network reliability for connecting to network resources.

Configuring A CISCO Router : Configuring A CISCO Router A CISCO Router can be configured in following ways:

PowerPoint Presentation : Console port (used for initially configuration of a the router) TELNET: WAN/LAN links (attach through hub or switch using a patch cable) Auxiliary port (needs a modem) TFTP server installed on the network.

PowerPoint Presentation : The easiest way to configure a router is configuring through the console port. Attach a rollover cable from the router to your computer COM port Open HyperTerminal to log in.

Router Modes : Router Modes

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Show Commands for Various Components : Show Commands for Various Components

PowerPoint Presentation : Flash NVRAM RAM Internetwork Operating System Programs Active Configuration File Tables and Buffers Backup Configuration File Operating Systems Interfaces Router# show version Router# show flash Router# show interfaces Router# show processes CPU Router# show protocols Router# show running-config Router# write term Router# show mem Router# show stacks Router# show buffers Router# show startup-config Router# show config

Show Commands Definitions : Show Commands Definitions

PowerPoint Presentation : show version : Displays the configuration of the system hardware, the software version, the names and sources of configuration files, and the boot image show startup-config (show config on Cisco IOS 10.3 or earlier) : Displays the backup configuration file. show flash : Shows information about the Flash memory device show interfaces : Displays statistics for all interfaces configured on the router show processes : Displays information about the active processes

PowerPoint Presentation : show protocols : Displays the configured protocols; shows the status of all configured Layer 3 protocols show running - config (write term on Cisco IOS 10.3 or earlier) : Displays the active configuration file show memory : Shows statistics about the router's memory, including memory free pool statistics. show stacks : Monitors the stack use of processes and interrupt routines and displays the reason for the last system reboot show buffers : Provides statistics for the buffer pools on the router

PowerPoint Presentation : erase startup-config ( write erase on Cisco IOS 10.3 or earlier) – deletes the backup configuration file in NVRAM. reload (reboot) command reloads the router, causing it to run through the entire startup process. setup is used to enter setup mode from the privileged EXEC prompt

The setup Mode : The setup Mode

PowerPoint Presentation : The main purpose of the setup mode is to bring up, quickly, a minimal configuration for any router that cannot find its configuration from another source. Default answers appear in square brackets [ ] following the question. Press the Return key to use these defaults. During the setup process, you can press Control+C at any time to terminate the process and start over. Once setup is terminated, all interfaces will be administratively shutdown.

The setup Command : The setup Command

PowerPoint Presentation : When you completed, the screen will display the configuration that you have just created. You will then be asked whether you want to use this configuration. If you enter "yes", the configuration will be executed and saved to NVRAM. If you answer "no", the configuration will not be saved and the process will begin again. If a --More-- prompt appears, press the space bar to continue..

Setting Global Parameters : Setting Global Parameters

PowerPoint Presentation : After viewing the current interface summary, a prompt will appear on your monitor, indicating that you are to enter the global parameters for your router. Configuring global parameters appears on your monitor. It indicates that you are to enter the global parameters that you set for your router. The first global parameter allows you to set the router host name. This host name will be part of the Cisco IOS prompts for all configuration modes. At initial configuration, the default router name is [Router] .

PowerPoint Presentation : The next global parameters allows you to set the various passwords used on the router. You must enter an enable password. When you enter a string of password characters for the prompt, "Enter enable secret"; the characters are processed by Cisco proprietary encryption. This enhances the security of the password string. Whenever anyone lists the contents of the router configuration file, this enable password appears as a meaningless string of characters.

PowerPoint Presentation : Setup recommends, but does not require, that the "enable password" be different from the "enable secret word".

PowerPoint Presentation : The "enable secret word" is a one-way cryptographic secret word that is used instead of the "enable password" when it exists. The "enable password" is used when no "enable secret word" exists. It is also used when using older versions of the IOS. All passwords are case sensitive and can be alphanumeric.

PowerPoint Presentation : When you are prompted for parameters for each installed interface, use the configuration values that you have selected for your router. Whenever you answer yes to a prompt, additional questions may appear regarding the protocol.

Interface Parameters : Interface Parameters

PowerPoint Presentation : When you are prompted for parameters for each installed interface, you need to use the configuration values you have determined for your interface to enter the interface parameters at the prompts.

Script Review & Use : Script Review & Use

PowerPoint Presentation : When you complete the configuration process for all installed interfaces on your router, the setup command program will display the configurations that you have created. The setup process will then ask if you want to use this configuration. If you answer yes , the configuration will be executed and saved to NVRAM. If you answer no , the configuration will not be saved, and the process will begin again. There is no default for this prompt; you must answer either yes or no . After you have answered yes to the last question, your system will be ready to use. If you want to modify the configuration you have just established, you must do the configuration manually.

PowerPoint Presentation : The script tells you to use the configuration mode to change any commands after setup has been used. The script file generated by setup is additive; you can turn features on with setup, but you cannot turn them off. Also, setup does not support many of the advanced features of the router, or features that require a more complex configuration.

Summary : Summary The router initializes by loading a bootstrap, the operating system, and a configuration file. If the router cannot find a configuration file, the router enters setup mode. The router stores a backup copy of the new configuration from setup mode in NVRAM.

Configuration Related Commands : Configuration Related Commands

PowerPoint Presentation : configure terminal – configures manually from the console terminal configure memory – loads configuration information from NVRAM copy tftp running-config – loads configuration information from a network TFTP server into RAM show running-config – displays the current configuration in RAM .

PowerPoint Presentation : copy running-config startup-config – stores the current configuration from RAM into NVRAM copy running-config tftp – stores the current configuration from RAM on a network TFTP server show startup-config – displays the saved configuration, which is the contents of NVRAM erase startup-config – erases the contents of NVRAM

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Pre-Release 11.0 Config-files Related Commands : Pre-Release 11.0 Config-files Related Commands

PowerPoint Presentation : The commands used with Cisco IOS, Release 10.3 and earlier, have been replaced with new commands. The old commands that have been replaced continue to perform their normal functions in the current release, but are no longer documented Support for these commands will cease in a future release Following slides contain early version commands.

PowerPoint Presentation : config term – configures manually from the console terminal. config mem – loads configuration information from NVRAM config net – loads configuration information from a network TFTP server into RAM write term – displays the current configuration in RAM

PowerPoint Presentation : write mem – stores the current configuration from RAM into NVRAM write net – stores the current configuration from RAM on a network TFTP server show config – displays the saved configuration, which is the contents of NVRAM write erase – erases the contents of NVRAM

Back up and Restore Through tftp Server : Back up and Restore Through tftp Server

PowerPoint Presentation : To store (backup) the current copy of the configuration file in RAM on a TFTP server use the copy running-config tftp command and complete the following tasks: Step 1 – Enter the copy running-config tftp command. Step 2 – Enter the IP address of the host that you want to use to store the configuration file. Step 3 – Enter the name you want to assign to the configuration file. Step 4 – Confirm your choices by answering yes each time.

PowerPoint Presentation : To configure a router by loading the configuration file stored on one of your network TFTP servers, complete the following tasks: Enter the command copy tftp running-config At the prompt, select a host or network configuration file. The network configuration file contains commands that apply to all routers and terminal servers on the network. The host configuration file contains commands that apply to one router in particular. At the next prompt, enter the IP address of the TFTP server from which you are retrieving the configuration file.

PowerPoint Presentation : Finally, enter the name of the configuration file or accept the default name. The filename convention is UNIX-based. The default filename is hostname -confg for the host file and network -confg for the network configuration file. In the DOS environment, the server filenames are limited to eight characters plus a three-character extension (e.g., router.cfg ). Confirm the configuration filename and the server address that the system supplies.

NVRAM Commands : NVRAM Commands

PowerPoint Presentation : configure memory – Loads configuration information from NVRAM. erase startup-config – Erases the contents of NVRAM. copy running-config startup-config – Stores the current configuration from RAM (the running configuration) into NVRAM (as the startup or backup configuration). show startup-config – Displays the saved configuration, which is the contents of NVRAM. These commands manage the contents of NVRAM with Release 11.x

PowerPoint Presentation : configure memory – Loads configuration information from NVRAM. write erase – Erases the contents of NVRAM. write memory – Stores the current configuration from RAM (the running configuration) into NVRAM (as the startup or backup configuration). show configuration – Displays the saved configuration, which is the contents of NVRAM. These commands manage the contents of NVRAM with Release 10.3 and Earlier

Using Configuration Modes : Using Configuration Modes

PowerPoint Presentation : The EXEC mode interprets the commands you type and carries out the corresponding operations. You must log into the router before you can enter an EXEC command. There are two EXEC modes (user mode and privileged mode). The EXEC commands available in user mode are a subset of the EXEC commands available in privileged mode. From privileged mode, you can also access global configuration mode and specific configuration modes

PowerPoint Presentation : Some specific configuration modes are: Interface Subinterface Controller Map-list Map-class Line Router IPX-router Route-map

PowerPoint Presentation : If you type exit , the router will back out one level, eventually allowing you to log out. In general, typing exit from one of the specific configuration modes will return you to global configuration mode. Pressing Ctrl-Z leaves configuration mode completely and returns the router to privileged EXEC mode.

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Global Configuration Modes : Global Configuration Modes Global configuration commands apply to features that affect the system as a whole. Use the privileged EXEC command configure to enter global configuration mode. When you enter this command, the EXEC prompts you for the source of the configuration commands. Specify terminal , NVRAM, or a file stored on a network server as the source. The default is to type in commands from the terminal console. Pressing the return key begins this configuration method.

Global Configuration Modes : Global Configuration Modes Commands to enable a particular routing or interface function begin with global configuration commands: To configure a routing protocol (indicated by the prompt config-router ) you first enter a global router protocol command type. To configure an interface (indicated by the prompt config-if ) you first enter the global interface type and number command. After entering commands in any of these modes, you finish with the command exit .

Configuring Routing Protocol : Configuring Routing Protocol After a routing protocol is enabled by a global command, the router configuration mode prompt Router (config-router)# is displayed. Type a question mark ( ? ) to list the routing protocol configuration sub-commands

Interface Config Commands : Interface Config Commands Because all router interfaces are automatically in the administratively down mode, many features are enabled on a per-interface basis. Interface configuration commands modify the operation of an Ethernet, a Token Ring, or a serial port. In addition, interface subcommands always follow an interface command because the interface command defines the interface type

Configuring a Specific Interface : Configuring a Specific Interface On serial links, one side must provide a clocking signal, a DCE; the other side is a DTE. By default, Cisco routers are DTE devices, but in some cases they can be used as DCE devices. If you are using an interface to provide clocking, you must specify a rate with the clockrate command.

Configuring a Specific Interface : Configuring a Specific Interface The bandwidth command overrides the default bandwidth that is displayed in the show interfaces command and is used by some routing protocols such as IGRP. On the Cisco 4000 series routers, there are two connections on the outside of the box for Ethernet interfaces-an attachment unit interface (AUI) connector and a 10BASE-T connector. The default is AUI, so you must specify media-type 10BASE-T if you want to use the other connection

Release 11.x Config Method : Release 11.x Config Method The Figure shows a way you can: Enter configuration statements Examine the changes you have made If necessary, modify or remove configuration statements Save the changes to a backup in NVRAM that the router will use when it starts up

Pre-11.0 Release Config : Pre-11.0 Release Config

Password Config Methods : Password Config Methods Passwords can be established both on individual lines and in the privileged EXEC mode. line console 0 – establishes a password on the console terminal line vty 0 4 – establishes password protection on incoming Telnet sessions enable password – restricts access to privileged EXEC mode enable secret password (from the system configuration dialog to set up global parameters – uses a Cisco proprietary encryption process to alter the password character string.

PowerPoint Presentation : You can further protect passwords from being displayed by using the service password-encryption command. This encryption algorithm does not match the Data Encryption Standard (DES).

Router Identification Config : Router Identification Config The configuration of network devices determines the network's behavior. To manage device configurations, you need to list and compare configuration files on running devices, store configuration files on network servers for shared access, and perform software installations and upgrades. One of your first basic tasks is to name your router. The name of the router is considered to be the host name and is the name displayed by the system prompt. If you do not configure a name, the system default router name will be Router. You can name the router in global configuration mode.

Router Identification Config : Router Identification Config You can configure a message-of-the-day banner to be displayed on all connected terminals. This banner will be displayed at login and is useful for conveying messages that affect all router users (e.g. impending system shutdowns). To configure this message, use the banner motd command in the global configuration mode.

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