Functional Units of Computer

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The computer plays a dominant role in the lives of people all around the world.They made a tremendous impact in every fields like science,medicine,transportation,business,entertainment,communication.Hence computers are considered to be the premier invention of this century.Digital computer systems consist of three distinct units. These units are as follows: Input unit ,Central Processing unit ,Output unit ... These units are interconnected by electrical cables to permit communication between them.

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Chapter 1. Basic Structure of Computers : Chapter 1. Basic Structure of Computers Neenu Prasad

Functional Units : Functional Units Figure 1.1. Basic functional units of a computer. I/O Processor Output Memory Input and Arithmetic logic Control

Input devices : Input  unit : receive both data and program statements to function properly and be able to solve problems feeding data and programs Eg : keyboard, a mouse, or a scanner Input devices

Memory Unit : Memory Unit Store programs and data Two classes of storage Primary storage Fast Programs must be stored in memory while they are being executed Large number of semiconductor storage cells Processed in words Address RAM and memory access time Memory hierarchy – cache, main memory Secondary storage – larger and cheaper

Central Processing Unit(CPU) : The brain of a computer system is the central processing  unit  (CPU). computing center of the system processes  data transferred to it from one of the various input devices consists of a control section, an arithmetic-logic section and an internal storage section Central Processing Unit(CPU)

Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) : Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Most computer operations are executed in ALU. Performs all arithmetic calculations and take logical decisions. Tests various conditions encountered during processing and takes action based on the result

Control Unit : Control Unit All computer operations are controlled by the control unit. The  control  section directs the flow of traffic (operations) and data. It also maintains order within the computer Operations of a computer: Accept information in the form of programs and data through an input unit and store it in the memory Fetch the information stored in the memory, under program control, into an ALU, where the information is processed Output the processed information through an output unit Control all activities inside the machine through a control unit

Output Devices : Output Devices convert information coming from a computer system into some form perceptible by humans Eg:Monitor

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Neenu Prasad
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