SOCIOE-MOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT A Life-span Development Approach : S OCIOE-MOTIONAL D EVELOPMENT A Life-span Development Approach CARL O. DELLOMOS Central Colleges of the Philippines University of Caloocan City Polytechnic University of the Philippines
OUTLINE : OUTLINE Socioemotional Development in Infancy (First year to 3 years) Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood (Preschool years, 3 to 5 Years) Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood (Elementary School Years, 6 years to Puberty) Socioemotional Development in Adolescence (10 years to 20 years)
OUTLINE : OUTLINE Socioemotional Development in Infancy Emotional and Personality Development Emotional Development Temperament Personality Development Attachment Theories of Attachment Individual Differences and the Strange Situation The Significance of Attachment Caregiving Styles and Attachment Classification Social Contexts The Family Child Care
PowerPoint Presentation : WHAT IS EMOTION?
Emotion : Emotion Feeling or affect, that when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to them. Emotion is characterized by behavior that reflects the pleasantness or unpleasantness of the state a person is in or the transaction being experienced. ( Santrock , 2006)
PowerPoint Presentation : Emotions are influenced by biological foundations and environmental experiences (Darwin, 1872/1965)
PowerPoint Presentation : Emotions are the first language with which parents and infants communicate before the infant acquires speech ( Maccoby , 1992)
Early Developmental Change in Emotion : Early Developmental Change in Emotion Primary Emotions Includes surprise, joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. Self-conscious emotions Require cognition, especially consciousness. The self-conscious emotions include empathy, jealousy, and embarrassment.
The First Appearance of Different Emotions : The First Appearance of Different Emotions Primary Emotions 3 Months 2 to 6 Months First 6 Months 6 to 8 Months Joy Sadness Disgust Anger Surprise Fear (Peaks at 8 Months) Self-Conscious Emotions 1 1 / 2 to 2 years 2 1 / 2 Empathy Jealousy Embarrassment Pride Shame Guilt
PowerPoint Presentation : Two emotion-linked behaviors infancy: Crying Smiling
Smiling : Smiling Reflexive smile A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli and appears during the first month after birth, usually during sleep. Social smile A smile that occurs in response to external stimulus, typically a face in the case of the young infant.
Fear : Fear Stranger Anxiety An infant’s fear and wariness of strangers; it tends to appear in the second half of the first year of life. Separation Anxiety An infant’s distressed reaction when the caregiver leaves.
Social Referencing : Social Referencing involves “reading” emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation. ( Santrock , 2006)
Emotional Regulation and Coping : Emotional Regulation and Coping During the first year of life, the infant gradually develops an ability to inhibit, or minimize, the intensity and duration of emotional reactions. (Cole et al., 2004)
Temperament : Temperament An individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of emotionally responding (Rothbart & Putnam, 2002).
PowerPoint Presentation : How would you describe the temperament of an infant?
Chess and Thomas Classification (1977/1991) : Chess and Thomas Classification (1977/1991) Three Basic Types/Clusters of Temperament Easy Child : This child is generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, and adapts easily to new experiences Difficult Child : This child reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, and is slow to accept change. Slow-to-warm-up Child : This child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood.
Kagan’s Behavioral Inhibition Classification of Temperament (2003) : Kagan’s Behavioral Inhibition Classification of Temperament (2003) Differences between a shy, subdued, timid child and a sociable, extraverted bold child.
Rothbart and Bates’ Classification (1998) : Rothbart and Bates’ Classification (1998) Positive Affect and Approach: Kagan’s uninhibited children fit into this category. Negative Affectivity Children with this temperament are easily distressed, they may fret and cry often. Kagan’s inhibited children fit this category. Effortful Control (self-regulation) Infants who are high on effortful control show an ability to keep their arousal from getting too high and have strategies for soothing themselves.
Biological Foundations and Experience : Biological Foundations and Experience Physiological characteristics are associated with different temperaments (Fox et al., 2005) Heredity c ontributes to temperament’s biological foundations. ( Plomin et al., 1994)
Gender, Culture and Temperament : Gender, Culture and Temperament Parents may react differently to a child’s temperament depending on whether the child is a boy or a girl and on the culture in which they live (Kerr, 2001).
Goodness of Fit : Goodness of Fit The match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must cope (Matheny & Philips, 2001).
PowerPoint Presentation : What are implications of temperamental variations for parenting?
Parenting and the Child’s Temperament : Parenting and the Child’s Temperament Attention to and respect for Individuality Structuring the c hild’s environment The “difficult child”
Caregivers should… : Caregivers should… Be sensitive to the individual characteristics of the child. Be flexible in responding to these characteristics. Avoid negative labeling of the child. Caregiving behavior needs to be taken into account when considering a child’s temperament ( Kochanska et al., 2004)
Personality Development : Personality Development Trust vs. Mistrust The first stage of life is characterized by the trust vs mistrust stage of development (Erikson, 1968)
Developing the sense of Self and Independence : Developing the sense of Self and Independence The Self Infants are not “given” a self by their parents or the culture. Rather, they find and construct selves ( Rochat , 2002)
Movement away from the mother : Movement away from the mother Separation Individuation Development of Self Developing the sense of Independence
Attachment : Attachment A close emotional bond between an infant and a caregiver ( Santrock , 2006).
Theories of Attachment : Theories of Attachment Sigmund Freud believed that infants become attached to the person or object that provides oral satisfaction. Erik Erikson believed that the first year of life is the key time for the development of attachment. John Bowlby also stressed the importance of attachment in the first year of life and the responsiveness of the caregiver.
Bowlby’s Conceptualization of Attachment (Schaffer, 1996) : Bowlby’s Conceptualization of Attachment (Schaffer, 1996) Phase 1: From Birth to 2 Months. Infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures. Strangers, siblings, and parents are equally likely to elicit smiling or crying from the infant. Phase 2: From 2 to 7 Months. Attachment becomes focused on one figure, usually the primary caregiver, as the baby gradually learns to distinguish familiar from unfamiliar people. Phase 3: From 7 to 24 Months. Specific attachments develop. With increased locomotor skills, babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, such as the mother or father. Phase 4: From 24 Months on. Children become aware of other s’ feelings, goals, and plans and begin to take these into account in forming their own actions.
The Ainsworth Strange Situation use to assess whether infants securely or insecurely attached to their caregiver : The Ainsworth Strange Situation use to assess whether infants securely or insecurely attached to their caregiver Securely attached babies Use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment. Insecure avoidant babies Show insecurity by avoiding the mother. Insecure resistant babies Often cling to the caregiver and then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps by kicking or pushing away. Insecure disorganized babies Are disorganized and disoriented.
PowerPoint Presentation : Do Individual Differences In Attachment Matter?
The Family : The Family The transition to Parenthood When people become parents through pregnancy, adoption, or stepparenting , they face disequilibrium and must adapt ( Heincke , 2002)
Reciprocal socialization : Reciprocal socialization Socialization that is bidirectional, children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children.
Scaffolding : Scaffolding Parents time interactions so that infants experience turn-taking with the parents.
Child Care: Maternal and Paternal Caregiving : Child Care: Maternal and Paternal Caregiving Can fathers take care of infants as competently as mothers can?
Child Care: Maternal and Paternal Caregiving : Child Care: Maternal and Paternal Caregiving Do fathers behave differently toward infants than mothers do?
Child Care: Maternal and Paternal Caregiving : Child Care: Maternal and Paternal Caregiving Might the nature of parent infant interaction be different in families that adopt nontraditional gender roles?
PowerPoint Presentation : End of Socioemotional Development in Infancy Thank you for listening
OUTLINE : OUTLINE Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood Emotional and Personality Development The Self Emotional Development Gender Families Parenting Peer Relations, Play, and Television Peer Relations Play Television
The Self : The Self Initiative vs. Guilt Children have become convinced that they are persons of their own, during childhood, they must discover what kind of person they will become (Erikson, 1968).
Self-understanding : Self-understanding The child’s cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child’s self-conceptions ( Santrock , 2006).
Emotional Development : Emotional Development Young Children’s Emotion Language and Understanding 2 to 3 Years Increase emotion vocabulary most rapidly Correctly label simple emotions in self and others and talk about past, present and future emotions Talk about the causes and consequences of some emotions and identify emotions associated with certain situations Use emotion language in pretend play 4 to 5 Years Show increased capacity to reflect verbally on emotions and consider more complex relations between emotions and situations Understand that the same event may call forth different feelings in different people and that feelings sometimes persist long after the events that caused them Demonstrate growing awareness about controlling and managing emotions in accord with social standards Age Description
Emotion-coaching and Emotion-dismissing Parents : Emotion-coaching and Emotion-dismissing Parents Emotion-coaching Parents Monitor their children’s emotions, view their children’s negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist them in labeling emotions, and coach them in how to deal effectively with emotions. Emotion-dismissing Parents View their role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotion.
Gender : Gender While sex refers to the biological dimension of being male or female, gender refers to the social and psychological dimensions of being male or female. Two aspects of gender bear special mention; Gender Identity is the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old. Gender Role is a set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act, and feel.
Social Influences : Social Influences Many social scientists do not locate the cause of psychological gender differences in biological dispositions. Rather, they argue that these differences are due to social experiences (Denmark, Rabinowitz , & Sechzer , 2005)
Social Theories of Gender : Social Theories of Gender Theory Processes Outcomes Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Sexual attraction to opposite-sex parent at 3 to 5 years of age; anxiety about sexual attraction and subsequent identification with same-sex parent at 5 to 6 years of age Gender behavior similar to that of same-sex parent Social Cognitive Theory Rewards and punishments gender-appropriate and inappropriate behavior by adults and peers; observation and initiation of models masculine and feminine behavior. Gender Behavior
Parental Influences : Parental Influences Parents, by action and by example, influence their children’s gender development ( Lenton & Blair, 2004)
Peer Influences : Peer Influences Gender Composition of Children’s Groups Around the age 3, children already show a preference to spend time with same-sex playmates. From 4 to 12 years of age this preference for playing in same-sex groups increases, and during the elementary school years children spend a large majority of their free time with children of their own sex. Gender Size From about 5 years of age onward, boys are more likely to associate together in larger clusters than girls are. Boys are also more likely to participate in organized group games than girls are. Interaction in same-sex groups Boys are more likely than girls to engage in rough-and-tumble play, competition, conflict, ego displays, risk taking and seeking dominance. By contrast, girls are more likely to engage in “collaborative discourse,” in which they talk and act in a more reciprocal manner.
Cognitive Influences : Cognitive Influences Observation, imitation, rewards and punishment these are the mechanisms by which gender develops according to social cognitive theory. Interaction between the child and the social environment are the main keys to gender development in this view.
Cognitive Theories : Cognitive Theories Cognitive Developmental Theory of Gender States that children’s gender typing occurs after children think of themselves as boys and girls. Once they consistently conceive of themselves as male or female, children prefer activities, objects, and attitudes consistent with this label. Gender Schema Theory States that gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture. A schema is a cognitive structure, a network of associations that guide an individual’s perceptions. A gender schema organizes the world in terms of female and male. Children are internally motivated to perceive the world and to act in accordance with their developing schemas.
The Development of Gender Behavior according to the Cognitive Developmental and Gender Schema Theories of Gender Development : The Development of Gender Behavior according to the Cognitive Developmental and Gender Schema Theories of Gender Development Theory Processes Emphasis Cognitive Developmental Theory Development of Gender constancy, world on the basis of gender, especially around 6 to 7 years of age, when conservation skills develop; after children develop ability to consistently conceive of themselves as male or female, children often organize their world on the basis of gender, such as selecting same-sex models to imitate Cognitive readiness facilitates gender identity Gender Schema Theory Sociocultural emphasis on gender-based standards and stereotypes; children’s attention and behavior are guided by an internal motivation to conform to these gender-based standards and stereotypes, allowing children to interpret the world through a network of gender-organized thoughts Gender schemas reinforce gender behavior
Families : Families
Parenting Styles : Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parenting Is a restrictive, punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and respect their work and effort. Authoritative Parenting Encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions. Neglectful Parenting Is a style in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child’s life. Indulgent Parenting Is a style of parenting in which parents are very involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them.
Family Issues : Family Issues Are children better adjusted in intact, never divorced families than in divorced families?
Family Issues : Family Issues Should parents stay together for the sake of the children?
Family Issues : Family Issues How much do family processes matter in divorced families ?
Family Issues : Family Issues What factors are involved in the child’s individual risk and vulnerability in a divorced family?
PowerPoint Presentation : Peer Relations, Play and Television
PowerPoint Presentation : What is the function of a child’s Peer Group and how important are peers for development?
Play : Play Is a pleasurable activity that is engaged in for its own sake ( Santrock , 2006) Essential to the young child’s health (Sutton-Smith, 2000) Play is an especially useful form of human adjustment, helping the child master anxieties and conflicts (Freud & Erikson, n.d .) Play advances and is an excellent setting of children’s cognitive development (Piaget, 1962; Vygotsky , 1962)
Parten’s Play Categories (1932) : Parten’s Play Categories (1932) Unoccupied Play Is not play as it is commonly understood. The child may stand in one spot or perform random movements that do not seem to have a goal. Solitary Play Happens when the child plays alone and independently of others. The child seems engrossed in the activity and does not care much about anything else that is happening. Two and three-year-olds engage more frequently in solitary play than older preschoolers do. Onlooker Play Takes place when the child watches other children and ask questions but does not enter into their play behavior. Parallel Play Occurs when the child plays separately from others but with toys like those the others are using or in a manner that mimics their play. Associative Play Involves social interaction with little or no organization. Cooperative Play Consists of social interaction in a group with a sense of group identity and organized activity.
Television : Television
Issues : Issues What are the effects of television violence on children’s aggression? Does television merely stimulate a child to go out and buy a Star Wars ray gun , or can it trigger an attack on a playmate? When children grow up, can television violence increase the likelihood they will violently attack someone?
PowerPoint Presentation : End of Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood Thank you for listening
OUTLINE : OUTLINE Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood Emotional and Personality Development The Self Emotional Development Gender Families Parent-child Issues Peers Friends Peer Status Social Cognition Bullying
The Self : The Self What is the nature of the child’s self understanding and self esteem during the elementary school years?
Self-esteem : Self-esteem The global evaluative dimension of the self. Self-esteem is also referred to as self-worth or self-image.
Self-concept : Self-concept Domain-specific evaluations of the self.
Increasing Self-esteem : Increasing Self-esteem Four ways children’s self-esteem can be improved include identifying the causes of low self-esteem, providing emotional support and social approval, helping children achieve, and helping children cope (Harter, 1999)
Industry vs. Inferiority : Industry vs. Inferiority "Children at this age are becoming more aware of themselves as individuals." They work hard at "being responsible, being good and doing it right." (Allen and Marotz , 2003).
Emotional Development : Emotional Development An increased ability to understand complex emotions such as pride and shame An increased understanding that more than one emotion can be experienced in a particular situation. An increased tendency to take into fuller account the events leading to emotional reactions. Marked improvements in the ability to suppress or conceal negative emotional reactions. The use of self-initiated strategies for redirecting ( Kuebli , 1994)
Emotional Intelligence : Emotional Intelligence A form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action. ( Santrock , 2006)
Coping with Stress : Coping with Stress As children get older, they are able to more accurately appraise a stressful situation and determine how much control they have over it. Older Children generate more coping alternatives to stressful conditions and use more cognitive coping strategies.
Gender : Gender Gender Stereotypes Broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males.
Parent-child Issues : Parent-child Issues School-related matters are especially important for families during middle and late childhood (Collins et al., 2002) Discipline during middle and late childhood is often easier for parents than it was during early childhood; it may also be easier than during adolescence. (Collins et al., 2002)
Friends : Friends Six important functions of Friends among Children: Companionship Stimulation Physical Support Ego Support Social Comparison Intimacy and Affection
Peer Status : Peer Status Five types of Peer Statuses ( Wentzel & Asher, 1995) Popular children Average children Neglected children Rejected children Controversial children
Social Cognition : Social Cognition Children’s social cognition about their peers become increasingly important for understanding peer relationships in middle and late childhood. Of special interest are the ways in which children process information about peer relations and their social knowledge (Gifford-Smith & Rabiner , 2004)
Bullying : Bullying Significant numbers of students are victimized by bullies ( Derosier , 2004) Victims of bullying have been found to have certain characteristics (Dill et al., 2004)
Strategies that teachers can use to reduce bullying (Limber, 1997/2004) : Strategies that teachers can use to reduce bullying (Limber, 1997/2004) Get older peers to serve as monitors for bullying and intervene when they see it taking place. Develop schoolwide rules and sanctions against bullying and post them through-out the school. Form friendship groups for adolescents who are regularly bullied by peers. Incorporate the message of the antibullying program into church, school, and other community activities
PowerPoint Presentation : End of Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood Thank you for listening
OUTLINE : OUTLINE Socioemotional Development in Adolescence Emotional and Personality Development The Self Identity Emotional Development Families Autonomy and Attachment Parent-Adolescent Conflict Peers Friendships Peer Groups Dating and Romantic Relationships Culture and Adolescent Development Cross-cultural comparisons Ethnicity Peers Juvenile Delinquency Depression and Suicide The Interrelation of Problems and Successful Prevention/Intervention Programs
The Self : The Self The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others. Superego identity is the accrued confidence that the outer sameness and continuity prepared in the future are matched by the sameness and continuity of one's meaning for oneself, as evidenced in the promise of a career. The ability to settle on a school or occupational identity is pleasant. In later stages of Adolescence, the child develops a sense of sexual identity. As they make the transition from childhood to adulthood, adolescents ponder the roles they will play in the adult world. Initially , they are apt to experience some role confusion- mixed ideas and feelings about the specific ways in which they will fit into society- and may experiment with a variety of behaviors and activities (e.g. tinkering with cars, baby-sitting for neighbors, affiliating with certain political or religious groups).
Identity : Identity Identity is a self-portrait composed of many pieces. These pieces include: Vocational/career identity Political identity Religious identity Relationship identity Achievement/intellectual identity Sexual identity Gender identity Cultural/ethnic identity Interest identity Personality identity Physical identity
Identity Statuses and Development : Identity Statuses and Development Four Identity Statuses Identity diffusion Occurs when individuals have not yet experienced a crisis (that is, they have not yet explored meaningful alternatives) or made any commitments. Identity foreclosure Occurs when individuals have made a commitment but have not yet experienced a crisis. Identity moratorium Occurs when individuals are in the midst of a crisis and their commitment or only vaguely defined. Identity achievement Occurs when individuals have undergone a crisis and have made a commitment.
Family Influences on Identity : Family Influences on Identity Individuality Two dimensions: self assertion and separateness Connectedness Two dimensions: mutuality and permeability
Emotional Development : Emotional Development Autonomy and Attachment Parent-Adolescent Conflict Friendships Peer Groups
FRIENDS : FRIENDS
PowerPoint Presentation : CLIQUES CROWDS
Dating and Romantic Relationships : Dating and Romantic Relationships
Dating and Developmental Changes : Dating and Developmental Changes Study shows… that “I like someone” occurred by the sixth grade for 40%( Buhrmester , 2001) However, it was not until the tenth grade that 50% of the adolescents had a sustained romantic relationship that lasted two months or longer. By their senior year, 25% still had not engaged in this type of sustained romantic relationship. Girls early romantic involvement was linked with lower grades, less active participation in class discussion, and school related problems. In early romantic relationships, many adolescents are nopt motivated to fulfill attachment or even sexual needs. Rather, early relationships serve as a context for adolescents to explore how attractive they are, how they should romantically interact with someone, and how all of this looks to the peer group (Brown, 1999) Only after adolescents acquire some basic competencies in interacting with romantic partners does the fulfillment of attachment and sexual needs become central functions of these relationships ( Bouchay & Furman, 2003)
Dating in Gay and Lesbian Youth : Dating in Gay and Lesbian Youth Study shows… That most gay and lesbian youth have had some same-sex sexual experience, often with peers who are “experimenting” and then go on to a primarily heterosexual orientation. However, relatively few have same-sex romantic relationships because of limited opportunities and the social disapproval such relationships may generate from families of heterosexual peers. (Diamond, 2003). Many sexual minority youth date other-sex peers, which can help them to clarify their sexual orientation or disguise it from others ( Savin -Williams & Diamond, 2004). The importance of romance to gay and lesbian youth was underscored in a study that found that they rated the breakup of a current romance as their second most stressful problem, second only to disclosure of their sexual orientation to their parents (D’ Augelli , 1991)
Cross cultural Comparisons (Brown & Larson, 2002) : Cross cultural Comparisons (Brown & Larson, 2002) Two-thirds of Asian Indian adolescents accept their parents’ choice of a marital partner for them ( Verma & Saraswathi , 2002) In the Philippines, many female adolescents sacrifice their own futures by migrating to the city to earn money that they can send home to their families. Street youth in kneya and other parts of the learn to survive under highly stressful circumstances ( Nsamenang , 2002) In some cases abandoned by their parents, they may engage in delinquency or prostitution to provide for their economic needs. In the Middle East, many adolescents are not allowed interact with the other sex, even in school (Booth, 2002). Whereas individuals in the United States are marrying later than in past generations, youth in Russia are marrying earlier to legitimize sexual activity ( Stetsenko , 2002)
PowerPoint Presentation : Thank you and have a great night!