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An Excel spreadsheet model has been developed to work out your car’s petrol consumption. Column B is a list of the number of litres of petrol put into the car, and column C lists the corresponding number of miles traveled. The totals are in cells B31 and C31 respectively
Which of the following gives the mean petrol consumption in miles per litre

=C31/B31

/( C31, B31)

=B31/C31

/( B31,C31)

Which of the following is not an example of a spreadsheet package

Microsoft Excel Pro

Quattro

Visicalc

Word for Windows

Department P in Factory X is better than Department P in factory Y in terms of its safety record

True

False

Impossible to determine truth or falsity

Factory X produced more faulty items than factory Y

True

False

Impossible to determine truth or falsity

In the context of statistical surveys and sampling, a frame is

A numbered list of answers to a questionnaire

A set of questions to be answered in a questionnaire

A set of boxes in a questionnaire into which answers are to be placed

A list of members of a population

When he looked at data for the last three moths a sales director noticed that there was a very close relationship between the sales volume and the amount spent on advertising. He claims, “these statistics prove that advertising increases sales”

His claim is correct

His claim is incorrect

His claim is more likely to be incorrect than correct

His claim is more likely to be correct than incorrect

/

All of them

ii) and iii) only

i), ii) and iii) only

i) and iii) only

‘Type of car’ (e.g. “Ford”, “Rover”) is an example of a variable measured on a

Attribute scale

Numerical scale

Ordinal scale

Integer scale

A person carrying out a survey interviewed people coming out of a supermarket at a particular time of day. This is an example of

A random sample

A systematic sample

An accidental sample

A quota sample

/

All of them

i), ii) and iii) only

i) and ii) only

iv) only

A university contains 3000 Arts students and 2000 science students. A suitable proportional stratified random sample of all the students could consist of

30 science, 20 Arts students

60 Arts, 40 science students

3000 Arts, 2000 Science students

10 Science, 50 Arts students

The pie chart has the advantage that

The circle area is proportional to the largest data value

It is a simple method of conveying approximate information about a small number of categories

Information is conveyed accurately in the diagram

It readily lends itself to a comparison of several different variables

Which of the following probability sampling methods never uses a frame

Random sampling

Cluster sampling

Quota sampling

Systematic sampling

The term ‘data processing error’ refers to :

Activities or events related to the sampling process, e.g., non-response

Faulty techniques of coding and managing data

Problems with the implementation of the research process

The unavoidable discrepancy between the sample and the population

The findings from a study of young single mothers at a university can be generalized to the population of:

All young single mothers in that society, that university

All young single mothers in that society

All single mothers in all universities

All young women in that university

Which of the following is not a characteristic of quota sampling?

The researcher chooses who to approach and so might bias the sample

Those who are available to be surveyed in public places are unlikely to constitute a representative sample

The random selection of units makes it possible to calculate the standard error

It is a relatively fast and cheap way of finding out about public opinions

Snowball sampling can help the researcher to:

Access deviant or hidden populations

Theorise inductively in a qualitative study

Overcome the problem of not having an accessible sampling frame

All of the above

Which of the following is not a type of non-probability sampling?

Snowball sampling

Stratified random sampling

Quota sampling

Convenience sampling

What effect does increasing the sample size have upon the sampling error?

It reduces the sampling error

It increases the sampling error

It has no effect on the sampling error

None of the above

The standard error is a statistical measure of :

The normal distribution of scores around the sample mean

The extent to which a sample mean is likely to differ from the population mean

The clustering of scores at each end of a survey scale

The degree to which a sample has been accurately stratified

It is helpful to use a multi-stage cluster sample when:

The population is widely dispersed geographically

You have limited time and money available for traveling

You want to use a probability sample in order to generalize the results

All of the above

A simple random sample is one in which:

From a random starting point, every nth unit from the sampling frame is selected

A non-probability strategy is used, making the results difficult to generalize

The researcher has a certain quota of respondents to fill for various social groups

Every unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected

A sampling frame is :

A summary of the various stages involved in designing a survey

An outline view of all the main clusters of units in a sample

A list of all the units in the population from which a sample will be selected

A wooden frame used to display tables of random numbers

The non random sampling type that involves selecting a convenience sample from a population with a specific set of characteristics for your research study is called___________.

Convenience sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

Snowball sampling

Determining the sample interval (represented by k), randomly selecting a number between 1 and k, and including each k th element in your sample are the steps for which form of sampling?

Simple Random Sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

Systematic Sampling

Cluster sampling

_______ is a set of elements taken from a larger population according to certain rules.

Sample

Population

Statistic

element

Which of the following sampling methods is the best way to select a group of people for a study if you are interested in making statements about the larger population?

Convenience sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

Random sampling

Which of the following is not an example of a non random sampling technique?

Purposive

Quota

Convenience

cluster

It is recommended to use the whole population rather than a sample when the population size is of what size?

500 or less

100 or less

1000 or less

You should always use a sample

The process of drawing a sample from a population is known as __________.

Sampling

Census

Survey research

None of the above

A technique used when selecting cluster of different sizes is called__________.

Cluster sampling

One-stage sampling

Two-stage sampling

Probability proportional to size or PPS

Which of the following would usually require the smallest size because of its efficiency?

One stage cluster sampling

Simple random sampling

Two stage cluster sampling

Quota sampling

Which of the following is not a type of non random sampling?

Cluster sampling

Convenience sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

They are all type of non random sampling

The type of sampling in which each member of the population selected for the sample is returned to the population before the next member is selected is called ___________.

Sampling without replacement

Sampling with replacement

Simple random sampling

Systematic sampling

Which of the following is not a form of non random sampling?

Snowball sampling

Convenience sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

They are all forms of non random sampling

Which of the following will give a more “accurate” representation of the population from which a sample has been taken?

A large sample based on the convenience sampling technique

A small sample based on simple random sampling

A large sample based on simple random sampling

A small cluster sample

Sampling in qualitative research is similar to which type of sampling in quantitative research?

Simple random sampling

Systematic sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

Which of the following sampling techniques is an equal probability selection method (i.e., EPSEM) in which every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected?

Simple random sampling

Systematic sampling

Proportional stratified sampling

Cluster sampling using the PPS technique

All of the above are EPSEM

Which of the following would generally require the largest sample size?

Cluster sampling

Simple random sampling

Systematic sampling

Proportional stratified sampling

How often does the Census Bureau take a complete population count?

Every year

Every five year

Every ten years

Twice a year

People who are available, volunteer, or can be easily recruited are used in the sampling method called _______ .

Simple random sampling

Cluster sampling

Systematic sampling

Convenience sampling

Which of the following types of sampling involves the researcher determining the appropriate sample sizes for the groups identified as important, and then taking convenience samples from those groups?

Proportional stratified sampling

Quota sampling

One-stage cluster sampling

Two-stage cluster sampling

A type of sampling used in qualitative research that involves selecting cases that disconfirm the researcher’s expectations and generalizations is referred to as _________.

Extreme case sampling

Typical-case sampling

Critical-case sampling

Negative-case sampling

In which of the following non random sampling techniques does the researcher ask the research participants to identify other potential research participants?

Snowball

Convenience

Purposive

quota

Which of the following is the most efficient random sampling technique discussed in your chapter?

Simple random sampling

Proportional stratified sampling

Cluster random sampling

Systematic sampling

If we took the 500 people attending a school in New York City, divided them by gender, and then took a random sample of the males and a random sampling of the females, the variable on which we would divide the population is called the _______ .

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Stratification variable

Sampling variable

A number calculated with complete population data and quantifies a characteristic of the population is called which of the following?

A datum

A statistic

A parameter

A population

=C31/B31

/( C31, B31)

=B31/C31

/( B31,C31)

Which of the following is not an example of a spreadsheet package

Microsoft Excel Pro

Quattro

Visicalc

Word for Windows

Department P in Factory X is better than Department P in factory Y in terms of its safety record

True

False

Impossible to determine truth or falsity

Factory X produced more faulty items than factory Y

True

False

Impossible to determine truth or falsity

In the context of statistical surveys and sampling, a frame is

A numbered list of answers to a questionnaire

A set of questions to be answered in a questionnaire

A set of boxes in a questionnaire into which answers are to be placed

A list of members of a population

When he looked at data for the last three moths a sales director noticed that there was a very close relationship between the sales volume and the amount spent on advertising. He claims, “these statistics prove that advertising increases sales”

His claim is correct

His claim is incorrect

His claim is more likely to be incorrect than correct

His claim is more likely to be correct than incorrect

/

All of them

ii) and iii) only

i), ii) and iii) only

i) and iii) only

‘Type of car’ (e.g. “Ford”, “Rover”) is an example of a variable measured on a

Attribute scale

Numerical scale

Ordinal scale

Integer scale

A person carrying out a survey interviewed people coming out of a supermarket at a particular time of day. This is an example of

A random sample

A systematic sample

An accidental sample

A quota sample

/

All of them

i), ii) and iii) only

i) and ii) only

iv) only

A university contains 3000 Arts students and 2000 science students. A suitable proportional stratified random sample of all the students could consist of

30 science, 20 Arts students

60 Arts, 40 science students

3000 Arts, 2000 Science students

10 Science, 50 Arts students

The pie chart has the advantage that

The circle area is proportional to the largest data value

It is a simple method of conveying approximate information about a small number of categories

Information is conveyed accurately in the diagram

It readily lends itself to a comparison of several different variables

Which of the following probability sampling methods never uses a frame

Random sampling

Cluster sampling

Quota sampling

Systematic sampling

The term ‘data processing error’ refers to :

Activities or events related to the sampling process, e.g., non-response

Faulty techniques of coding and managing data

Problems with the implementation of the research process

The unavoidable discrepancy between the sample and the population

The findings from a study of young single mothers at a university can be generalized to the population of:

All young single mothers in that society, that university

All young single mothers in that society

All single mothers in all universities

All young women in that university

Which of the following is not a characteristic of quota sampling?

The researcher chooses who to approach and so might bias the sample

Those who are available to be surveyed in public places are unlikely to constitute a representative sample

The random selection of units makes it possible to calculate the standard error

It is a relatively fast and cheap way of finding out about public opinions

Snowball sampling can help the researcher to:

Access deviant or hidden populations

Theorise inductively in a qualitative study

Overcome the problem of not having an accessible sampling frame

All of the above

Which of the following is not a type of non-probability sampling?

Snowball sampling

Stratified random sampling

Quota sampling

Convenience sampling

What effect does increasing the sample size have upon the sampling error?

It reduces the sampling error

It increases the sampling error

It has no effect on the sampling error

None of the above

The standard error is a statistical measure of :

The normal distribution of scores around the sample mean

The extent to which a sample mean is likely to differ from the population mean

The clustering of scores at each end of a survey scale

The degree to which a sample has been accurately stratified

It is helpful to use a multi-stage cluster sample when:

The population is widely dispersed geographically

You have limited time and money available for traveling

You want to use a probability sample in order to generalize the results

All of the above

A simple random sample is one in which:

From a random starting point, every nth unit from the sampling frame is selected

A non-probability strategy is used, making the results difficult to generalize

The researcher has a certain quota of respondents to fill for various social groups

Every unit of the population has an equal chance of being selected

A sampling frame is :

A summary of the various stages involved in designing a survey

An outline view of all the main clusters of units in a sample

A list of all the units in the population from which a sample will be selected

A wooden frame used to display tables of random numbers

The non random sampling type that involves selecting a convenience sample from a population with a specific set of characteristics for your research study is called___________.

Convenience sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

Snowball sampling

Determining the sample interval (represented by k), randomly selecting a number between 1 and k, and including each k th element in your sample are the steps for which form of sampling?

Simple Random Sampling

Stratified Random Sampling

Systematic Sampling

Cluster sampling

_______ is a set of elements taken from a larger population according to certain rules.

Sample

Population

Statistic

element

Which of the following sampling methods is the best way to select a group of people for a study if you are interested in making statements about the larger population?

Convenience sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

Random sampling

Which of the following is not an example of a non random sampling technique?

Purposive

Quota

Convenience

cluster

It is recommended to use the whole population rather than a sample when the population size is of what size?

500 or less

100 or less

1000 or less

You should always use a sample

The process of drawing a sample from a population is known as __________.

Sampling

Census

Survey research

None of the above

A technique used when selecting cluster of different sizes is called__________.

Cluster sampling

One-stage sampling

Two-stage sampling

Probability proportional to size or PPS

Which of the following would usually require the smallest size because of its efficiency?

One stage cluster sampling

Simple random sampling

Two stage cluster sampling

Quota sampling

Which of the following is not a type of non random sampling?

Cluster sampling

Convenience sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

They are all type of non random sampling

The type of sampling in which each member of the population selected for the sample is returned to the population before the next member is selected is called ___________.

Sampling without replacement

Sampling with replacement

Simple random sampling

Systematic sampling

Which of the following is not a form of non random sampling?

Snowball sampling

Convenience sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

They are all forms of non random sampling

Which of the following will give a more “accurate” representation of the population from which a sample has been taken?

A large sample based on the convenience sampling technique

A small sample based on simple random sampling

A large sample based on simple random sampling

A small cluster sample

Sampling in qualitative research is similar to which type of sampling in quantitative research?

Simple random sampling

Systematic sampling

Quota sampling

Purposive sampling

Which of the following sampling techniques is an equal probability selection method (i.e., EPSEM) in which every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected?

Simple random sampling

Systematic sampling

Proportional stratified sampling

Cluster sampling using the PPS technique

All of the above are EPSEM

Which of the following would generally require the largest sample size?

Cluster sampling

Simple random sampling

Systematic sampling

Proportional stratified sampling

How often does the Census Bureau take a complete population count?

Every year

Every five year

Every ten years

Twice a year

People who are available, volunteer, or can be easily recruited are used in the sampling method called _______ .

Simple random sampling

Cluster sampling

Systematic sampling

Convenience sampling

Which of the following types of sampling involves the researcher determining the appropriate sample sizes for the groups identified as important, and then taking convenience samples from those groups?

Proportional stratified sampling

Quota sampling

One-stage cluster sampling

Two-stage cluster sampling

A type of sampling used in qualitative research that involves selecting cases that disconfirm the researcher’s expectations and generalizations is referred to as _________.

Extreme case sampling

Typical-case sampling

Critical-case sampling

Negative-case sampling

In which of the following non random sampling techniques does the researcher ask the research participants to identify other potential research participants?

Snowball

Convenience

Purposive

quota

Which of the following is the most efficient random sampling technique discussed in your chapter?

Simple random sampling

Proportional stratified sampling

Cluster random sampling

Systematic sampling

If we took the 500 people attending a school in New York City, divided them by gender, and then took a random sample of the males and a random sampling of the females, the variable on which we would divide the population is called the _______ .

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Stratification variable

Sampling variable

A number calculated with complete population data and quantifies a characteristic of the population is called which of the following?

A datum

A statistic

A parameter

A population

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