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COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH Common Course for BA/BSc/BCom/BBA I SEMESTER (2011 Admission onwards) UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Calicut University P.O. Malappuram, Kerala, India 673 635 101School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 2 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Common Course for BA/BSc/BCom/BBA I Semester COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH MODULE II & III Prepared by: Smt. Gayathri Menon K House No. 21 “Pranaam” Keltron Nagar, Kolazhi Thrissur MODULE I & IV Prepared by: Smt. Swapna M.S. Department of English K. K. T. M. Govt. College Pullut, Thrissur Scrutinised by : Dr. Anitha Ramesh K Associate Professor Department of English ZG College, Calicut Layout: Computer Section, SDE © Reserved School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 3 CONTENTS PAGE MODULE I 5-87 MODULE II 88-111 MODULE III 112-151 MODULE IV 152-202 School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 4 School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 5 MODULE -1 A. LISTENING : SOUNDS, STRESS AND INTONATION 1. The Phonetic Alphabet 2. Pure Vowels 3. Diphthongs 4. Triphthongs 5. Consonants 6. The Syllable 7. Word Stress 8. Stress in Compound words 9. Stress in Words Used as Different Parts of Speech 10. Strong and Weak Forms 11. Contracted Forms 12. Sentence Stress 13. Intonation B. Listening Skills 1. Barriers to Listening 2. Academic Listening 3. Listening to Talks and Descriptions 4. Listening to Announcements 5. Listening to News on the Radio and Television 6. Listening to Casual Conversations School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 6 Unit – I THE PHONETIC ALPHABET Objectives : At the end of this module you will have learnt 1. The sounds and symbols of English 2. Word stress and sentence stress 3. Intonation 4. How to be a good listener. 5. Barriers to listening. 6. How to listen for specific information in different discourses. English is one of the languages where there is no one-to-one correspondence between the letters of the alphabet and the sounds they represent. For example, the letter i is pronounced differently in ice and in; the letter g is pronounced differently in give and gin ; the two letters ch are pronounced differently in church and character. On the other hand, the letter k in keep and c in car are pronounced alike and it is the same case with the letters ch in machine and sh in ship. Therefore, in English, one letter of the alphabet stands for more than one sound and, conversely, the same sound is represented by different letters of the alphabet. Since there is no one-to-one relationship between spelling and pronunciation in English, we need another alphabet representing all the speech sounds. INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (IPA) The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabet approved by the International Phonetic Association. This alphabet has symbols to represent all the sounds that exist in all the languages of the world. This alphabet is based on the Roman alphabet. THE BRITISH ENGLISH PHONETIC ALPHABET The English alphabet has twenty-six letters, five of which are vowels and the remaining twenty-one consonants. These twenty-six letters are enough to write English. Since there is a lot of disparity between writing and pronunciation in English, we need another alphabet representing all the speech sounds. Such an alphabet is called the Phonetic Alphabet. This alphabet consists of forty-four speech sounds called phonemes or distinctive sound units. These forty-four phonemes are broadly classified into vowels and consonants. Vowels are twenty in number and consonants are twenty-four. Vowels are further classified into pure vowels and diphthongs. There are twelve pure vowels and eight diphthongs. These phonemes help us to find out the correct pronunciation of words. PHONEMIC SYMBOLS PURE VOWELS 1. /ɪ/as in sit /sɪt/2. /i:/as in beat /bi:t/3. /e/as in bet /beg/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 7 4. /æ/as in sat /sæt/5. /ɑ:/as in farm /fɑ:m/6. /ɒ/as in got /got/7. /ɔ:/as in all /ɔ:l /8. /ʊ/as in put /pʊt/9. /u:/as in fool /fu:l/10. /ʌ/as in but /bʌt/11. /ɜ:/as in bird /bɜ:d/12. /ə/as in ago /əgəʊ/DIPHTHONGS 1. /eɪ/as in hay /heɪ/2. /aɪ/as in life /laɪf/3. /ɔɪ/as in boy /bɔɪ/4. /əʊ/as in go /gəʊ/5. /aʊ/as in cow /kaʊ/6. /ɪə/as in hear /hɪə/7. /ʊə/as in pure /pjʊə/8. /eə/as in care /keə/CONSONANTS 1. /p/as in pen /pen/2. /b/as in bit /bɪt/3. /t/as in tin /tɪn/4. /d/as in dog /dɒg/5. /k/as in cat /kæt/6. /g/as in gun /gʌn/7. /t∫/as in chin /t∫ɪn/8. /dʒ/as in jug /dʒʌg/9. /f/as in fat /fæt/10. /v/as in van /væn/11. /θ/as in thin /θɪn/12. /ð/as in then /ðen/13. /s/as in sip /sɪp/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 8 14. /z/as in zip /zɪp/15. /ʃ/as in ship /ʃɪp/16. /ʒ/as in measure /meʒə/17. /h/as in hen /hen/18. /m/as in man /mæn/19. /n/as in net /net/20. /ŋ/as in ring /rɪŋ/21. /l/as in leg /leg/22. /r/as in red /red/23. /j/as in yes /jes/24. /w/as in wait /weɪt/You will study more about these speech sounds in the coming chapters. Unit -2 PURE VOWELS School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 9 There are twelve pure vowels in the Phonetic Alphabet. These are called pure vowels because they do not change in quality even when they are made long. They are also known as monophthongs. 1. /ɪ/as in bit /bɪt/bill /bɪl/sing /sɪŋ/rich /rɪt∫/big /bɪg/ill /ɪl/tin /tɪn/chin /t∫ɪn/college /kɒlɪdʒ/slit /slɪt/dip /dɪp/king /kɪŋ/slip /slɪp/kit /kɪt/inch /ɪnt∫/win /wɪn/did /dɪd/it /ɪt/pit /pɪt/sit /sɪt/kill/kɪl/fish /fɪʃ/kin /kɪn/kiss/kɪs/tick/tɪk/pin/pɪn/hit /hɪt/chill /t∫ɪl/sin /sɪn/quit /kwɪt/inn /ɪn/lid /lɪd/wid /wɪg/city /cɪtɪ/chip /tʃɪp/carriage /kærɪdʒ/lick /lɪk/dig /dɪg/pig /pɪg/women /wɪmɪn//ɪ/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in it, bit and city. The common spelling for /ɪ/is i itself (it, sit). The letters e (college), ei (foreign), ia (carriage) and o (women) also represent the /ɪ/sound in a limited number of words. 2. /i:/as in deep /di:p/beat /bi:t/cheap /tʃi:p/eel /i:l/bead /bi:d/lean /li:n/read /ri:d/deed /di:d/receive /rɪsi:v/weep /wi:p/heal /hi:l/relieve /rɪli:v/peak /pi:k/peep /pi:p/key /ki:/clean /kli:n/keep /ki:p/weak /wi:k/sleep /sli:p/eat /i:t/reach /ri:tʃ/reel /ri:l/seat /si:t/these /ði:z/heat /hi:t/feet /fi:t/machine/məʃi:n/keep /ki:p/keen /ki:n/neat /ni:t/each /i:tʃ/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 10 been /bi:n/beach /bi:tʃ/teach /ti:tʃ/lead /li:d/meal /mi:l/deal /di:l/tea /ti:/queen/kwi:n//i:/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in eat, beat and key respectively. The most common spellings for /i:/are ee (feet), and ea (tea). The letters ei (receive) and ie (relieve) are less common. The letters ey (key), e (these) and i (machine) also represent /i:/. 3. /e/as in set /set/bet /bet/beg /beg/hell /hel/met /met/egg /eg/desk /desk/jet /dʒet/bent /bent/next /nekst/let /let/sent /sent/men /men/tell /tel/tent /tent/death /deθ/fell /fel/said /sed/friend /frend/depth /depθ/many /menɪ/chest /tʃest/step /step/get /get/fed /fed /web /web /sell /sel/neck /nek/melt /melt/pest /pest/deck /dek/mess /mes//e/occurs only initially and medially as in any and met. It does not occur finally in a word. The most common spelling for /e/is e (pen). Other possible spellings are ea (death), ie (friend), ai (said) and a (many). If e is followed by the letter r, the sound produced is not /e/, but /ɜ:/as in herd (/hɜ:d/). 4. /æ/as in cat /k æt/act /ækt/sap /sæp/land /lænd/apt /æpt/hang /hæŋ/pat /pæt/bad /bæd/have /hæv/add /æd/sat /sæt/lack /læk/dam /dæm/cat /kæt/lamp /læmp/bank /bæŋk/cap /kæp/jam /dʒæm/band /bænd/black /blæk/rack /ræk/fax /fæks/clash /klæʃ/tap /tæp/ant /ænt/catch /kætʃ/sang /sæŋ/tag/tæg/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 11 sad /sæd/hand/hænd/can /kæn/quack/kwæk/lamp/læmp/fan /fæn/match /mætʃ/ham /hæm/pack /pæk/fact/fækt/mad /mæd/rat /ræt/dash /dæʃ/hand /hænd//æ/occurs initially and medially in words as in act and bat. It does not occur finally in a word. The common spelling for /æ/is a (sand). But if a is followed by r and there is no vowel sound after r, then a is usually pronounced as /ɑ:/as in car (/kɑ:/) but caravan is pronounced as /kærəvæn/. 5. /ɑ:/as in cart /kɑ:t/arch /ɑ: tʃ/task /tɑ:sk /brass /brɑ:s/arm /ɑ:m/vast /vɑ:st/calf /kɑ:f/ask /ɑ:sk/hard /hɑ:d/calm /kɑ:m/march /m ɑ:tʃ/harm /hɑ:m/bar /bɑ:/balm /bɑ:m/fast /fɑ:st/jar /dʒɑ:/barn /bɑ:n/grasp /grɑ:sp/clasp /klɑ:sp/class /klɑ:s/park /pɑ:k/vast /vɑ:st/part /pɑ:t/half /hɑ:f/artist /ɑ:tɪst/mask /mɑ:sk/heart /hɑ:t/master /mɑ:stə/scar /skɑ:/card /kɑ:d/lark /lɑ:k/raft /rɑ:ft/large /lɑ:dʒ /laugh /lɑ:f//ɑ:/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in art, cart and car. The sound /ɑ:/is commonly spelt with ar (park) and al (half). Sometimes, ear (heart), au (aunt) and a (ask) also stand for /ɑ:/. 6. /ɒ/as in dog /dɒg/pot /pɒt/want/wɒnt/lot /lɒt/clock /klɒk/college /kɒlɪdʒ/mob /mɒb /box /bɒks/cot /kɒt/font /fɒnt/cost /kɒst/bottle /bɒtl/frost /frɒst/got /gɒt/hop /hɒp/sausage /sɒsɪdʒ/mock /mɒk/dot /dɒt/fob /fɒb/lodge /lɒdʒ/shot /ʃɒt/boss /bɒs/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 12 golf /gɒlf /lost /lɒst/jog /dʒɒg/frog /frɒg/wash /wɒʃ/frock /frɒk/got /gɒd /cough /kɒf/flock /flɒk/moth /mɒθ/block /blɒk/gone /gɒn/pop /pɒp/bomb /bɒmb/lost /lɒst/shop /ʃɒp/lock /lɒk/chop /tʃɒp//ɒ/occurs initially and medially in words as in ox and got. It does not occur finally in a word. The most common letter that stands for the /ɒ/sound is o (dog). The letter a (wash) is also used often. The letters an (sausage) and ou (cough) are also used but rarely. 7. /ɔ:/as in taught /tɔ:t/all /ɔ:1/door /dɔ:/loss /lɔ:s/ball /bɔ:l/corpse /kɔ:ps/north /nɔ:θ/more /mɔ:/short /ʃɔ:t/ought /ɔ:t/born /bɔ:n/lord /lɔ:d/torch /tɔ:tʃ/taught /tɔ:t/broad /brɔ:d/storm /stɔ:m/oar /ɔ:/form /fɔ:m/wall /wɔ:l/morn /mɔ:n/floor /flɔ:/war /wɔ:/fork /fɔ:k/torn /tɔ:n/ward /wɔ:d/walk /wɔ:k/talk /tɔ:k/water /wɔ:tə/autumn /ɔ:təm/faught /fɔ:t/lore /lɔ:/law /lɔ:/pour /pɔ:/cord /kɔ:d/porch /pɔ:tʃ/horse /hɔ:s/jaw /dʒɔ://ɔ:/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in all, bought and law. There are several letters and letter combinations that represent the sound /ɔ:/. The most common among them are : or (storm), a (wall), ar (war), au (autumn), wr (law), al (talk), augh (taught), ough (taught) and our (pour). 8. /ʊ/as in put /pʊt/put /pʊt/shook /ʃʊk/hood /hʊd/book /bʊk/could /kʊd/foot /fʊt/look /lʊk/wolf /wʊlf/would /wʊd/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 13 bull /bʊl/stood/stʊd/bush /bʊʃ/took /tʊk/crook /krʊk/full /fʊl/push /pʊʃ/good /gʊd/wood /wʊd/should /ʃʊd/sugar /ʃʊgə/rook /rʊk/butcher /bʊtʃə/nook /nʊk//ʊ/does not occur initially in words. It occurs medially in words as in put and sugar. In the word final position it occurs only in the unaccented form of the preposition to. The common spellings for /ʊ/are: u (push) and oo (shook). The letters ou (could) and o (wolf), also represent the /ʊ/sound. 9. /u:/as in fool /fu:l/booth /bu:θ/ooze /u:z/fruit /fru:t/cool /ku:l/hoop /hu:p/suit /sju:t/fool /fu:l/soup /su:p/boost /bu:st/news /nju:z/flew /flu:/bloom /blu:m/room /ru:m/glue /glu:/goose /gu:z/food /fu:d/moon /mu:n/droop /dru:p/broom /bru:m/use /ju:z/tune /tju:n/tool tu:l/womb/wu:m/do /du:/rude /ru:d/prove /pru:v/roof /ru:f/stool /stu:l/shoe/ʃu:/nude /nu:d/spoon /spu:n/jute /dʒu:t/moot /mu:t//u:/occurs initially, medially and finally in words as in ooze, food and do. The most common spellings for /u:/are oo (tool), ou (soup) and ew (flew). The letters ue (flue) are also used, but less commonly. The letters o (prove), oe (shoe), u (rude) and ui (fruit) also represent /u:/. 10. /ʌ/as in but /bʌt/bud /bʌd/lust /lʌst/duct /dʌkt/but /bʌt/pump /pʌmp/mug /mʌg/blood /blʌd/sun /sʌn/run /rʌn/duck /dʌk/tongue /tʌŋ/pluck /plʌk/rub /rʌb/money /mʌnɪ/thud /θʌd/lunch /lʌntʃ/courage/kʌrɪdʒ/lull /lʌl/much/mʌtʃ/won/wʌn/gum/gʌm/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 14 hut /hʌt/grudge /grʌdʒ/cut /kʌt/stuff/stʌf/love /lʌv/sum /sʌm/dump /dʌmp/luck /lʌk/nut /nʌt/crush /krʌʃ/fun/fʌn/pulp/pʌlp/fund /fʌnd/up /ʌp//ʌ/occurs initially and medially in words as in up and rub respectively. It does not occur wordfinaally The most common spellings for /ʌ/are: o (money), ou (courage), and u (duck). The letters oo also represent /ʌ/as in blood. 11. /ɜ:/as in bird bɜ:d/bird /bɜ:d/curl /kɜ:l/learn /lɜ:n/berth bɜ:θ/girl/gɜ:l/world /wɜ:ld/burn /bɜ:n/serve /sɜ:v/yearn /jɜ:n/curve /kɜ:v/urge /ɜ:dʒ/urn /ɜ:n/curd /kɜ:d/merge /mɜ:dʒ/first /fɜ:st/err /ɜ:/pearl /pɜ:l/firm /fɜ:m/stern /stɜ:n/worth /wɜ:θ/worse /wɜ:s/word /wɜ:d/gird /gɜ:d/burst /bɜ:st/worm /wɜ:m/surf /sɜ:f/whirl /wɜ:1/curse /kɜ:s/birch /bɜ:tʃ/curl /kɜ:1/birth /bɜ:θ/earn/ɜ:n/earth /ɜ:θ//ɜ:/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in earn, learn and err respectively. The common spellings for /ɜ:/are : ir (girl), er (serve) and ur (urge). The letters or (word), our (journal), and ear (heard) also represent the /ɜ:/sound. 12. /ə /as in ago /əgəʊ/Unlike the other vowels given above, this is a very weak vowel and it occurs in weak syllables of words having more than one syllable. father /fɑ:ðə /special/speʃəl/another /ənʌðə/mother /mʌðə/patient /peɪʃənt/botany /bɒtənɪ/brother /brʌðə/action /ækʃən/mixer /mɪksə/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 15 sister /sɪstə/original/ərɪdʒənəl/canvass/kænvəs/about /əbaʊt/paper /peɪpə/Fantasy/fæntəsɪ/better /betə/again /əgen/durable/dju:rəbl/succeed /səksi:d/doctor/dɒktə /ago /əgəʊ/honour /ɒnə/powder /paʊdə/against /əgenst/angel /eɪndʒəl/manner/mænə/adore /ədɔ:/credible /kredəbl/garden /gɑ:dən/militant/mɪlɪtənt/interact /ɪntərækt//ə/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in ago, forget (first syllable) and tailor (second syllable) respectively. The most common spelling for /ə/is a (about). A number of other letters also represent the /ə/sound. They are: o (original); e (better), u (succeed), ia (special), ie (patient) and io (action). Read the following set of sentences. I. /ɪ/and/i:/1. We need a college in our village. 2. Does it fit your feet? 3. Do you still feel ill? 4. She slipped into a deep sleep. 5. Please keep these streets clean and green. II. /e/and/æ/1. Send me ten bags of sand. 2. Get me a set of ten bats. 3. I met a man and his pet cat. 4. My dead dad had many fans and many fads. 5. Why do you want to marry a mad man? III. /ɒ/,/ɔ:/and /ɑ:/1. Get me a potted plant. 2. We call him tortoise because he taught us. 3. What have you got in the hot pot? 4. It’s very dark in the park. 5. We’ll start on the dot. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 16 IV. /ʊ/and /u:/1. Look for a good book. 2. We weave wool on a loom. 3. A crook hid in a nook. 4. A full moon at noon! 5. How much wood would a woodpecker peck if a woodpecker would peck wood? V. /ʌ/and /ɜ:/1. I love the country of my birth. 2. You must take the first bus. 3. The early bird catches the worm. 4. She’s my first cousin. 5. You must serve him. VI. /ə /1. I forgot again! 2. Not bananas again for supper! 3. Call the police. 4. Please support him. 5. It is butter. Exercise – 1 Identity the vowels in the following words. 1.beep 2.hen 3.flat 4.past 5.free 6.bleed 7.farce 8.goose 9.lap 10.clip 11.adjust 12.foot 13.dwarf 14.earn 15.scene Exercise -2 Identity the vowels in the following words. 1.sun 2.very 3.suit 4.verse 5.slot 6.swim 7.list 8.slit 9.skirt 10.shirt 11.keep 12.gust 13.crept 14.clap 15.leap School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 17 Unit – 3 DIPHTHONGS There are eight diphthongs in the Phonetic Alphabet. The symbols for diphthongs consist of two vowels each, one to indicate the vowel quality at the beginning and the other the vowel quality towards which the glide take place. A diphthong is a glide from one vowel to another. For this reason diphthongs are also known as vowel glides. 1. /eɪ/as in play /pleɪ/aid /eɪd/age /eɪdʒ/sake /seɪk/bake /beɪk/pray /preɪ/taste /teɪst/made /meɪd/gate /geɪt/wade /weɪd/play /pleɪ/male /meɪl/wait /weɪt/aim /eɪm/nail /neɪl/hate /heɪt/game /geɪm/bathe /beɪθ/crave /kreɪv/same /seɪm/paid /peɪd/day /deɪ/lame /leɪm/late /leɪt/ape /eɪp/may /meɪ/ache /eɪk/slave /sleɪv/saint /seɪnt/eight/eɪt/waste /weɪst/ace /eɪs/pale /peɪl/fade /feɪd/weight /weɪt/they /ðeɪ/great /greɪt/claim /cleɪm//eɪ/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in aim, game and play espectively. The most common spelling for /eɪ/is a (take). The letters ay (say) and ei (weight) are also common. The letters ea (they), ai (wait) and ea (great) also represent the /eɪ/sound. 2. /aɪ/as in life /laɪf/bike /baɪk/dry /draɪ/ripe /raɪp/bite /baɪt/side /saɪd/tie /taɪ/eye /aɪ/buy /baɪ/nine /naɪn/die /daɪ/height /haɪt/kind /kaɪnd/life /laɪf/either /aɪðə/white /waɪt/fine /faɪn/sight /saɪt/wide /waɪd/mice /maɪs/cry/kraɪ/mike/maɪk/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 18 why /waɪ/sigh /saɪ/line /laɪm/light /laɪt/time /taɪm/high /haɪ/fly /flaɪ/ice /aɪs/hide /haɪd/type /taɪp/fine /faɪn/cite /saɪt//aɪ/can occur word-initially, word-medially and word-finally as in ice, mike and buy respectively. The most common spellings for /a/are: i (fine), y (type), ie (die) and uy (buy). The letters ie also stand for /aɪ/in some words such as height and either. 3. /ɔɪ/as in boy /bɔɪ /boy /bɔɪ /join/dʒɔɪn/coy /kɔɪ/boil /bɔɪl/soil /sɔɪl/void /vɔɪd/choice /t∫ɔɪs/coin /kɔɪn/loiter /lɔɪtə/broil /brɔɪl/loin /lɔɪn/toy /tɔɪ /coil /kɔɪl /noise /nɔɪz/alloy /ælɔɪ/oil /ɔɪl /moil /mɔɪl/toil /tɔɪl /voice /vɔɪs /foil /fɔɪl/point /pɔɪnt/joy /dʒɔɪ/moist /mɔɪst/joint /dʒɔɪnt/envoy /envɔɪ/enjoy /endʒɔɪ/avoid /əvɔɪd//ɔɪ/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in oil, boil and boy respectively. The most common spellings for /ɔɪ/are: oi (oil) and oy (joy). 4. /əʊ/as in go /gəʊ/blow /bləʊ/goat /gəʊt/bolt /bəʊlt/boat /bəʊt/low /ləʊ/Plateau /plætəʊ/both /bəʊθ/bone /bəʊn/toe /təʊ/folk /fəʊk/load /ləʊd/nose /nəʊz/glow /gləʊ/soul /səʊl/know /nəʊ/most /məʊst/coach /kəʊt∫/mole /məʊl/post /pəʊst/note /nəʊt/go/gəʊ/loaf /ləʊf/no/nəʊ/pose /pəʊz/goal /gəʊl/mould /məʊld/sow /səʊ/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 19 boast /bəʊst/gold /gəʊld/fold /fəʊld/bold /bəʊld/soak /səʊk/mow /məʊ/bow /bəʊ/woe /wəʊ/over /əʊvə//əʊ/occurs initially, medially and finally in words as in over, boat and go respectively. The common spellings for the sound /əʊ/are: o (bone), ow (blow), oa (coach) and ou (soul). The letters oe (toe), and in a few rare words eau (plateau) also represent the /əʊ/sound. 5. /aʊ/as in cow /kaʊ/down /daʊn/sound /saʊnd/found /faʊnd/foul /faʊl/cloud /klaʊd/crowd /kraʊd/howl/haʊl/cow /kaʊ/loud /laʊd/out /aʊt/couch /kaʊt∫/noun /naʊn/south /saʊθ/gown /gaʊn/house /haʊs/count /kaʊnt/foul /faʊl/ground /graʊnd/mount /maʊnt/mouse /maʊz/how /haʊ/town /taʊn/shout /∫aʊt/lout /laʊt/mouth /maʊθ/stout /staʊt/louse /laʊz/doubt /daʊt/pouch /paʊt∫/pounce /paʊns/clown /klaʊn/now /naʊ/spout/spaʊt/spouse /spaʊs//aʊ/occurs initially, medially and finally in words as in out, bout, and cow respectively. The most common spellings for the sound /aʊ/are: ou (cloud) and ow ( cow). 6. /ɪə/as in hear /hɪə/mere /mɪə /dear /dɪə /near/nɪə/beer /bɪə/ear /ɪə/beard/bɪəd/cheer/tʃɪə/fear/fɪə/gear /gɪə/peer/pɪə/rear/rɪə/sear /sɪə/sheer /ʃɪə/queer /kwɪə/tear/tɪə/steer /stɪə/dreary /drɪərɪ/veer /vɪə/clear /klɪə/pear /pɪə/weary /wɪərɪ/fierce /fɪəs/pearce /pɪəs/nearly /nɪərlɪ/hero /hɪərəʊ/peard /pɪəd/spear /spɪə/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 20 /ɪə/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in ear-ring, fierce and rear respectively. The most common spellings of /ɪə/are ear (dear), ere (mere) and eer (steer). The letters ie also represents /ɪə/as in fierce. 7. /ʊə/as in poor /pʊə/pure /pjʊə/lure /lʊə/doer/dʊə/cure /kjʊə/sure /fʊə/cruel /krʊəl/during/djʊərɪŋ/tour/tʊə/jury/dʒʊərɪ/mature/matʃʊə//ʊə/occurs medially and finally in words as in during and care respectively. It does not occur initially in a word. The sound /ʊə/is commonly represented by ou (tour) and u (pure). 8 /eə/as in care /keə/air /eə/mare /meə/where /weə /bare/beə/fare/feə/swear /sweə/care/keə/pair /peə/wear /weə/lair /leə/stare/steə/pear /peə/dare /deə/aeroplane/eərəpleɪn/hair/heə/fair/feə/stair/steə/snare/sneə/share /∫eə/flair /fleə/scare/skeə/chair /t∫eə/spare/speə/square /skweə/their /ðeə//eə/can occur initially, medially and finally in words as in aeroplane, careful and care respectively. The common letter combinations that stand for the /eə/sound are: are (dare), air (chair), ear (bear), ere (where) and eir (their). Read the following set of sentences. I. /aɪ/,/eɪ/and /ɔɪ/1. Have a nice day! 2. Rain, rain, go away. 3. When it rains in Spain, it rains mainly on the plains. 4. Make hay while the sun shines. 5. A noisy noise annoys an oyster. II. /aʊ/and /əʊ/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 21 1. He phoned to say he’d found the photos. 2. The motion was shouted down. 3. You can talk till the cows come home 4. Dowry was unknown in olden days. 5. The scoundrel was gunned down on the road. III. /ɪə/, /eə/and /ʊə/1. Are you sure you want to share the beer? 2. With good wishes from near and dear. 3. The bus-fare varies from area to area. 4. Don’t you dare go near the fierce dog! 5. Mary, is the cashier here? Exercise – 1 Identity the diphthongs in the following words. 1. kite 2. slide 3. joy 4.swine 5.grown 6.hay 7.respose 8.pound 9.swear 10.claim 11.slow 12.glare 13.flame 14.slide 15.stare Exercise – 2 Identify the diphthongs in the following words. 1.plight 2.grout 3.sprout 4.round 5.foul 6.clear 7.cheer 8.stone 9.role 10.roll 11.sheer 12.vacate 13.out 14.invite 15.exploit School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 22 Unit – 4 TRIPHTHONGS Five of the eight diphthongs namely, /eɪ//aɪ/,/ɔɪ/,/aʊ/and /əʊ/(i.e., the diphthongs other than those that glide in the direction of /ə/) may be followed by /ə/within a word. These sounds are known as triphthongs. They are given below: 1. /eɪ/+ /ə/as in player /pleɪə /2. /aɪ/+ /ə/as in fire /faɪə/3. /ɔɪ/+ /ə/as in employer /ɪmplɔɪə/4. /əʊ/+ /ə/as in lower /ləʊə/5. /aʊ/+ /ə/as in hour /aʊə/Some more examples are given below:-1. /eɪə /as in player /pleɪə/greyer /greɪə/gayer /geɪə/slayer /sleɪə/layer /leɪə/2. /aɪə/as in fire /faɪə/iron /aɪə/buyer /baɪə/tyre /taɪə/higher /haɪə/tire /taɪə/wire /waɪə/lyre /Iaɪə/prior /praɪə/science /saɪəns/dryer /draɪə/friar /fraɪə/mire /maɪə/dyer /daɪə/3. /ɔɪə/as in employer /ɪmplɔɪə/royal /rɔɪə/rɔɪəl/loyal /Iɔɪə/lɔɪəl/lawyer /lɔɪə/coir /kɔɪə/4. /əʊə/as in lower /ləʊə/grower /grəʊə/mower /məʊə/lower /ləʊə/rower /rəʊə/blower /bləʊə/thrower /θrəʊə/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 23 5. /aʊə/as in hour /aʊə/bower /baʊə/towel /taʊəl/flower /flaʊə/shower /ʃaʊə/power /paʊə/dower /daʊə/Exercise – 1 Identify the trip thongs in the following words. 1. flier 2. flour 3. friar 4. slower 5. plougher School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 24 UNIT – 5 CONSONANTS There are twenty-four consonants in the phonetic alphabet. 1. /p/as in pen /pen/put /pʊt/gap /gæp/pomp /pɒmp/pencil /pensɪl/span /spæn/simple /sɪmpl/plate /pleɪt/apple /æpl/pepper /pepə/ape /eɪp/clasp /klɑ:sp/temper /tempə/plead /pli:d/chapel /tʃæpəl/temple /templ/pitch /pɪtʃ/plain /pleɪn/jump /dʒʌmp/pick /pɪk/please /pli:z/umpire/ʌmpaɪə/cup /kʌp/paddle /pædl/peanut/pi:nʌt/pager /peɪdʒə/pigment /pɪgment/pimple/pɪmpl/perform /pəfɔ: m/The most common spelling for /p/is p (pen). The letters pp also represent /p/as in ‘appl.e /p/is silent in words like receipt and psychology. 2. /b/as in bid /bɪd/bid /bɪd/beef/bi:f/cab /kæb/rub /rʌb/bed/bed/tribe /traɪb/bud /bʌd/bride/braɪd/ribbon /rɪbən/habit /hæbɪt/labour /leɪbə/best /best/bulb /bʌlb/broad /brɔ:d/barrier /bærɪə/tub /tʌb/brain /breɪn/horn bill /hɔ:nbɪl/symbol /sɪmbəl/blockage /blɒkɪdʒ/marble /ma:bl/pebble /pebl/cabin/kæbɪn/before/bɪfɔ:/baby/beɪbɪ/disable /dɪseɪbl/begger /begə/back /bæk/bee /bi:/imbibe /ɪmbaɪb/bail/beɪl/The most common spelling for /b/us b (bag). The letters bb also represent /b/as in rubber. The letter b silent in words like comb and doubt. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 25 3. /t /as in tin /tin/table /teɪbl/battle /bætl/letter/letə/teeth /ti:θ/litmus /lɪtməs/lent/lent/tongue /tʌŋ/plastic /plɑ:stɪk/sent/sent/might /maɪt/transmit /trænzmɪt/yet/jet/ankle /æŋkl/treat /tri:t/wet/wet/banker /bæŋkə/task /tɑ:sk/utter/ʌtə/tinker /tɪŋkə/pretty /prɪtɪ/twist/twɪst/tight /taɪt/cut /kʌt/stain/steɪn/tease /tɪ:z/matter/mætə/sport/spɔ:t/The most common spelling for /t/is t (ten). The letter tt also represents /t/as in better. 4. /d/as in dip /dɪp/dig/dɪg/middle/mɪdl/detail/di:teɪl/deed/di:d/sad /sæd/lead/li:d/distort/dɪstɔ:t/desk/desk/seduce/sɪdju:s/ideal/aɪdɪəl/read/ri:d/wide/waɪd/dinner/dɪnə/dry/draɪ/guide/gaɪd/deep/di:p/adapt/ədæpt/add/æd/head/hed/ladle/leɪdl/demise/dɪmaɪz/hold/həʊld/loud/laʊd/deject/dɪdʒekt/indeed/ɪndi:d/mend/mend/drug/drʌg/jade/dʒeɪd/paddock/pædək/embed/ɪmbed/kid/kɪd/dark/dɑ:k/The most common spelling for /d/is d (dog). The letters dd also represent /d/as in sudden. 5. /k/as in keep /ki:p/keen/ki:n/hark/hɑ:k/sky/skaɪ/spark/spɑ:k/skin/skɪn/pike/paɪk/pack/pæk/king/kɪŋ/joke/dʒeʊk/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 26 make/meɪk/shock/ʃɒk/kite/kaɪt/like/laɪk/black/blæk/cry/kraɪ/canter/kæntə/pink/pɪŋk/ink/ɪŋk /link/lɪŋk/pike/paɪk/crock/krɒk/kick/kɪk/cube/kju:b/can/kæn/The most common spellings for /k/are c (can) and ‘k(king). The letters cc (soccer) and ck (back) also represent /k/. The letter k is silent in words like know and knee. 6. /g/as in gun /gʌn/gun/gʌn /bag/bæg/guilt/gɪlt/gate/geɪt /lag/læg/gust/gʌst/jug/dʒʌg/dig/dɪg/hogshead/hɒgzhed/jungle/dʒʌŋgl/guy/gaɪ/hug/hʌg/ignore/ɪgnɔ:/glad/glæd/grade/greɪd/gram/græm/ingrate/ɪngreɪt/grace/graɪs/jag/dʒæg/ghost/gəʊst/graph/grɑ:f/glob/glɒb/aghast/əgɑ:st/ignite/ɪgnaɪt/gloom/glu:m/ago/əgəʊ/The most common spellings for /g/are g (get) and gh (ghost). The letters gg also represent /g/as in beggar. 7. /tʃ/as in chat /tʃæt/chat /tʃæt/chapel /tʃæpəI/pitcher /pɪtʃə/such /sʌtʃ/search /sɜ:tʃ/ditch /dɪtʃ/much /mʌtʃ/punch /pʌntʃ/stitch /stɪtʃ/bitch /bɪtʃ/crunch /krʌntʃ/cheap /tʃi:p/chair /tʃeə/lunch /Iʌntʃ/which /wɪtʃ/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 27 charge /tʃɑ:dʒ/hutch /hʌtʃ/chew /tʃu:/change /tʃeɪndʒ/church /tʃɜ:tʃ/kitchen /kɪtʃɪn/purchase /pɜ:tʃəs/merchant /mɜ:tʃənt/chin /tʃɪn/rich /rɪtʃ/creature /kri:tʃə/nature /neɪtʃə/catch /kætʃ/The most common spellings for /tʃ/are: ch at the beginning of words (chin, chalk), ch and t in the middle (archieve, nature), and tch at the end of words (catch, match). 8. /dʒ/as in jug /dʒʌg/jug /dʒʌg/judge /dʒʌdʒ/jump /dʒʌmp/job /dʒɒb/age /eɪdʒ/budget /bʌdʒɪt/joy /dʒɒɪ/village /vɪlɪdʒ/bridge /brɪdʒ/journey /dʒ:nɪ/gem /dʒem/fridge /frɪdʒ/major /meɪdʒə/agenda /ədʒendə/badge /bædʒ/adjust /ədʒʌst/object /ɒbdʒɪkt/suggest /sədʒest/edge /edʒ/jet /jet/The common spelling for /dʒ/are j and g at the word – initial position (job, gem), g and j in middle position (agenda, object) and ‘ge and dge in the word-final position (village, edge). 9. /f/as in fan /fæn/face /feɪs/few /fju:/laugh /lɑ:f/phone /fəʊn/fun /fʌn/fast /fɑ:st/suffer /sʌfə/leaf /li:f/fail /feɪl/fan /fæn/fate /feɪt/firm /fɜ:m/feet /fi:t/fish /fɪʃ/half /hɑ:f/wafer /weɪfə/female /fi:meɪl/farm /fɑ:m/tough /tʌf/fill /fɪl/nymph /nɪmf/fat /fæt/The most common spellings for /f/are: f (fat) and ff (suffer). The /f/sound spelt with ph(photo) is less common. The letters gh (laugh) are also used for /f/. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 28 10. /v/as in van /væn/van /væn/river /rɪvə/vinegar /vɪnɪgə/vine /vaɪn/hive/haɪv/love /lʌv/very /verɪ/vague/veɪg/cave /keɪv/view /vju:/receive/rɪsi:v/move /mu:v/vet /vet/revenge/rɪvendʒ /vest/vest/valiant/vælɪənt/voice /vɔɪs/leave /li:v/wave /weɪv/vigor /vɪgə/narrative/nærətɪv/gave /geɪv/vivid /vɪvɪd/vomit/vɒmɪt/The common spelling for /v/is v itself (voice). Very rarely ph also represents /v/as in nephew. 11. /θ/as in thin /θɪn/thin /θɪn/earth /ɜ:θ/worthy /wɜ:θɪ/think /θɪŋk/bath /bɑ:θ/birthday /bɜ:θdeɪ/thief /θi:f/thought /θɔ:t/truth/tru:θ/nothing /nʌθɪŋ /mouth /maʊθ/with /wɪθ/anything /enɪθɪŋ /birth /bɜ:θ /youth /ju:θ/something /sʌmθɪŋ /three /θri:/throw /θrəʊ/thank /θæŋk/thorn /θɔ:n/thick /θɪk/throne /θrəʊn/method /meθəd/author /ɔ:θə/north /nɔ:θ/teeth /ti:θ/south /saʊθ/12. /ð/as in this /ðɪs/this /ðɪs/though /ðəʊ/leather /leðə/that /ðæt/mother /mʌðə/within /wɪðɪn/breathe/bri:ð/smooth /smu:ð/then /ðen/weather /weðə/northern /nɔ:ðən/these /ði:z/there /ðeə/thus /ðʌs/those /ðəʊz/bother /bɒðə/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 29 The letter combination th is the most common spelling for both/θ/and /ð/. So it is difficult to decide on the sound of looking at the spelling. 13. /s/as in sin/sɪn/city /sɪtɪ/atlas /ætləs/master /mɑ:stə/lips /lips/song /sɒŋ/class /klɑ:s/scene /si:n/ace /eɪs/sin /sɪn/gas /gæs/dress /dres/message /mesɪdʒ /case /keɪs/sit /sɪt/sad /sæd/yes /jes/sing /sɪŋ/sea /si:/alas /əlæs/set /set/small /smɔ:l/sleep /sli:p/same /seɪm/spark /spɑ:k/plates /pleɪts/bites /baɪts/nice /naɪs/The most common spellings for /s/are s (gas), and c (city). The spelling sc (scene) is less common. 14. /z/as in zoo /zu:/zoo /zu:/zinc /zɪŋk/zero /ziərəʊ/zest /zest/zone /zəʊn/zebra /zebrə/zoology /zʊɒlədʒɪ/freeze /fri:z/puzzle /pʌzl/dogs /dogz/eyes /aɪz/rise /raɪz/lose /lu:z/disease /dɪzi:z/prism/prɪzəm/husband /hʌzbənd/rose /rəʊz/prose /prəʊz/The common spelling for /z/is z itself. The spelling with s (music) is sometimes used; less commonly used is ss (dissolve) 15. /ʃ/as in ship /ʃɪp/shape /ʃeɪp/sugar /ʃʊgə/nation /neɪʃən/ship /ʃɪp/mission/mɪʃən/mesh /mesʃ/shed /ʃed/action /ækʃən/wash /wɒʃ/share /ʃeə/fish /fɪʃ/rush /rʌʃ/sharp /ʃa:p/ash /æʃ/shade /ʃeɪd/shaft /ʃa:ft/push /pʊʃ/hush /hʌʃ/lavish /lævɪʃ/slash /slæʃ/shot /ʃɒt/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 30 The most common spelling for /ʃ/are: s (sugar), sh (shop) and ss(mission). Other spellings are: c (ocean, sc (conscious), ti (nation), and rarely sch (schedule). 16. /ʒ/as in measure /meʒə/measure /meʒə/usual /ju:ʒʊəl/mirage /mɪrɑ:ʒ/pleasure /pleʒə/casual /kæʒjʊəl/prestige/presti:ʒ/vision/vɪʒən/elision /ɪlɪʒən/treasure/treʒə/closure/kIəʊʒə/regime/reɪʒi:m/There are no words in English with the sound /ʒ/at the beginning. When it comes in the middle and at the end of words, the spelling used are: s (measure) z (seizure), and g (regime, mirage). 17. /h/as in hat /hæt/behind /bɪhaɪnd/hail /heɪl/honey /hʌnɪ/behave /bɪheɪv/hang /hæŋ/hush /hʌʃ/hid /hɪd/hard /hɑ:d/human /hju:mən/who /hu:/hide /haɪd/hunt /hʌnt/behalf /bɪhɑ:f/hobby /hɒbɪ/hat /hæt/hand /hænd/help /help/hymn /hɪm/The /h/sound is most commonly represented by the letter h as in hill, behind etc. Sometimes the lettercombiinatio wh also stands for the sound /h/, as in who. 18. /m/as in mat /mæt/dam /dæm/many /menɪ/smear /smɪə/camel /kæməl/animal /ænɪməl/smart /smɑ:t/most /məʊst/hammer /hæmə/skim /skɪm/mill /mɪl/dumb /dʌm/met /met/mice /maɪs/mind /maɪnd/mat /mæt/dim /dɪm/smile /smaɪl/mud /mʌd/slim /slɪm/meet /mi:t/19. /n/as in net /net/net /net/snob /snɒb/can /kæn/nest /nest/snub /snʌb/nut /nʌt/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 31 name /neɪm/shown /ʃəʊn/pint /paɪnt/manner /mænə/number /nʌmbə/long /lɒŋ/moon /mu:n/news /nju:z/lonely /ləʊnIɪ/thin /θɪn/nourish /nʌrɪʃ/pun /pʌn/near /nɪə/null /nʌl/20. /ŋ/as in sing /sɪŋ/bang /bæŋ/song /sɒŋ/think /θɪŋk/ring /rɪŋ/young /jʌŋ/singing /sɪŋɪŋ/longing /lɒŋɪŋ/monkey /mʌŋkɪ/sink /sɪŋk/tongue /tʌŋ/donkey /dɒŋkɪ/thing /θɪŋ/lung /lʌŋ/gang /gæŋ/bring /brɪŋ/long /lɒŋ/king /kɪŋ/among /əmʌŋ/The common spellings for /m/and /n/are m and n respectively as in man and neat. The most common spelling for /ŋ/is ng as in sing. The letter n also represents /ŋ/as in sink .When the sound after /n/is /k/or /g/, the /n/usually changes to /ŋ/: think /θɪŋk/, finger fɪŋgə/, English/ɪŋglɪʃ/. 21. /l/as in lid /lid/love /lʌv/late /leɪt/claim /kleɪm/long /lɒŋ/last /lɑ:st/clan /klæn/lid /lɪd/blade /bleɪd/declare /dɪkleə/lip /lɪp/slide /slaɪd/fell /fel/pulp /pʌlp/slip /slɪp/flight /flaɪt/full /fʊl/sly /slaɪ/flirt /flɜ:t/fool /fu:l/lazy /leɪzɪ/milk /mɪlk/The usual spelling for /l/is the letter l itself. The letter combination ll is also used to represent /l/as in pulley. The letter l is silent when it is followed by f, k, m and d. 22. /r/as in red /red/rat /ræt/throat /θrəʊt/rebel /rɪbel/red /red/strip /strɪp/redress /rɪdres/run /rʌn/scrap /skræp/serene /sɪri:n/merry /merɪ/rate /reɪt/strip /strɪp/wrong /rɒŋ/raid /reɪd/rhyme /raɪm/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 32 write /raɪt/proper /prɒpə/very /verɪ/spray /spreɪ/radio /reɪdɪəʊ/The most common spellings for /r/are r (red) and rr (carrot). The letters wr (wrong) and rh (rhyme) are also used. The letter r is silent in the final position, or before an e dfollowed by a suffix. 23. /j/as in yes /jes/yard /jɑ:d/yolk /jəʊk/yack /jæk/you /ju:/young /jʌŋ/yellow /jeləʊ/your /jɔ:/yawn /jɔ:n/yell /jel/use /ju:s/year /jɪə/youth /ju:θ/The sound /j/is represented by y as in you, e as in few,and u as in cue. 24. /w/as in wet /wet/what /wɒt/ward /wɔ:d/wave /weɪv/wear /weə/warp /wɔ:p/weld /weld/war /wɔ:/wash /wɒʃ/wind /wɪnd/wait /weɪt/wallet /wɒlɪt/wrist /rɪst/The letter w represents the sound /w/most of the time, as in will, wait etc. Read the following set of sentences. I. /p/, /b/,/t/,/d/, /k/, and /g/1. Betty bought a bitter bit of butter. 2. Give the rogue a long rope. 3. Sorry, we haven’t got any clue. 4. Their bickering is getting bitter and bigger. 5. Have you got any pins? II. /t∫/and /dʒ/1. Watch the children in church. 2. That’s a major change in the agenda. 3. She is aged, but is still charming! 4. She made a fortune selling her pictures. 5. Don’t capture the creature! School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 33 III. /f/and /v/1. It moves very fast. 2. It was a brief love. 3. Five foolish friends fighting a fake fire! 4. Fifty – five fresh loaves and forty – five fine fishes to feed fifty – four fussy friends. 5. If offers a fine view. IV. /θ/and /ð/1. They are with their kith and kin through thick and thin. 2. Don’t bother your brother! 3. They live with their father, mother and brother. 4. Give me something thinner than that. 5. He is standing there with his friends. V. /s/and /z/1. How many slim slimy snakes would slither silently to the sea, if slim slimy snakes could slither silently? 2. A noisy noise annoys an oyster. 3. Sally’s seven silly sisters sang seven silly songs. 4. Zany zebras in the zoo walked zigzag like zombies. 5. There are so many snakes in the zoo. VI. /ʃ/and /ʒ /1. She sells seashells on the seashore. 2. Shyam is sick and Sam is shy! 3. Shiny is sick of summer sunshine. 4. Shameless Susan sighs in her usual casual fashion. 5. Susan wears shoes without socks. VII. /m/,/n/and /ŋ/1. Mister Menon made a mess of his maiden match. 2. Funny it’s Sunny though it’s raining! 3. No new nannies are needed to nurse the nine new-borns. 4. A singer is singing a new song. 5. He can’t be wrong. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 34 VIII. /h/,/w/and /j/1. Why do we want a quick – witter waiter? 2. Is the yolk of an egg always yellow? 3. Why do you weave your hair in that weird way? 4. Wait for a week, will you? 5. Wonder wash! Quick as your wish! Quiet as a whisper! IX. /l/and /r/1. I have no clue where the crew is! 2. All the players knelt on the floor and prayed. 3. Round and round the rugged rock the rugged rascal ran. 4. The jarring noise marred the serenity of the room. 5. The sprinter’s right leg was put in a splint. Exercise – 1 Identify the initial consonants in the following words. 1. puff 2. chat 3. judge 4. click 5. suck 6. rude 7. lie 8. nice 9. high 10. boss 11. tomb 12. gun 13. thumb 14. mine 15. wide Exercise – 2 Identify the final consonants in the following words. 1.check 2.gold 3.down 4.wash 5.bridge 6.cling 7.youth 8.huge 9.job 10.yell 11.mud 12.chill 13.balm 14.coach 15.pull School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 35 UNIT – 6 THE SYLLABLE The syllable is the unit that is next in hierarchy to the speech sound. It is the smallest convenient unit of speech. Syllables are formed by combining phonemes. All the words in English have one or more syllables. According to the number of syllables in a word, words may be classified into: mono-syllabic words, di-syllabic words, tri-syllabic words and poly-syllabic words. Usually syllable-division is marked with a hyphen. It is not always possible to mark syllable division in the orthographic representation (ordinary spelling) of English words. It is, therefore, better to write the phonetic transcription of words and mark syllable-division in the transcribed versions of words. A Syllable will always have a vowel. There may or may not be consonants in a syllable. The number of syllabus in a word can be understood by counting the number of vowels. Mono-syllabic words Words which have only one syllable are known as mono-syllabic words. Some examples are given below. dip dɪp heat hi:t kill kɪl art ɑ:t bead bi:d will wɪl keep ki:p dead di:d zoo zu: sin sɪn cheap t∫i:p dip dɪp pin pɪn each ɪ:t∫ Kin kɪn boy bɔɪ ill ɪl tin tɪn eat i:t lip lɪp lɪck lɪk bat bæt tip tɪp sip sɪp lid lɪd sad Sæd mud mʌd Di-syllabic words Words having two syllables are known as di-syllabic words. Examples are given below. Syllabus division is marked with a hyphen. apple æp-l doctor dɒk-tə college kɒl-ɪdʒ across ə-krɒs intact ɪn-tækt contain kən-təɪn battle bæt-l packet pæk-ɪt custom kʌs-təm exclaim ɪks-kleɪm retail rɪ-teɪl glitter glɪt-ə intend ɪn-tend husband hʌz-bənd impart ɪm-pɑ:t School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 36 lonely ləʊn-lɪ present prɪ-zent ladder læd-ə prepay pri:-peɪ rebound rɪ-baʊnd engage ɪn-geɪdʒ rebuid ri:-bɪld relax rɪ-læks Tri syllabic words Words having three syllables are called tri syllabic words. Examples are listed below: strategy stræt-ə-dʒɪ Consider kən-sɪd-ə imitate ɪm-ɪ-teɪt Intermit ɪn-tə-mɪt affection ə-fek-ʃn Pedicure ped-ɪ-kjʊə minister mɪn-ɪ-stə Promotive prə-məʊ-tɪv algebra æl-dʒɪ-brə Radio reɪ-dɪ-əʊ predicate pred-ɪ-kət Satisfy sæt-ɪs-faɪ saturday sæt-ə-deɪ Prepayment pri:-peɪ-mənt Poly –syllabic words Words having more than three syllables are known as poly-syllabic words. Examples are given below: propaganda prɒp-ə-gæn-də pronunciation prə-nʌn-sɪ-eɪ-ʃən pulsatory pʌl-sə -tər-ɪ probability prɒb-ə-bɪl-ə-tɪ understandably ʌn-də-stænd-ə-blɪ exploitation ek-splɔɪ-teɪ-ʃən exterior ɪk-stɪə-rɪ-ə temporary tem-pər-ər-ɪ pronunciation pr ə -nʌn-sɪ-eɪ-ʃən commercialization kə-mɜ:-ʃə-laɪ-zeɪ-ʃən communion kə-mju:-nɪ-ən complimentary kɒm-plɪ-men-tər-ɪ School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 37 conventional kən-ven-ʃən-əl convenient kən-vi:-nɪ -ənt fundamental fʌn-də-men-təl hermeneutic hɜ:-mɪ-nju:-tɪk Exercise – 1 Divide the following words into syllables. 1. selfish 2. telephone 3. expand 4. repentant 5. rationality 6. advancement 7. appointment 8. subtract 9. September 10. felicitate 11. mid point 12. invisibility 13. beautiful 14. persuasive 15. misbelief Exercise – 2 Divide the following words into syllables. 1. interlock 2. satisfaction 3. employment 4. industrial 5. overprint 6. extinguish 7. delete 8. creative 9. communication 10. demarcate 11. demonstrate 12. fashionable 13. impossible 14. instructive 15. oxygen School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 38 Unit – 7 WORD STRESS In words of more than one syllable not all syllables are equally prominent. One syllable is more prominent than the others. This syllable carries stress. For example, in the di-squabic word doctor the first syllable is more prominent than the second syllable whereas in about the second syllable is more prominent than the first syllable. In the tri-syllabic word calculate the stress is on the first syllable. Prominence is brought about by greater energy and higher pitch. Some examples of various stress patterns are listed below. Stressed syllables are marked with a vertical bar (1) above and before the syllable that is stressed see below. Disyllabic words with stress on the first syllable father /'fɑ:ðə/dinner /'dɪnə/mother /'mʌðə /enter /'entə/able /'eɪbl/fellow /'feləʊ/laughter /'lɑ:ftə/female /'fi:meɪl/function /'fʌŋʃn/diction /'dɪkʃn/ghostly /'gəʊstlɪ/teacher /'ti:tʃə/empty /'emtɪ/fancy /'fænsɪ/hero /'hɪərəʊ/lonely /'ləʊnlɪ/master /'mɑ:stə/pleasure /'pleʒə/message /'mesɪdʒ/someone /'sʌmwʌn/writer /'raɪtə/building /'bɪldɪŋ/really /'rɪəlɪ/urgent /'ɜ:dʒənt/letter /'lətə/fury /'fju:rɪ/lighter /'laɪtə/robber /'rɒbə/outlaw /'aʊtlɔ:/magnet /'mægnət/headset /'hedset/garden /'gɑ:dn/Disllabic words with stress on the second syllable about /ə'bəʊt/beware /bɪ'weə /endorse /ɪn'dɔ:s/career /kə'rɪə/endear /ɪn'dɪə/beside /bɪ'saɪd/mundane /mʌn'deɪn/enjoy /ɪn'dʒɔɪ/enlarge /ɪn'lɑ:dʒ/decide /dɪ'saɪd/entrain /ɪn'treɪn/effect /ɪ'fekt/instruct /ɪn'strʌkt/forget /fə'get/forgive /fə'gɪv/relax /rɪ'læks/yourself /jɔ:'self/escape /ɪ'skeɪp/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 39 mistake /mɪ'steɪk/machine /mə'ʃi:n/accept /ək'sept/remove /rɪ'mu:v/support /sə'pɔ:t/suggest/sə'dʒest/across /ə'krɒs/again /ə'gen/asleep /ə'sli:p/propose /prə'pəʊz/advise/əd'vaɪz/dismiss /dɪs'mɪs/july /dʒʊ'laɪ/Tri-syllable words with stress on the first syllable calculate /'kælkjəleɪt/monument /'mɒnjəmənt/demarcate /'di:mɑ:keɪt/pulsative /'pʌlsətɪv/demonstrate /'demənstreɪt/similar /'sɪmɪlə/firmament /'fɜ:məmənt/polyglot /'pɒlɪglɒt/laminate /'læmɪneɪt/predicate /'predɪkeɪt/educate /'edʒʊkeɪt/replicate /'replɪkeɪt/silicon /'sɪlɪkən/signifiy /'sɪgnɪfaɪ/variant /'veərɪənt/testament /'testəmənt/populate /'pɒpjəleɪt/waterfall /'wɔ:təfɔ:l/isolate /'aɪsəleɪt/instrument /'ɪnstrəmənt/cumulate /'kju:mjəleɪt/consecrate /'kɒnsɪkreɪt/barrister /'bærɪstə/Tri-syllabic words with stress on the second syllable demonic /dɪ'mɒnɪk/prevenetive /prɪ'ventɪv/magnetic /mæg'netɪk/vepolish /'ri:pɒlɪʃ/recorder /rɪ'kɔ:də/revisit /ri:'vɪzɪt/recover /rɪ'kʌvə/prophetic /prəʊ'fetɪk/instructor /ɪn'strʌktə/fallacious /fə'leɪʃəs/directly /d'rektlɪ/before hand /bɪ'fɔ:hænd/litigious /lɪ'tɪdʒəs/reductive /rɪ'dʌktɪv/presenter /prɪ'zentə/prepayment /pri:'peɪmənt/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 40 refusal /rɪ'fju:zəl/developed /dɪ'veləpt/Tri-syllable words with stress on the third syllable disappoint /dɪsə'pɔɪnt/overpower/əʊvə'paʊə/entertain /entə'teɪn/overprint /əʊvə 'prɪnt/prepossess /pri:pə'zes/recommend /rekə'mend/inhumane /ɪnhju: 'meɪn/afternoon /ɑ:ftə'nu:n/decompose /di:kəm 'pəʊz/refugee/refjʊ'dʒi:/overtake /əʊvə'teɪk/overtask /əʊvə 'tɑ:sk/overtax /əʊvə'tæks/overhand/əʊvə 'hæŋ/intercept /ɪntə'sept/interlink/ɪntə'lɪŋk/interleave /ɪntə'li:v/Polysyllabic words-Different stress patterns examination /ɪgzæmɪ'neɪʃen/fascinating /'fæsɪneɪtɪŋ/fragility /frə'dʒɪlətɪ/establishment /ɪ'stæblɪʃmənt/community /kə'mju:nətɪ/controversy /'kɒntrəvɜ:sɪ/redeemable /rɪ'di:məbl/predominantly /prɪ'dɒmɪnəntlɪ/believable /bɪ'li:vəbl/wonderful /'wʌndəfəl/obligatory/ə'blɪgətərɪ/invitation /ɪnvɪ'teɪʃən/possibility /pɒsə'bɪlətɪ/psychology /saɪ'kɒlədʒɪ/psychological /səɪkəl'ɒdʒɪkəl/politician /pɒlɪ'tɪʃən/photographic /fəʊtə'græfɪk/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 41 telegraphy /tɪ'legrəfɪ/Exercise – 1 Mark the primary stress in the following words. 1. peculiar 2. eradicate 3. introduction 4. betray 5. education 6. satisfactory 7. fundamental 8. experimental 9. arrangement 10. confidential 11. compulsory 12. comparative 13. essential 14. respectful 15. adverb Exercise – 2 Mark the primary stress in the following words. 1. unbearable 2. generate 3. deactivate 4. fascinating 5. glamorous 6. majority 7. opportunity 8. administration 9. impolite 10. heartless 11. fingerprint 12. significant 13. stipend 14. testify 15. uniformity School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 42 UNIT 8 STRESS IN COMPOUND WORDS There are many compound words in English like bookshop, bedroom, postman, blackbird, lighthouse etc. They are formed by putting together two or more words. The two words, when they are separate,they are both stressed. But when they are joined together to form compound words, only one word is stressed. Some examples are given below:-book + shop → bookshop /'bʊkʃɒp /bed + room → bedroom /'bedru:m/break + fast → break fast /'brekfəst/post + man → postman /'pəʊstmæn/air + port → airport /'eəpɔ:t/air + craft → aircraft /'eəkrɑ:ft/anything /'enɪθɪŋ/churchyard /'tʃɜ:tʃjɑ:d/earthquake /'ɜ:θkweɪk/hairstyle /'heəstaɪl/hairbrush /'heəbrʌʃ/school bus /'sku:lbʌs/grandfather /'grændfɑ:ðə/grandmother /'grændmʌðə /grandmaster /'grændmɑ:stə/lighthouse /'laɪthaʊs/In the above compound words, the stress is on the first part. But it is not the case with all the compound words. There are compound words in which the stress is on the second part. Some examples are given below. bad -tempered /bæd'tempəd/good -natured /gʊd'neɪt∫əd/old -fashioned /əʊl'fæ∫ənd/short-sighted /∫ɔ:t'saɪtɪd/soft -spoken /sɒft'spəʊkən/man-made /mæn'meɪd/half-baked /hɑ:f'beɪkt/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 43 The first part of all the above compound words were adjectival. If the first part of a compound word is adjectival, the word is normally stressed on the second part. A few compound words with -ever, -self and -selves have the primary accent on the second syllable. how'ever /haʊ'evə/what'ever /wɒt'evə/who'ever /hu:'evə/when'ever /wen'evə /her'self /hə'self/himself /hɪm'self/them'selves /ðəm'selvz/itself /ɪt'self/one'self /wʌn'self/Exercise – 1 Mark the primary stress in the following compound words. 1. postman 2. lifeboat 3. school bag 4. pick pocket 5. air raid 6. team work 7. hair style 8. foot print 9. suit case 10.sea shore 11. hand kerchief 12. Prime minister 13. gold smith 14. book shelf 15. super market Exercise – 2 Mark the primary stress in the following compound words. 1. afternoon 2. middle aged 3. post-graduate 4. under-graduate 5. Vice Chancellor 6. home made 7. tooth brush 8. country house 9. north-east 10. long-lived School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 44 Unit – 9 STRESS IN WORDS USED AS DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH There are a number of disyllabic words in English in which word stress depends upon whether the words are used as nouns, adjectives or verbs. If these words are used as nouns or adjectives, the stress is on the first syllable and if these are used as verbs, the stress is on the second syllable. A few of these are listed below: Word Noun/Adjective Verb absent /'æbsənt/(adj.) /æb'sent/combine /'kɒmbaɪn/(n.) /kəm'baɪn/export /'ekspɔ:t/(n.) /ɪk'spɔ:t/record /'rekɔ:d/(n.) /rɪ'kɔ:d/recount /'ri:kaʊnt/(n.) /rɪ'kaʊnt/concert /'kɒnsət/(n.) /kən'sɜ:t/conduct /'kɒndʌkt/(n.) /kən'dʌkt/contact /'kɒntækt/(n.) /kɒn'tækt/import /'ɪmpɔ:t/(n.) /ɪm'pɔ:t/survey /'sɜ:veɪ/(n.) /sə'veɪ/rebel /'rebl/(n.) /rɪ'beI/project /'prɒdʒekt/(n.) /'prəʊ'dʒekt/present /'preznt/(n.) /'prɪ'zent/refuse /'refju:s/(n.) /'rɪ'fju:z/perfect /'pɜ:fɪkt/(n.) /'pə'fekt/subject /'sʌbdʒɪkt/(n.) /'səb'dʒekt/produce /'prɒdju:s/(n.) /'prə'dju:s/object /'ɒbdʒɪkt/(n.) /'əb'dʒekt/increase /'ɪnkri:s/(n.) /'ɪn'kri:s/There will be a change in vowel also in some cases when the stress shifts as seen above. Exercise – 1 Mark the stress in the following words. 1. contract (noun) -contract (verb) 2. contrast (noun) -contrast (verb) School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 45 3. desert (noun) -desert (verb) 4. perfect (noun) -perfect (verb) 5. permit (noun) -permit (verb) 6. certificate (noun) -certificate (verb) 7. compact (noun) -compact (adjective) 8. compound -compound (verb) 9. convert (noun) -convert (verb) 10. defile (noun) -defile (verb) Exercise – 2 Mark the stress in the following words. 1. decrease (noun) -decrease (verb) 2. exploit (noun) -exploit (verb) 3. filtrate (noun) -filtrate (verb) 4. incarnate (adjective) -incarnate (verb) 5. incline (noun) -incline (verb) 6. inlay (noun) -inlay (verb) 7. inset (noun) -inset (verb) 8. insult (noun) -insult (verb) 9. refit (noun) -refit(verb) 10. retail (noun) -retail (verb) School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 46 UNIT – 10 STRONG AND WEAK FORMS There are a number of words in English which have two or more qualitative and quantitative patterns depending upon whether they are accented or not. When these words are stressed or when they are pronounced in isolation, the strong forms of these words are used; when they are unstressed, the weak forms of these words are used. The chief words which have both strong forms and weak forms are : a, an, the, as, at, and, for, from, to, of, am, is, are, was, were, do, does, has, have, had, can, could, shall, should, will, would, than, that, can, could, shall, should, will, would, than, that. a Strong form :/eɪ/weak form : /ə/When we say a as a separate word, we say it as /eɪ/But when a is used in a phrase or a sentence in an unstressed position, we say it as /ə/. The weak form /ə/only occurs before consonant sounds. an Strong form : /æn/Weak form : /ən/Eg. Get me an umbrella. /get mɪ ən ʌmbrelə/the Strong form : /ði:/Weak forms : /ðɪ/,/ðə/The strong form /ði:/is used for emphasis. The weak forms /ðə/is used before consonant sounds and /ðɪ/is used before vowel sounds. Eg:-The cat /ðə kæt/The apple /ðɪ æpl/as Strong form : /æz/Weak form : /əz/Eg. as good as milk /əz gʊd əz mɪlk/at Strong form : /æt/Weak form : /ət/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 47 The strong form /æt/is used mainly in sentence final position. It may be used in sentence initial position. Eg. What are you looking at ? /wɒt ə jə lʊkɪŋ æt/at eight /ət eɪt/and Strong form : /ænd/Weak forms :/ənd/,/ən/,/n/The strong form /ənd/is used for emphasis. The weak forms /ən/is used before consonant sounds and /ənd/is used before vowel sounds. Eg. Come and see. /kʌm ən si:/bread and butter /bred ən bʌtə/my uncles and aunts /maɪ ʌŋklz ənd ɑ:nts/for Strong form : /fɔ:/Weak form : /fə/The strong form /fɔ:/is used in the sentence -final position. The weak forms /fə/is used before consonant sounds and /fər/is used before vowel sounds. Eg: He did it for fun. /hi: dɪd ɪt fə fʌn/Wait for a minute ! /weɪt fər ə mɪnɪt/from Strong form : /frɒm/Weak form : /frəm /The strong form /frɒm/is used in sentence-final position. Eg: Where is it from? /weər ɪz ɪt frɒm/He comes from the market. /hi: kʌmz frəm ðə mɑ:kɪt/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 48 to Strong form :/tu:/Weak form : /tʊ/, tə/The strong form /tu:/is sometimes used in the sentence -final position. The weak form /tʊ/is used before vowel sounds and /tə/is used before consonant sounds. Eg: He wants to eat apple. /hi : wɒnts tʊ i:t æpl/He goes to college. /hi: gəʊz tə kɒlɪdʒ/of Strong form : /ɒv/Weak form : /əv/The strong form /ɒv/is usually found only in final position. Elsewhere the weak form /əv/is used. Eg. It is made of plastic. /ɪt ɪz meɪd əv plæstɪk/am Strong form : /æm/Weak forms : əm/, /m/The strong form /æm/is used for emphasis. Eg:-How am I going to pay? /haʊ əm aɪ gəʊɪŋ tə peɪ/I am a doctor. /aɪ æm ə dɒktə/is Strong form /ɪz/Weak form : /z/,/s/Eg. This is a cat. /ðɪs ɪz ə kæt/are Strong form : /ɑ:/Weak form : /ə/The strong form /ɑ:/is used for emphasis and in final position Eg. Here you are. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 49 /hiə jʊ ɑ:/These are mine. /ði:z ə maɪn/was Strong form : /wɒz/Weak form : /wəz/The strong form /wɒz/is used for emphasis and when it appears as a main verb. The weak form /wəz/is used otherwise. Eg: He was a teacher. /hi: wɒs ə ti:t∫ə/were Strong form : /wɜ:/Weak form : /wə/Eg: We were children then. /wi: wɜ: t∫ɪldrən ðən/They were laughing. /ðeɪ wə lɑ:fɪŋ/do Strong form : /du:/Weak form : /dʊ/,/də/The strong form /du:/is normally used in sentence-final position. /du:/is also used when it is used as full verb rather than as an auxiliary.The weak forms /dʊ/is used before vowel sounds and /də/is used before consonant sounds. Eg: How do they do it? /haʊ dʊ ðeɪdu: ɪt /How do I do it? /haʊ dʊ aɪdu: ɪt /does Strong form : /dʌz/Weak form : /dəz/The strong form /dʌz/is used when it is used as a full verb.When does occurs in other positions as an auxiliary,the weak form is normally used. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 50 Eg: Why does it stop? /waɪ dəz/It stɒp/He does not go there. /hi: dəz nɒt gəʊ ðeə/has Strong form : /hæz/Weak forms : /həz/,/əz/,/z/The strong form is used when has is used as a full verb rather than as an auxiliary. Eg: He has a dog. /hi: hæz ə dɒg/He has been working. /hi: əz bi:n wɜ:kɪŋ/have Strong form : /hæv/Weak forms: /həv/,/əv/,/v/The strong form is used when have is used as a full verb and the weak form is used when have is used as an auxiliary. Eg: I have a doll. /aɪ hæv ə dɒl/I have been learning. /aɪ əv bi:n lɜ:nɪŋ/had Strong form : /hæd/weak forms : həd/,/əd/,/d/When had is used as s full verb the strong form is used. The weak form is used when had is used as an auxiliary. Eg: We had a fine house. /wi: hæd ə faɪn haʊs/He had gone to play. /hi: əd gəʊn tə pleɪ/can Strong form : /kæn/Weak form : /kən/The strong form /kæn /is used for emphasis. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 51 Eg: Can you dance? /kæn ju: dɑ:ns/I can sing. /aɪ kən sɪŋ/could Strong form : /kʊd/Weak form : /kəd/Eg: could you help me? /kʊd ju: help mi:/I could do it. /aɪ kəd du: ɪt/shall Strong form : /ʃæl/Weak form : /ʃəl/The strong form is used for strong insistence or prediction. Eg: shall I help you? /ʃæl aɪ help ju:/I shall give it. /aɪ ʃəl gɪv ɪt/should Strong form : /ʃʊd/Weak form : /ʃəd/The strong form is used for emphatic pronunciation. Eg: Should you go now? /ʃʊd ju: gəʊ naʊ/When should it arrive? /wen ʃəd ɪt əraɪv/will Strong form : /wɪl/Weak form : /l/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 52 Eg: I will do it. /aɪ wɪl du : ɪt/would Strong form : /wʊd/Weak forms : /wəd/,/əd/,/d/The strong form is used emphatically. It is also used in sentence final position. The weak forms are used elsewhere. Eg: I certainly would. /aɪ sɜ:tənlɪ wʊd/It would be a great thing. /ɪt wəd bɪ ə greɪt θɪŋ/than Strong form : /ðæn/Weak form : /ðən/The strong form /ðæn/is rarely used. Eg: you are greater than me. /ju: ɑ: greɪtə ðən mi:/that Strong form : /ðæt/Weak form : /ðət/Eg: That is right. /ðæt ɪz raɪt/He said that he would go. /hi: sed ðət hi: wəd gəʊ/Pronouns such as me, you, he, him, his, her, them, and their also have strong and weak forms They are listed below: me Strong form : /mi:/Weak form : /mɪ/Eg: He gave me a gift. /hi: geɪv mi: ə gɪft/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 53 you Strong form: /ju:/Weak form : /jʊ/,/jə/The weak forms /jʊ/is used before vowel sounds and /jə/is used before consonant sounds. Eg: You ought. Thank you /jʊ ɔ:t//θæŋk jʊ/If you can. /ɪf jə kæn/he Strong form : /hi:/Weak forms : /hɪ/,/ɪ/Eg: He was a lawyer. /hi: wɒz ə lɔɪə/him Strong form : /hɪm/Weak form : /ɪm/Eg: She gave him a pen. /ʃi: geɪv hɪm ə pen/his Strong form : /hɪz/Weak forms : /ɪz/,/ɪ/Eg: it is his bag. /ɪt ɪz hɪz bæg/her Strong form : /hɜ:/Weak form : /hə/,/ə/Eg: It is her toy. /ɪt ɪz hə tɔɪ/them Strong form : /ðem/Weak form : /ðəm/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 54 their Strong form : /ðeə/Weak form : /ðə/Eg: I like their performance. /aɪ laɪk ðeə pəfɔ:məns/Read the following sentences. Make sure you use the weak forms of articles, prepositions and conjunctions. 1. 'Shut the ‘door. 2. 'Have 'rice and 'curry. 3. 'Take the 'last 'bus. 4. 'Eat an 'apple. 5. 'Better 'late than 'never. 6. 'Come and 'see me in the 'evening. 7. 'See you at 'lunch. 8. 'What a 'lovely dress! 9. 'I can 'wait. 10. 'That’s very 'nice of you. 11. 'Thank you for 'coming 12. 'Here’s a 'letter from the 'office. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 55 Unit– 11 CONTRACTED FORMS In English, there are many words used in their contracted forms. These are mostly auxiliary verbs with the contracted form of not. Some of them are given below with their phonemic transcription. Full Form Contracted Form Pronunciation is not isn’t /ɪznt/are not aren’t /ɑ:nt/was not wasn’t /wɒznt/were not weren’t /wɜ:nt/has not hasn’t /h æznt/have not haven’t /hævnt/had not hadn’t /hædnt/do not don’t /dəʊnt/does not doesn’t /dʌznt/did not didn’t /dɪdnt/will not won’t /wəʊnt/would not wouldn’t /wʊdnt/shall not shall n’t /ʃɑ:nt/should not shouldn’t /ʃʊdnt/can not can’t /kɑ:nt/could not couldn’t /kʊdnt/may not mayn’t /meɪnt/might not mightn’t /maɪtnt/must not mustn’t /mʌsnt/ought not oughtn’t /ɔ:tnt/dare not daren’t /deəɪnt/need not needn’t /ni:dnt/I am I’m /aɪm/I will I’ll /aɪl/we are we’re /wɪə/we will we’ll /wi:l/you are you’re /jɔ:/,/jʊə/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 56 you will you’ll /ju:l/you would you’d /ju:d/you have you’ve /ju:v/he is he’s /hi:z/he has he’s /hi:z/he will he’ll /hi:l/she is she’s /ʃi:z/she has she’s /ʃi:z/she will she’ll /ʃi:l/it is it’s /ɪts/it will it’ll /ɪtl/they are they’re /ðeə/they will they’ll /ðeɪl/they have they’ve /ðeɪv/Exercise – 1 Read the following sentences. 1. I’ve never met him. 2. They’ll never help us. 3. You’re too late. 4. She’s in the kitchen. 5. I couldn’t go to palakkad. 6. I’m amazed. 7. We’ve seen that film. 8. You’re not allowed to leave the office now. 9. It’s never too late! 10. I’ll let you know. Exercise – 2 Read the following sentences. 1. Don’t talk. 2. That’s very strange. 3. You needn’t go there. 4. I didn’t met him. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 57 5. They haven’t written yet. 6. I’m not happy. 7. He’s leaving soon. 8. They’re away on holiday. 9. She’s been ill for some time. 10. There’s nothing I can do. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 58 Unit – 12 SENTENCE STRESS A sentence is a group of words that expresses an idea or thought which makes complete sense. Not all the words in a sentence are uttered in the same way; some words are stressed and some are not stressed. Where word stress is the accent on one syllable in a word, sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence. There are two types of words: content words and structure words. Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense and they are stressed. Structure words are small, simple, not very important words that make the sentence grammatically correct and they are unstressed. Content words include main verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. Structure words include pronouns, prepositions, articles and auxiliary verbs. Some sentences are given below with the stress marked. As mentioned earlier, stress is marked with a vertical bar (1) above and before the syllable that is stress. As mentioned earlier, stress is marked with a vertical bar (1) above and before the syllable that is stressed. 7. 'Keep 'quiet! 8. 'Don’t 'talk 'loudly! 9. 'Is she 'sad or 'mad? 10. 'What’s the 'name of the 'girl on your 'left? 11. 'Who’s 'turned 'off the 'fan? 12. 'Go and 'get me a 'glass of 'water 'quickly! The words stressed in the sentences given above are nouns (name, glass, water, fan), verbs (keep, talk, get), adjectives (quiet, sad), adverbs (loudly, quickly), and two-part verbs (turn off). They are the content words in the sentences and so they are stressed. The words that are not stressed are pronouns (your, me, she), prepositions (on, of ), conjunctions (or, and), articles (the, a), be-verbs(is),and auxiliary verbs (has). They are purely ‘grammatical’ words and so they are not stressed. Read the following sentences. 1. 'Do it 'quickly. 2. 'What have I 'done? 3. My 'uncle has 'bought a 'new 'car. 4. That is not the 'man you are 'looking 'for. 5. She would 'like to 'come and 'see you at 'home. 6. They are 'going on a 'long 'journey. 7. They 'offered him a 'very 'good 'job. 8. Would you 'like to 'come 'back tomorrow? 9. 'Shut the 'door. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 59 10. 'What a 'lovely 'dress! 11. 'Thank you for 'coming. 12. 'Eat an 'apple. Exercise – 1 Mark the words to be stressed in the following sentences. 1. I want to become an engineer. 2. Phonetics is a fascinating subject. 3. Chewing tobacco is injurious to health. 4. Necessity is the mother of invention. 5. What a fine piece of cloth! 6. We had a wonderful time. 7. The tourist had a fearful experience . 8. The comet appears once a year. 9. Here is a letter from the office. 10. She told me that she was busy. Exercise – 2 Mark the words to be stressed in the following sentences. 1. See you at lunch. 2. Please wait for me. 3. I have nothing to tell you. 4. She had left early. 5. Where does he live? 6. I’ll be there in a moment. 7. Call me any time you like. 8. Have another cup of tea. 9. Please turn off the TV. 10. I will let you know. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 60 Unit– 13 INTONATION When we hear someone speak, we realize that he/she doesn’t always speak on the same note. We hear constant variations in the level at which his voice is pitched. That is to say, sometimes the pitch rises and sometimes it falls. When the pitch of the voice falls we call it the falling tone. When the pitch of the voice rises we call it the rising tone. The falling tone is marked with a downward arrow ( ) before the syllable on which the pitch of the voice falls, and the rising tone is marked with an upward arrow ( ) before the syllable on which the pitch of the voice rises. Functions of Intonation The falling Tone The falling tone is used: 1) In ordinary statements made without emotional implication. e.g : It’s 'two o clock. I 'have a 'lot of friends. It’s raining. 2. In wh – questions e.g. 'who’s crying 'When are we leaving? 'What’s the hurry? 3. In commands. e.g. 'Do as I say. 'Open your books. 'Get me some water. 4. In exclamations. e.g. 'What a pleasant surprise! 'How beautiful! How wonderful! The Rising Tone The rising tone is used: 1) In yes/no questions e.g. Are you happy? 'Have you 'read the book? 'Can you sing? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 61 2) In polite requests. e.g. 'Will you 'help me? 'Please sit down. 'Would you 'open the window? 3) In questions showing concern, apologies, etc. e.g. 'How’s your mother? 'Why are you crying? 'What is your problem? Read the following sentences 1. Who’s shouting? 2. The 'girls have left. 3. The 'box was empty. 4. 'Report im mediately. 5. 'When are they coming? 6. 'When did they leave. 7. 'What a tragedy! 8. He had gone. 9. I have done it. 10. 'Which of these is your book? Read the following sentences 1. 'Are they coming? 2. 'Is he studying? 3. 'Please let me know. 4. 'Don’t be angry with me. 5. 'Everything’s going to be fine. 6. 'Shall we start now? 7. 'Is father at home. 8. 'Can you do it? 9. 'Is today Thursday? 10. 'Have you seen the film? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 62 ANSWERS UNIT – 2 Exercise – 1 1. /i:/2. /e/3. /æ/4. /ɑ:/5. /i:/6. /i:/7. /ɑ:/8. /u:/9. /æ/10. /ɪ/11. /ə/, /ʌ/12. /ʊ/13. /ɔ:/14. /ɜ:/15. /i:/Exercise – 2 1. /ʌ/2. /e/3. /u:/4. /ɜ:/5. /ɒ/6. /ɪ/7. /ɪ/8. /ɪ/9. /ɜ:/10. /ɜ:/11. /i:/12. /ʌ/13. /e/14. /æ/15. /i:/UNIT – 3 Exercise – 1 1. /aɪ/2. /aɪ/3. /ɔɪ/4. /aɪ/5. /əʊ /6. /eɪ/7. /əʊ/8. /aʊ/9. /eə/10. /eɪ/11. /əʊ/12. /eə/13. /eɪ/14. /aɪ/15. /eə/Exercise – 2 1. /aɪ/2. /aʊ/3. /aʊ/4. /aʊ/5. /aʊ/6. /ɪə/7. /ɪə/8. /əʊ/9. /əʊ/10. /əʊ/11. /ɪə/12. /eɪ/13. /aʊ/14. /aɪ/15. /ɔɪ/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 63 UNIT – 4 Exercise – 1 1. /aɪə/2. /aʊə/3. /aɪə/4. /əʊə/5. /aʊə/UNIT -5 Exercise – 1 1. /p/2. /t∫/3. /dʒ/4. /k/5. /s/6. /r/7. /l/8. /n/9. /h/10. /b/11. /t/12. /g/13. /θ/14. /m/15. /w/Exercise – 2 1. /k/2. /d/3. /n/4. /ʃ/5. /dʒ/6. /ŋ/7. /θ/8. /dʒ/9. /b/10. /l/11. /d/12. /l/13. /m/14. /t∫/15. /l/UNIT -6 Exercise – 1 1. sel-fɪʃ 2. tel-ɪ-fəʊn 3. ɪk-spænd 4. rɪ -pen-tənt 5. ræʃ-ən-æl-ə-tɪ 6. əd-vɑ:ns-mənt 7. ə -pɔɪnt-mənt 8. səb-trækt 9. sep-tem-bə 10. fɪ -lɪs-ɪ-teɪt 11. mɪd-pɔɪnt 12. ɪn-vɪz-ə -bɪl-ə-tɪ 13. bju:-tɪ-fəɪ 14. pə-sweɪ-sɪv 15. mɪs-bɪ-li:f Exercise – 2 1. ɪn-tə-lɒk 2. sæt-ɪs-fæk-ʃən 3. ɪm-plɔɪ-mənt 4. ɪn-dʌs-trɪ-əl 5. əʊ -və-prɪnt 6. ɪk-stɪŋ-gwɪʃ 7. dɪ-li:t 8. krɪ-eɪ-tɪv 9. kə-mju:-nɪ-keɪ-ʃən 10. di:-mɑ:-keɪt 11. dem-ən-streɪt 12. fæʃ-ən-ə-bəl 13. ɪm-pɒs-ə-bəl 14. ɪn-strʌk-tɪv 15. ɒk-sɪ-dʒən School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 64 UNIT – 7 Exercise – 1 1. /pɪ'kju:lɪə/2. /ɪ 'rædɪkeɪt/3. /ɪntrə'dʌkʃən/4. /bɪ'treɪ/5. /edʒʊ'keɪʃən/6. /sætɪs'fæktərɪ/7. /fʌndə'mentəl/8. /ɪksperɪ'mentəl/9. /ə'reɪndʒmənt/10. /kɒnfɪ'denʃəl/11. /kəm'pʌlsərɪ/12. /kəm'pærətɪv/13. /ɪ'senʃəl/14. /rɪ 'spektfəl/15. /'ædvɜ:b/Exercise – 2 1. /ʌn'beərəbl/2. /dʒen'əreɪt/3. /dɪ'æktɪv/4. /'fæsɪneɪtiŋ /5. /'glæmərəs/6. /mə'dʒɒrətɪ/7. /ɒpə'tju:nətɪ/8. /ədmɪnɪ'streɪʃən /9. /ɪmpəl'aɪt/10. /'hɑ:tləs/11. /'fiŋgəprɪnt/12. /sɪg'nɪfɪkənt/13. /'staɪpend/14. /'testɪfaɪ/15. /ju:nɪ'fɔ:mətɪ/UNIT – 8 Exercise – 1 1. 'postman 2. 'lifeboat 3. 'schoolbag 4. 'pick pocket 5. 'goldsmith 6. 'air raid 7. 'team work 8. 'hairstyle 9. 'footprint 10. 'bookshelf 11. 'suitcase 12. 'sea shore 13. 'handkerchief 14. 'Prime minister 15. 'supermarket School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 65 Exercise – 2 1. after 'noon 2. middle 'aged 3. post 'graduate 4. under 'graduate 5. vice 'chancellor 6. home 'made 7. tooth 'brush 8. country 'house 9. north 'east 10. long 'lived UNIT – 9 Exercise – 1 1. 'contract (noun) con'tract (verb) 2. 'contrast (noun) con'trast (verb) 3. de'sert (noun) de'sert (verb) 4. 'perfect (noun) per'fect (verb) 5. 'permit (noun) per'mit (verb) 6. cer'tificate (noun) cer'tificate (verb) 7. 'compact (noun) com'pact (verb) 8. 'compound (noun) com'pound (verb) 9. 'convert (noun) con'vert (verb) 10. de'file (noun) de'file (verb) Exercise – 2 1. 'decrease (noun) de'crease (verb) 2. 'exploit (noun) ex'ploit (verb) 3. 'filtrate (noun) fil'trate (verb) 4. 'incarnate (adjective) 'incarnate(verb) 5. 'incline (noun) in'cline (verb) 6. 'inlay (noun) in'lay (verb) 7. 'inset (noun) in'set (verb) 8. 'insult (noun) in'sult (verb) 9. 'refit (noun) re'fit (verb) 10. 'retail (noun) re'tail (verb) UNIT – 12 Exercise – 1 1. I 'want to 'become an 'engineer. 2. 'Phonetics is a 'fascinating 'subject. 3. 'Chewing 'tobacco is 'injurious to 'health. 4. 'Necessity is the 'mother of 'invention. 5. 'What a 'fine 'piece of 'cloth! 6. We had a 'wonderful 'time. 7. The 'tourist had a 'fearful 'experience. 8. The'comet 'appears 'once a 'year. 9. Here is a 'letter from the 'office. 10. She 'told me that she was 'busy. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 66 Exercise – 2 1. 'See you at 'lunch. 2. 'Please 'wait for me. 3. I have 'nothing to 'tell you. 4. She had 'left 'early. 5. 'Where does he 'live? 6. I’ll be 'there in a 'moment. 7. 'Call me any 'time you 'like. 8. Have 'another 'cup of 'tea. 9. 'Please 'turn off the 'TV. 10. I will 'let you 'know. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 67 Module I B. LISTENING SKILLS UNIT-1 Introduction Communication involves the skills of listening and speaking. To become a good communicator, you need to develop both these skills. Your competence in listening contributes to the development of your speaking skills. Effective listening is arguably one of the most important skills to have today. Personal relations need good listening to face complicated issues together. Business people and employees need effective listening skills to solve complex problems quickly and stay competitive. Students and teachers need it to understand complex issues in their fields. Difference between listening and hearing When you are awake you hear various sounds and noises. For example, you hear birds chirping, dogs barking, the noise of vehicles pass by, etc. But it does not mean that you listen to all of them. You listen to only those sounds and noises that you are interested in. In a family get together, you hear so many persons talking, but you don’t listen to all of them. So hearing is an involuntary act that happens automatically. But listening is a voluntary activity and hence it is deliberate. Active listening All of you have come across people who are poor listeners and also some who are good listeners. If the person you are talking to is not listening to you properly or actively, you feel disappointed and naturally you do not want to continue your conversation. So it is important that you listen attentively to the person who is talking to you. Active listening is very essential as far as good conversation is concerned. As students, you need to develop this skill for your academic improvement. To be an active listener, you have to do several things. 1. Make eye contact The first thing that you have to do is to look into the eyes of the person who is talking to you. That means you have to make an eye contact with the speaker. We communicate more through our eyes than through spoken words. That is why we find it difficult to communicate with a person who is wearing dark glasses because we miss the communication through the eyes. 2. Use gestures and facial expressions Listening is not a passive activity. We communicate through gestures and facial expressions. Such non-verbal communication can be helpful to the speakers. A stony, expressionless face can be very discouraging to the speaker. So to be an active listener, you have to learn to communicate through gestures and facial expressions. If you are happy, smile. If you do not agree with what the other person says, signal your disappointment. 3. Show enthusiasm School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 68 The next thing you have to do is to show your enthusiasm for what the speaker is saying. Your posture communicates your enthusiasm. If you sit back relaxed, that means you are not interested in what the speaker is saying. But if you are an active listener, you should sit learning forward and not backward. 4. Use verbal signals Finally, you have to learn to respond to the speaker’s words by using certain verbal signals such as … mm …, ok, all right, perhaps, certainly, no, not at all, yes, very well, etc. Such responses from you help the speaker to understand whether you are listening to him/her. Barriers to listening Listening is not a passive activity during which the listener receives the thoughts and feelings of the speakers. While listening, several thoughts run through our mind. We think much faster than we listen. So it is quite likely that our listening is interrupted by several other thoughts. Nobody is born a poor listener. These are many factors that lead to poor listening. The barriers to listening are:-1. Lack of interest The first reason for poor listening could be that the listener is not interested in the subject or the topic being discussed. In such cases, the listener does not pay attention to what the speaker is saying and so the listener does not understand anything. If you are not interested in history, you may not listen attentively to lectures on history. 2. Partial listening Some listeners are partial listeners. They do not listen fully to the speaker’s words. So, it results in inadequate understanding of the subject. 3. Fast pace of delivery Some speakers speak very fast. In such cases, the listeners find it very difficult to follow what the speaker is saying and so it results in poor listening. So, the third factor is fast pace of delivery by the speaker. After listening to the speaker for a while, if you realize that you are not able to cope with the pace, you give up and stop listening. This can happen in classroom lectures. So it is very important that we speak at a pace at which the listener is comfortable. 4. Failure to ask for clarifications Your failure to ask for clarifications can cause inadequate comprehension. Some people remain quiet or pretend that they have understood everything even though they have not understood anything. They hesitate to make clarifications due to various reasons. Some are shy, so they do not have the chance to ask for a repetition because the speaker speaks continuously. Some do not ask questions or voice their doubts because they are unsure of their language competence. In all these cases, the listener stands to lose. So do not make the mistake of not seeking clarifications. 5. External noise School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 69 Sometimes, the physical environment around you can make listening difficult. If there is too much external noise, it can affect listening. If you are in the middle of a crowd or if there is loud music, you often find it very difficult to listen to what the speaker is saying. 6. Engaging in other activities You can be a poor listener if you are engaged in other activities. You would have seen people doing other things while talking on the phone. Some continue reading the mail on the computer, while some others continue watching television while talking to someone on the phone. In both the cases, their attention is divided between the two activities they are involved in. This hampers their listening. Listening to lectures When you listen to lectures in classrooms, you encounter various barriers. So you may find it difficult to pay attention to these lectures. These barriers are:-1. Physical discomfort Sometimes your classroom is too warm or too cold and you constantly worry about the discomfort. Such a state of physical discomfort will affect your listening. In such situations, what you have to do is to find a reason for listening to the speaker and then take your attention away from the factors that distract you. 2. Listener’s attitude Your attitude, positive or negative can heavily influence your listening. It is probable that you will listen to the lecturer more attentively if you like the person or agree with his/her views. On the other hand if you do not like the teacher, you may switch off. In such a situation, you need to understand the fact that your primary task is to understand his or her ideas and arguments and not focus on the individual. 3. Tendency to read speaker’s mind A third barrier is the tendency on the part of the listener to read the speaker’s mind. If you probe further into the speaker’s intentions, it will hamper your listening. So, to listen properly, you must learn to stay focused on the message. 4. Listener’s biases and prejudices Sometimes your biases and prejudices influence your listening. Our biases may be with respect to a person’s race, colour, sex, religion, etc. When you listen to a person against whom you have some prejudice, you may try to read more into his or her utterances and may sometimes lose track of what he or she is trying to say. 5. Tendency to show superiority Some people have the tendency to indulge in one-upmanship. They want to prove that their views and opinions are the most important and valuable. If you have such a tendency, you may not pay attention to the lecture. Answer the following questions. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 70 1. Hearing is a _______ activity. an involuntary 2. Listening is a _______ activity. voluntary Answer the following questions in two or three sentences each. 1. What is the difference between hearing and listening? 2. Mention three barriers to listening? 3. Mention three things that you need to do when you listen to lectures. Paragraph question. 1. The barriers to listening. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 71 Unit – 2 ACADEMIC LISTENING As a student, you need to follow lectures. It is very important for you to understand lectures fully so that you have the complete and accurate information. While listening to lectures, you may do any one of the following. i) take notes ii) fill a form, a table etc. iii) complete a visual, a chart, a table, etc. Listening and note taking When you listen to lectures, it is essential to take notes for future reference. These are some tips for note taking. The first important step in note taking is to identify the main ideas and their supporting details. The next step is to express them in a short or in a condensed manner. The third step is to organize the main ideas and supporting details in a systematic way using the decimal numbering system. An example is given below. Money In small, primitive, societies nobody needed money because everybody worked together and shared things, but in bigger societies people specialize. For example, one person spends all his time making pots and another person spends all his time fishing. The fisherman needs pots and the potter needs fish, so they exchange or barter. However, this system can become very complicated if, for instance, the potter wants ten fish but the fisherman wants only one pot. For this reason people began to use money. They agreed to take a valuable object, such as a shell, a stone or a metal, in exchange for what they were selling. They could collect the objects and wait until they found something they really wanted to buy. Gold and silver was often used as money because they could be divided into very small quantities and were not damaged by water or air. Gold is especially valuable because there is not very much of it in the world and it is expensive to take it out of the ground where it is mixed with rock. THE ORIGIN OF MONEY 1. Life in small societies 1.1 People worked – Shared products 1.2 So need for money 2. Life in bigger societies 2.1 Each Labourer -a specialist School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 72 2.1.1 Fisherman occupied in fishing 2.1.2 Potter engaged in making pots 2.2 Diff. to effect exact change of goods 2.2.1 in terms of needs 2.2.2 in terms of value 2.3 Birth of money 2.3.1 Initially exchange of stone. shells/metal 2.3.2 Later switched over to gold and silver 188.8.131.52 could be divided into small qty 184.108.40.206 not damaged by air/water 2.3.3 Gold specially valued 220.127.116.11 because scarce 18.104.22.168 Expensive Now read the following passage and make notes. The word ‘Renaissance’ means ‘rebirth’. In European context, it stands for a transitional movement between 1461 and 1600. It also stands for a humanistic revival of learning as well as knowledge of ancient Greece and Rome. It brought changes in every field of human activity, e.g. art, literature, philosophy, religion and politics as well as the beginning of modern science. It was enormously helped by the invention of printing. It has been the fashion of some historians to assert that the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 was the cause of the Renaissance. It is true that this incident indirectly helped the Renaissance Movement. The revival of classical learning began in Europe long before the fall of Constantinople. It is generally regarded as having started in Italy at the beginning of the 14th century. Petrarch is considered as the ‘Father of the Renaissance’. Listening and filling forms You may be required to fill a form when • you seek admission to an institution. • you register for an examination. • you apply for a bank account, credit card, etc. • you book a berth or a seat on a train or bus. Sometimes you place orders for goods on the phone. The assistant at the other end will ask you a few questions and gather information about your requirement and then fill a form on the computer. Listen to one such conversation and fill the boxes in the form below. A : Good morning, B 4 U Tele-Shopping Service. How may I help you? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 73 B : Good Morning. I’d like to place an order for two of your products. A : Very well, madam. I need to take down a few details first. Right. Can I have your name, madam? B : It’s Mrs. Rupali Malhotra. A : And your full street address? B : 24, Alpine Towers, B.D. Colony. A : Sorry, is it B.D. or D.D.? B : It’s B for Bombay and D for Delhi-B.D. Colony. A : All right. B : R.K.Puram, Secunderabad: 500015. A : And your telephone number, madam? B : It’s 23657890 A : Any mobile number? B : Sorry, I don’t have any. A : Can I have the product code, please? B : It’s SR 3344. A : You said you want to order two products, didn’t you? B : Yes. The second is DF 2345. A : Would it be one each, ma’m? B : No the second one – travel iron-two pieces, please. A : All right. The total bill including delivery charges will be Rs.3450 B : That’s fine. A : How would you pay, madam? By card, cheque or cash? B : I’ll pay by cheque. A : Any preference of delivery time? B : Yes, between 6 and 8 p.m. only. A : One last question. How did you come to know about our products? B : Through my friends. A : Thank you very much. These products will be sent to you within a fortnight. Thank you once again. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 74 B 4 U Tele-shopping Service Date Customer Executive Code ACR577 Customer’s Name Street Address Tele phone Numbers Home : Mobile : Product order Product Code Quantity Product Code Quantity Product Code Quantity Total amount payable Rs. Mode of payment Cheque Cash Card Delivery preference,if any. How did the customer come to know about the product Television Colleagues Advertisement Friends Listening and completing visuals When you listen to lectures, it is not always necessary to make notes. Sometimes it may be easy to organize the information in the form of a tree diagram, a table or a flow chart. The choice of the format for the visual will depend on the type of the text. The table below shows the match between text types and visual formats. Type of text Suitable visual Classificatory (any text that classifies things) Tree Diagram Descriptive (description of linear processes which take place in a sequential manner) Flow chart Descriptive (description of cyclic processes) Cyclic Chart Comparative (texts comparing two or more things) Table Statistical Information (information about progress/distribution) Diagrams (bar, line or pie) Read (listen to) a short talk on speech sounds. Speech sounds School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 75 Speech sounds are broadly divided into two categories, namely, vowels and consonants. Vowels are further divided into pure vowels and diphthongs. Consonants are described using a three-term label. The three terms refer to (a) the state of the glottis, (b) the place of articulation and (c) the manner of articulation. Depending upon the state of the glottis, they can be classified as voiceless or voiced. According to the place of articulation, they can be classified as, bilabial, labio-dental, dental, alveolar, post -alveolar, palato -alveolar, retroflex, palatal, velar, uvular or glottal. According to the manner of articulation they can be classified as, plosives, affricates, nasals, trills, taps, fricatives, laterals or approximants. Now see how the facts can be shown on a tree diagram. Speech sounds Vowels Consonants Pure vowels Diphthongs State of the glottis Voiceless voiced Manner of Articulation Place of articulation Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palato-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal Plosives Affricates Nasals Trills Taps Fricatives Laterals ApproximatesSchool of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 76 Exercise Read (listen to) a short talk on the different types of families and organize the information in the form of a tree diagram. There are many types of families. The smallest family is that of two persons such as a husband and wife, a parent and a child, or a brother and a sister. Such units are different kinds of nuclear families. Nuclear families usually consist of parents and their children. However, it can include adopted children too. When a person from such a family gets married, another nuclear family is formed. In practice, however no nuclear family is totally independent or isolated. In most societies the extended family is the norm. What is an extended family? The term extended family refers to any family that extends beyond the nuclear family. This type of family includes grandparents, aunts, uncles, or cousins. For example, when a married couple lives with the husband’s parents or grandparents and shares their household, the nuclear family becomes an extended family. Another type of family, quite common recently in the west and fast emerging in India, is the modified extended family. When couples marry, they live separately from their parents but still maintain close ties with their families. They call each other visit each other often and help each other whenever necessary. A fourth type that was common recently in India but is fast turning out to be rare is what is called the joint family. In such a structure, parents, children and grand children, uncles, aunts and cousins live under the same roof as a single family. The joint family system is not common in most parts of the world. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 77 Unit – 3 LISTENING TO TALKS AND DESCRIPTIONS In your academic or professional life you may have the opportunity to listen to talks and descriptions of facts. Your purpose in listening to talks or descriptions will vary. Sometimes you may listen to them to get an overall idea or for some specific information. In order to gain an adequate understanding of what is being talked about, you must have the ability to make inferences. Listening to make inferences When we read or listen, we arrive at certain conclusions on the basis of what we have read or listened to. Such reasonable guesses are called inferences. We infer meanings of words, the identity of a person, the situation, motives, purposes and intentions of people on the basis of the information given. 1. Read (listen to) this short text and answer the questions below. As Sheela was walking down the street, she realized that she was alone. The street was silent. The only noise that she could hear was that of the crickets. Suddenly, she heard some footsteps behind her. She knew someone was walking quietly behind her. She began to feel nervous. However, she gathered enough courage and continued walking. A little later, she could not hear the foot steps. She felt relieved. But, a few seconds later, she realized that her hunch was wrong. She thought she would turn back and have a look. Even before she could do so, she felt a hand on her neck. Her gold necklace broke and disappeared. In the next moment, she felt a tug at her arm. And her handbag too was gone. She could hear hurried footsteps going away from her. 1. Tick the right answer. The incident takes place at night/during the day. 2. Say Yes or No. Sheela thought that the person behind her would attack her. 3. Complete the sentence appropriately. Sheela felt relieved because she thought that----------4. Choose the right answer from those given below.What happened? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 78 i) Sheela stumbled and fell and her gold necklace and her bag fell on the ground. ii) The man who was following her broke her necklace, grabbed her bag and ran away. iii) The man who was following her hit her on her head and then ran away. 2. Read (listen to) the following passage and answer the questions below. I couldn’t sleep that night. A vague feeling of impending misfortune affected me. My sister and I were twins and you know how subtle the links are between such people. It was a wild night. Suddenly, there burst forth the wild scream of a terrified woman. I knew that it was my sister’s voice. I rushed into the corridor. By the light of the corridor lamp, I saw my sister at the door of her room, her face pale with terror, and her hands groping for help, and her whole figure swaying unsteadily. I ran to her and threw my arms around her, but her knees gave way and she fell to the ground. 1. The author couldn’t sleep because a) The night was wild. b) She apprehended some trouble. c) She knew that some calamity would behalf her. d) She felt uneasy. 2. She rushed into the corridor because a) She heard a terrifying cry. b) Her sister called her to the room. c) She recognized the voice of the person who screamed. d) She dreamt that her sister needed her help. 3. She realized that her sister a) was in a state of excitement. b) needed support. c) was too weak to walk. d) was gripped with fear. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 79 Unit – 4 LISTENING TO ANNOUNCEMENTS You listen for different reasons. Keeping in mind the information you are seeking, you chose to listen to certain details and ignore the rest. So it is important that you need to develop the ability to listen selectively. When you listen to a particular news item that interests you, you may listen for all the details. While on certain occasions, you may listen for a specific information. When you stand at a railway station, bus station or an airport, you listen to announcements. On such occasions, you listen for specific information. You want to know when a train, or a bus or an aeroplane is to arrive or to leave. For that, you should become familiar with the following terms often heard in the announcements at railway stations, bus stations and airports. Scheduled time : The time as per the timetable or schedule Expected arrival time : The time when a train or flight is expected to arrive Estimated departure time : The time when a flight or train is estimated to leave On schedule : At the scheduled time (no delay) All trains, buses and flights have a particular number. Information about trains is usually given in the following manner. Number Starting point-Destination Name 7029 Hyderabad-Thiruvananthapuram Sabari Express Unlike trains, flights do not have a name. When a flight is announced, only the flight number, the starting point and the destination are given. The numbers are preceded by a letter code that indicates the name of the airline. Example School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 80 Airline Flight Number From To IC 671 Mumbai Chennai S2 307 Hyderabad Bangalore Now listen to the following announcements and find out the following details: 1) Name of the train 2) Train number 3) Time of arrival 4) Platform number 5) Time of departure. 1. Your attention, please. Train number 6049 Mumbai-Hyderabad Hussain Sagar Express is running late by 30 minutes. It is expected to arrive on platform number 4 at 12 hours and 30 minutes. 2. May I have your attention please? Train number 7029 Thiruvananthapuram-Jammu Tawi Express coming from Thiruvananthapuram will shortly arrive on platform number 6 instead of platform 4. We’re sorry for the inconvenience. 3. Your attention, please. Train number 6309 Ernakulam Patna Express is expected to arrive on platform number 3 at 6 hours and 40 minutes. Listen to the following announcements at a bus station and find out the following 1) Scheduled departure time 2) Arrival Platform 3) Expected departure time. 1. Your attention, please. The Bangalore – Pune Super Deluxe Express scheduled to leave at 1700 hours will shortly arrive on platform number 29. 2. Your attention, please. The Bangalore-Cochin Super Delux Express scheduled to leave at 1715 house will shortly arrive on platform number 15. Listen to the following announcements heard at the Srinagar airport. Your attention, please. Jet Airways flight 9W431 to Delhi via Jammu is now ready for boarding. All passengers are requested to proceed to gate number 1 for boarding. Calling the attention of passengers flying to Delhi. Jet Airways flight 9W467 to Delhi is on schedule and is expected to depart at 1330 hours, i.e., 1.30 p.m. Your attention please. Air Deccan’s flight DN 214 from Delhi to Srinagar has just arrived. Your attention, please. Indian Airlines flight IC245 from Jammu has just arrived. Indian Airlines regrets to announce a delay of 30 minutes of its flight IA320 to Delhi. This is due to the delayed arrival of the incoming flight from Delhi. It is now rescheduled to depart at 1400 hours. Now find out the status of the following from the above announcements. 1. 9W 467 Srinagar – Delhi Status : a) On time b) Delayed 2. IA 320 Srinagar – Delhi School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 81 Status : a) On time b) Delayed Reason for delay : ________ Letter codes used by the airlines in India IA Indian Airlines 9W Jet Airways S2 Air Sahara DN Deccan Airways IT Kingfisher SG Spice Jet GA Go Air 17 Paramount Airways School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 82 Unit – 5 LISTENING TO NEWS ON THE RADIO AND TELEVISION We listen to news on the radio or television to learn about events in different parts of the world. When we listen to a news bulletin, we do not listen to every news item for the full details. The manner in which we listen to a news bulletin is similar to the way in which we read a newspaper. News items are read selectively. So you may scan the newspaper or listen to the news bulletin only for that piece of information. Listening for specific information Read (listen to) the following news report on the radio and complete the notes and table below. Hundreds of people are feared to have been killed in a powerful earth quake that shook Afghanistan, eastern provinces of Pakistan and some part of Kashmir in India, early this morning. The epicenter of the quake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale lay at Kandahar, about 150 km south of Kabul in Afghanistan. At least 500 people are believed to have been buried alive in the rubble and another 600 left homeless in Afghanistan alone. In Kashmir, about 150 people are feared to have been killed in Rajouri and Poonch areas. This region, heavily covered in snow is inaccessible by road at present. Rescue and relief operations have been launched by the Army and the Air Force. Reports about damage to life and property from the affected areas in Pakistan are yet to arrive. Unconfirmed reports indicate that the quake has caused minimal damage in the regions in Pakistan. Earth Quake a) Countries affected : ______ b) Intensity : __________ Richter c) Epicentre : _________ d) Loss to life and property : __________ e) Areas affected in Kashmir : __________ f) Whether rescue operations have been started in Kashmir : Yes/No Country/State Number of dead Number of homeless School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 83 Kashmir Afghanistan Pakistan Listening for overall information If you are listening to a report of a discussion in the Parliament, you may not be interested in the specific details. But you might be interested to learn the final outcome. In such a case, you ignore the specific details and listen for the final outcome. Now listen to this short extract from a news bulletin and find out the answers to the questions below. In view of the rising prices of petrol and diesel in the global market, senior officials of the ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas held discussions with representatives from oil companies, this morning. After long discussions, the ministry seemed to be in favour of agreeing to the demands of the oil companies to raise the prices of petrol and diesel. However, it finally decided against it because of strong opposition from its coalition partners in the government. 1. Did the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas agree to the demand from oil companies for a hike in prices? Yes/No. 2. What was the reason for the decision? Read (listen to) the given four news items and identify which news item will be of interest to whom. Give your reasons. a) If you have been undervaluing your property because of property tax or for the purpose of selling it, watch out. It may no longer be possible to do so. The government is shortly planning to computerize the registration of every piece of property in the country. When you have to pay property tax or sell property the next time, you will have to go to the nearest Land Registrar’s office and provide your land registration number to the official. On feeding the number into the computer, all the details about the property will show up including what the property tax or selling price should be according to the market rates, making it impossible for anyone to undervalue their property. b) In a startling revelation made by two terrorist suspects held in Vijayawada this evening, it was discovered that plans were underway to blast the Siva temple in the outskirts of the city on the night of Sivarathri. It is reliably learnt that a group of terrorists have landed in the city and massive plans have been made to blast several places of worship in the next few days. The city has been put on red alert and security has been beefed up at important places of worship, among other places. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 84 c) Women have a reason to cheer up. The government is concerned about the low representation of women in all walks of life, be it in politics, government jobs or private-sector jobs. In an effort to increase the percentage of women in different sectors, it has been decided to ask all government and private sector organizations to ensure that there is a perfect balance between the percentage of women and men employed, as recommended by the S.N. Commission report. d) Have you ever thought of a time when a school student will be able to tell the teacher when he or she is ready to take a test in a particular subject and take it then? Sounds unbelievable, doesn’t it? But if the Haryana government has its way, the secondary school children in the state will soon be able to decide when they should take a test in a given subject. The government is trying to introduce this new system of evaluation based on reports that indicate differences between individual learners in their style and pace of learning. This is an effort to encourage individualized pace of learning. Tests will be computerized, thereby making it possible for every school to give a test to a learner at a time of his or her choice. a. __________ because ______________ b. __________ because ______________ c. __________ because ______________ d. __________ because ______________ School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 85 Unit – 6 LISTENING TO CASUAL CONSERVATIONS English is not only used for professional or academic purposes, but also in day-to-day interactions. English used in such situations is more chatty and informal. Short phrases or incomplete sentences are used in such communication. While listening to casual conversations, you should not only be able to understand the facts but also make inferences or guesses about the person or the situation. Now listen to the following conversation and write your answers in the table below. Reginald : Yes, Shalini. I’ve been looking at various career options. Call centre jobs are okay-good money, excellent environment, but very stressful, I hear. Shalini : That’s what I too have heard, Reginald. But I’ll take anything that comes my way. You know why? I must start earning to support family. Reginald : You can still make a sensible choice. I personally like being a journalist, particularly a print media journalist. Shalini : Isn’t it stressful to be a journalist? Long hours, sometimes without food. Mm... irregular eating hours. Regi, I can’t imagine living such a life. Reginald : Well, I would still enjoy it, Shalini. I like meeting people. Shalini : Mm… I’d prefer some kind of a desk work – sitting in the comfort of an office. That’s why I wouldn’t mind a call centre job. Reginald : All right, go ahead. It’s your choice. Name Career option and why Type of Personality Shalini Reginald School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 86 Listen to three people talk about their jobs. Identify their jobs and what each one dislikes about his or her job. a. A : Hi Neena! How are things? B : Not great. A : What’s the matter? B : Well, I’m sick of my job. A : What about it? B : I hate having to work through the night. A : Oh, right. B : I’m not used to working at night. What’s worse, when I come back from work, everyone else is ready to go for work. A : You get to sleep peacefully during the day, don’t you? B : I’ve always slept peacefully at night too. Actually, I have the job of having to answer telephone calls at work. A : Why don’t you quit and look for a day job? B : Quit? No way! Who’ll give me this kind of money? b. A : Hi, George! How have you been? B : Not too well. A : How come? What’s the matter? B : I’m beginning to hate my job. A : I thought you quite liked it. B : Well, in the beginning, yes. You know, I never get home before midnight. Just can’t leave the office until the last report is sent to the editor. A : You knew it before joining the job, didn’t you? B : Yeah, I did. What bugs me is that when all my friends are enjoying their evenings, I am sitting in the office and editing report after report. That’s very frustrating. A : All right, what do you want to do? B : I am seriously looking for a change. A : Really? How about joining my call centre? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 87 B : So that I can work through the night and go back home in the morning and sleep through the day. Come on, how can you be so cruel? c. A : Hi, Jesse! How are things? B : Grim. A : Why? What happened? B : It’s my job. A : What about your job? B : I’ve suddenly been put on the night shift. A : Oh, dear. That can be terrible. Hmm.. and the children? B : That’s exactly my problem now. A : This is… Eh… Since when? B : The shift started last Friday. A : And how are you managing now? B : Well, my mom has come down for a week. I must do something before she leaves. I was up the whole of last night. Too many emergency cases. A : Would it be any help if I spoke to your boss? B : Mm… Perhaps, yes. He might listen to you. A : I’ll give it a shot. B : Thanks so much Name Job What he or she dislikes about the job: Neena George Jesse School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 88 MODULE II SPEAKING SKILLS OBJECTIVES a) In this unit you will study more about the pronunciation of different words. b) Where to stress in different kinds of words c) Where to pause and also the difference between American and British English. d) This unit also explains about the interference of Mother Tongue in Speaking English. Unit-1 WORD STRESS AND RHYTHM You have already studied the several features of word stress. Now we will discuss more about word stress and its importance. Stress is a large topic which cannot be covered in its entirety here. However some features follow: What is Word Stress? When we utter a word of more than one syllable, we pronounce one of the syllables with more force than others. This is called word stress. Some words are given here. Try to pronounce them; stra1tegic communi1cation 1 motivate ab1sorb gram1matical globali1zation 1 background engi1neer ab1stention. 1. Now Do This Exercise. Mark the Stress having literature aristocrat stomach dozen appendix police civilization. You know what a prefix and a suffix is When prefixes like in-, un-, re-, etc. and suffixes like –ful, -less, -ness etc. are added there will be no change in stress. 2. Pronounce These Words: 1meaning 1meaningful 1meaningless ‘stand under1stand under’standing for1give for1givable unfor1givable School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 89 But when some suffixes such as –ion, -ian, -ial, -ious, -ity and –ic are added, we can see a shift in stress. In case of words with these suffixes the stress is on the syllable before the suffix 1educate edu1cation 1ego ego1istic See the stress in the words given below e1conomy eco1nomic 1operate ope1ration e1lectric elec1tricity 1office o1fficial 1music mu1sician STRESS IN COMPOUND WORDS Compound words are those in which two words are combined to produce a new combination of words with a different meaning. In compound words, the first part is always stressed. But when the first part is an adjective the second part is stressed. For eg:-1breakfast 1police station cold1blooded man1made bad-1tempered 1eyewitness fast1forward 1housetrained STRESS CHANGES IN PARTS OF SPEECH 1import (n) -im1port (v) 1conduct (n) -co1nduct (v) 1transfer (n) -trans1fer (v) 1record (n) -re1cord (v) 1object (n) -ob1ject (v) 1present (n) -pre1sent (v) When the same word is used as noun and a verb, the noun is usually stressed on the first syllable and verb on the second. 3. Now do the following exercises by keeping in mind the rules that we studied earlier. Mark the stress for the underlined words: a) I object to your bad conduct b) She exports medicines School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 90 c) The Sahara is a vast desert d) My Project was approved Personal pronouns like I, you, we, us, it, he, him etc are not normally stressed in a sentence. But in some situations they are stressed to make a difference in meaning. The following dialogue will make this clear. Student : 1Shall I 1enter the 1class, 1please Teacher: 1No, I 1want 1you to 1go a1way Here ‘you’ is a pronoun but it is stressed to show the teachers anger on the student. 4. Now Read This :-a) Girl : 1How is this 1pen ? Friend : 1This is 1my 1pen b) Husband: 1Let’s 1send our 1son to John’s party Wife : But 1John wants 1us to 1meet him at the 1party Listen to the following sentences a) I 1ask you to 1speak now b) I 1ask 1you to 1speak now c) I 1ask you to 1speak 1now Here the meaning of the sentence changes when different words are given special stress. Read these dialogues a) Wife : Where are we going? Husband : 1Delhi Wife : At 1night? Husband : 1No, in the afternoon b) Man : Your 1aunt is 1just seven1teen Woman : I 1said she’s 1seventy STRESS AND RHYTHM The English language has a certain rhythm. It is a stress-timed rhythm. This means that rhythm is brought about by the stressed and unstressed syllabus. In a sentence the words that carry School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 91 information are stressed, while purely grammatical words are not normally stressed The following sentences will make it clear. a) She ‘walked 1slowly for the 1school b) They are 1doing it 1nicely c) Was she 1sad or mad? d) He is 1short and 1very 1fat e) Why 1can’t you 1dance 1now? f) I 1don’t 1want to 1talk to her g) Who has 1turned 1off the 1radio? The words that are stressed are nouns (school) main verbs (walked, doing) adjectives (short), adverbs (very), negatives (can’t, don’t), question – words (why) and two parts verbs (turned off). The words that are not stressed are pronouns (they, she, he), preposition (for, to), conjunctions (and, or), articles (the, a) and auxiliary verbs (will, be, has) 5. Mark the words to be stressed in the following sentences. a) How is it possible? b) Can you show me your book? c) It is important to start as early as you can. d) Why are you silent? e) You can attend the concert Given below are two sentences: That’s 1very 1nice of you. It would have been 1better if you had 1told her. When we utter these two sentences we will notice that it took almost the same time to say both sentences. Why? It is because both the sentences have the same number of stressed syllables – two each. The unstressed syllables get mingled with the stressed ones. Thus it took almost the same time to say the stressed syllabus and unstressed syllabus in between them. * Please note that when two stressed syllables come close together, the speed of utterance is slow. When stressed syllables come at regular intervals, the utterance has a rhythm. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 92 Repeat these sentences loudly. You will note that the time interval between each stressed syllable is the same. a) 1Shut the 1door 1Shut the 1door well 1Shut the l1arge 1door with your 1hand 1Shut the 1large 1door with your 1right 1hand b) 1Ask him to 1write 1Ask him to 1write to me 1Ask him to 1write me a note 1Ask him to 1write me a 1brief 1note This is the difference between English and other languages. When we speak other languages we stress each and every syllable clearly. But in English some syllables are stressed and some unstressed. Read the following sentences aloud:-a) She 1cut her 1finger b) This is my 1Grand Father’s suitcase c) The Prime 1Minister is at the 1airport d) Watch the 1sunset on the seashore e) This is a second 1hand 1washing machine f) Don’t 1listen to his half-1baked ideas g) 1Wipe your eyes with a clean 1handkerchief School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 93 Unit – 2 WEAK FORMS AND STRONG FORMS Weak Forms A very important aspect of the dynamics of English pronunciation is that many very common words have not only a ‘strong’ and ‘full’ pronunciation but also one or more weak forms which are used when the word occurs in certain contexts. Do you know which type of words have Weak Forms? Words which have weak forms are, for the most part, function words such as conjunctions (but, and), articles (a, the), pronouns (she, he, her), prepositions (for, to) and some auxiliary and modal verbs (do, must). When we speak these grammatical words they are not normally stressed. So we use their weak forms. Earlier you have studied the weak forms of some classes of words. Now read these sentences and phrases. Bread and butter -/bredənbʌtə/I will wait -/aɪlweɪt/Here is a letter -/hɪərɪzəletə/She was busy -/ʃɪwəzbɪzɪ/From the office -/frəmðɪDfɪs/Told me that -/təulmɪðət/At the main gate -/atðəmeɪngeɪt/1. Can you re-write the following phrases in normal spelling ? a) /sʌməvðəm/c) /hi:zleɪzɪ/b)/bəektəw3:k/d) /nɒtətɔ:l/STRONG FORMS OF NORMALLY ‘WEAK’ WORDS Read these brief dialogues:-A: Are you coming? B: Yes, I 1am A: Did you post the letter? B: Yes, I 1did A: He won’t help me? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 94 B: Of course, he 1will Auxiliaries are not normally stressed. So we use their weak forms. But have you noticed the following in the above dialogue? When they come at the end of sentences their strong forms are used. 1 Auxiliaries are stressed for emphasis 2 Negative auxiliaries are stressed too in the above case 3 Prepositions are not normally stressed. But when they come at the end of sentences are stressed. Now keep in mind the following table:-Auxiliary Normal Weak Forms Normal Strong Forms am, is, are /em/or/m/, /s/or/z/,/ə//əem/, /ɪz/, /a:/was, were /wəz/or/wz/,/wə//wɒz/,/wʒ:/will, would /ɪ/, /d/or/əd//wɪl/, /wʊd/do, does, did /dʊ/or/də/, /dəz/,/dɪd//du:/,/dʌz/, /dɪd/have, has /həv/or/əv/,/həz/or/əz/or/s//hxv/,/hxz/Had /həd/,/əd/,/d//həed/S School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 95 Unit – 3 SLOW AND STEADY PAUSES AND SENSE – GROUPS Pauses at the right places are needed for the understanding of a sentence. Otherwise it won’t be intelligible. See the following sentence: Hereisthechildwhocreatedthewholetrouble Have you understood anything? Here is the child/who created the whole trouble The speaker paused after a group of words and then spoke another group of words. (1) Some exercises are given below. Put a slash (/) at the spot in the sentence where it needs pause. a) Couldyoutellmewhenicanmeetyouatyourcityoffice Ans: Could you tell me /when I can meet you /at your city office ? b) Whileyouweresleepingtheworldwaschangingwithoutyourealizingit c) Assoonasyoucanpleasereturnthemoneyyouveborrowedfromme d) Asfarasiamconcerneditdoesntmatterwhetheryouwinorlosethelection e) Afewdaysaftertheaccidenthowevershewentbacktowork A speaker normally pauses at the end of a group of words. Such groups of words are called by two names – Sense groups and pause groups.We pause either at the end of groups of words which make some sense or when we run out of breath. This is applicable not only to sentences but to paragraphs also. An example is given:-Again I turned to the blackboard /…/and lifted my hand to write /…/then I was blank and void within /…/I tried frantically to collect my senses /…/but I could remember nothing /…/A sense of the girls and boys behind me /…/filled me to the exclusion of everything /.../Read out loud with the correct pauses Otters are found in all continents except Antartica. Of the twelve different species, the biggest and the rarest is the giant Brazilian otter. It grows to a length of 1.8 meters and can weigh 30 kilos. Once paired, the male and the female remain together. The young ones also tend to stay with the parents and the whole family will hunt as a group. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 96 Unit– 4 RISING AND FALLING TONES We have already said that the pitch of the voice goes on changing as we speak. The question now is how does a listener perceive one syllable (tonic syllable) as more prominent than all the others in an utterance? He does so because of the change in the pitch direction that begins on the nucleus. This change in pitch direction can be a movement either from high to low (which is called the ‘FALLING TONE’) or from low to high (which is called the ‘RISING TONE’) Now you might ask: why are tones used? What function do they perform in speech? Tones have a grammatical function as they relate to sentence types. For eg:-the falling tone is associated with statements, the rising tone with questions requiring an answer in ‘Yes or No’ In addition to this, tones are also an expression of the attitude of the speaker and thus have an attitudinal function. For eg:-the falling tone denotes an expression of assertiveness on the part of the speaker. The rising tone on the other hand expresses tentativeness and a certain degree of uncertainty. We shall deal with the functions later. Let us, to begin with; listen to the difference between these two basic tones, as used in the following sentences:-First the Falling Tone:-a) He’s contexts tonight b) Buy her a new one c) They’ve completed their assignment d) The flute recital was indeed enchanting Now, the Rising Tone:-a) Are you going for a walk b) Please lend me your newspaper c) Can I give you a lift d) Do you think he’ll agree School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 97 Having learnt to distinguish between the falling and the rising tones, we shall now study each tone separately. The attitude conveyed by each tone will, however, be mentioned very briefly. First we shall take up the Falling Tone. The Falling Tone The contexts where falling tone is used are:-a) Statements Falling Tone can be used in most normal statements. The tone suggests that you’ve sure about what you’re saying. 1. You’re right 2. She’s dancing 3. She’s leaving tomorrow b) Wh-questions Wh-questions are normally spoken in the falling tone. But it does not sound very friendly. If you want it to sound friendly, you can use the rising tone. 4. What have you done with the ink? 5. How many oranges have you bought? 6. Where do you live? Why are you crying? c) Commands Commands are usually spoken in falling tone. Those are strong commands and they sound rude and impolite. But if you want to make your commands polite and more like pleading, you can use rising tone. 7. Shut the windows 8. Be quiet 9. Turn off the music 10. Do it d) Apologies and Compliments Expressions of gratitude, apologizing, complimenting are routinely said in the falling tone. 1) Thank you 2) I’m sorry 3) Its so nice School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 98 It will sound more genuine if you use rising tone. The listener will feel that you really mean what you say. Eg:-Thank you The Rising Tone The cases where the rising tone is used are:-a) Yes or No Questions The rising tone can be used in questions that require an answer in ‘yes’ or ‘no’ 1) Has he come? 2) Are you going to the party? 3) Are we late? 4) Can I leave now? 5) Is dinner ready? b) Polite Request See these sentences:-Could you lend me your newspaper? Here rising tone is used for a polite request in the form of a question. Please, pour me some tea Here it’s used for a polite request c) Invitation Do come in and sit down In the above sentence rising tone is used for an encouraging invitation And it’s also used for invitations in the form of questions as given below. Eg:-Would you like to come for dinner tonight? d) Question Tags Statements can be turned to questions by adding question tags 6) We are going to his house, aren’t we? 7) Your son went last night, didn’t he? We can use the falling tone in the question tags. When we think what we’re saying is true and we need only the listener to agree with us. But rising tone is used when you’re not sure what you’re saying is true. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 99 e) Exclamations In exclamations we normally use falling tone. But to express strong feelings you can use rising tones. Look at the following dialogue:-A: How was your trip ? B: Itsfabulous! A: What happened? B: Its awful ! A: This curry tastes better without salt. B: Nonsense A: Did you like the food? B: The food was Superb ! f) Introductory Clauses and Phrases Rising tone is used for the introductory part and a falling tone for the main clause. 8) On the top of the house /stood a monkey 9) After this concert /I will go home g) Quoting what people said There are two parts here – one quoting the words of the speaker and the other a reporting phrase. The reporting phrase is weakly stressed. Come here! she said angrily Who’s that slim girl? she asked in a whisper. Mark the correct intonation a) How many bulbs did you buy? b) What a terrible thing to happen c) I can’t solve this sum d) Would you like to have some juice? e) He’s arriving tonight f) Do you think he’ll agree? g) Are you going for a walk? h) She is busy doing her home work i) The flute recital was indeed enchanting School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 100 Unit – 5 FLUENCY AND PACE OF DELIVERY Speech to be termed good must be easily understood. This is possible only if the speaker is neither too fast nor too slow in his speech. An unduly fast speaker is not intelligible to his listeners, who are likely to miss some important links in the sequence, thus resulting in a possible breakdown of communication. It may also lead to confusion in the minds of the listeners, who may as the speech proceeds, lose interest in it. An unduly slow speaker can, on the other hand, make the speech boring. Between the two extremes mentioned in the above paragraph, speed can vary a little bit, depending on various factors. To begin with, speed should be adjusted according to the type of the audience. If the audience consists of people attending a lecture on a technical subject in which they are properly qualified, then one can speak a little /faster. But, on the other hand, if they have little or no knowledge of the subject, then the speaker must speak slowly. Sometimes the level of intricacy of the subject determines the speed. One cannot afford to be fast if the topic in hand is quite difficult to understand. In short, a speaker should not appear to be in a hurry or a little too lazy. He must have the ability to judge for himself the speed at which he should speak on a particular occasion. The important thing is that he should appear natural and should be able to communicate effectively. You may have already heard this advertisement……….. Mutual Funds and Securities investments are subject to market risks and there can be no assurance or guarantee that the scheme’s objectives will be achieved…… Where you able to understand what the speaker was saying? Not much….. He was speaking too fast – just fulfilling the legal requirements. He wanted to do it using as little TV time as possible. The fast pace of delivery suited his purpose. LOUDNESS When speaking to a large audience, a speaker should be reasonably loud so that he is audible even to the people farthest from him. The desired level of loudness thus depends on the size of the audience. A good speaker must strike a balance between the two extremes. Many speakers have the tendency to lower the volume towards the end of each utterance to such an extent that the last part of it becomes inaudible. This must not be done. PAUSING It has already been said that a speaker has to pause not only between two consecutive sentences but also at convenient points within a long sentence. It is generally necessary to pause between clauses and sometimes even at the end of certain phrases. In relation to punctuation, School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 101 whereas a full stop, colon, semi-colon, a mark of interrogation or exclamation, a dash are all sure signs of a pause, a comma in a sentence may only be potential signal for pausing. CLEAR ARTICULATION Clear and deliberate articulation of individual sounds and their sequences is another important attribute of good speech. The first aim of any speaker is that he should be intelligible to his listeners; and this aim is defeated if the articulation is not clear. This is clearly borne out by the fact that a long word in which all sounds are deliberately and clearly articulated, can be comprehended even if certain sounds in it have not been correctly produced. On the other hand, the same word becomes more difficult to comprehend if a sound or a syllable in it has been swallowed, even when the rest of the word is correctly pronounced. FORMAL SPEECH Read this excerpt from a speech: Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal… This famous speech is Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg speech. Lincoln was addressing a very large crowd on a formal occasion. It is an example of a grand style of speaking called oratory. In formal speech the speaker uses high pitch. He also has to use the rising tone more often than the falling tone. Both these features help in carrying his voice to a large audience. The speaker has to speak slowly, at a steady pace and stress wherever necessary to impart the real effect. INFORMAL SPEECH Informal speech is more relaxed and fluent. It is entirely different from formal speeches. In informal speech the speaker does not hesitate. We pause at the end of sense-groups in long sentences, but there are no gaps in the middle of a sense-group. Informal speeches are used by us in our day to day life. Exercise Read the following sentence and repeat it. The sentence has to be spoken in meaningful groups – adding one group to the earlier ones at a time. Last month the same day, the boys went for the competition, participated in various events, and came back with trophies. Comment Clauses They are clauses that express the speaker’s personal views on what is being said. They are said faster than the rest of the sentences and the voice is lowered while saying them. Eg:-a) I’m not supposed to go there, as you know. b) He is, to put it bluntly, a bad actor and a worse singer. c) Put bluntly, he is not suited for a teaching career. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 102 d) I believe, he is a stupid fellow. Read the following passage. Recall the features of formal speaking and try it. “A certain king was once preparing to make war against an enemy, but no one knew who this enemy was. Very naturally, all his subjects wondered, but non of them dared to ask.” Unit– 6 DEALING WITH PROBLEM SOUNDS There are certain pairs of sounds in English which are difficult to produce and there are pairs of sounds which are difficult to discriminate. In this unit, we’ll discuss a few such words. 1) Difficulty with /s/and /z/Say s-s-s-s-s for a few seconds. How did you make the sound? You put the tip of your tongue near the tooth ridge…You pushed air through the gap between them. Now say z-z-z-z-z for a few seconds. How did you make the sound? Exactly, like you made the /s/sound with just one difference. In making /s/, no voice came from the throat. Just a hiss. In making /z/, there was voice from the throat. A buzz! Now, try making /s/and /z/one after the other. S-s-s-s-z-z-z-z-s-s-s-z-z-z-z Distinguish between the following words Plays and place raising and racing Price and prize peace and peas Rays and race niece and knees Eyes and ice sip and zip Read the following sentences with correct pronunciation a) A rise in prices worries everybody b) Does zinc sink in water c) How does he lose all his races? d) Put a little ice on your eyes e) Don’t lose the loose screws. 2) Difficulty with /ʃ /and /ʒ /Say ʃ-ʃ-ʃ-ʃ for a few seconds. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 103 How did you make the sound? You put the tip of your tongue near the tooth ridge. You pushed air through the gap between them. Now make the sound /ʒ /. Say ʒ -ʒ -ʒ -ʒ for a few seconds. How did you make the sound? Exactly, like you made /ʒ /. With just one difference. In making /ʃ/, no voice came from the throat. In making /ʒ /there was voice from the throat. Now, try making /ʃ /and /ʒ /one after the other. Read the following sentences with correct pronunciation a) The usual meeting or a casual one? b) Pleasure or pressure? c) A missionary with a vision d) Fission or fusion? e) Casual fashion f) Running after a mirage! 3) Pronunciation of –s/-es and –‘s/-‘es endings Repeat these words:-Cats books maps caps roofs bats Cabs bags kids rings labs balls Watches oranges wishes boxes mirages prizes You will find that 1) –s/-es is pronounced /s/if the singular noun ends in voiceless sounds /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/and /θ/2) –s/-es is pronounced /z/if the singular noun ends in voiced sounds /b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /ð//m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /l/and all vowel sounds Read these sentences a) She starts late. But she runs fast. And she reaches first! b) The blind leads the blind c) The crowd surges forward and breaks the barriers d) The child breathes hard and sneezes violently e) He tames lions, but fears rats. Starts breaks leads laughs Leaps steals grabs sings All these words are verbs and they are in the simple present tense. Thus they end in the suffix – s/-es. Let’s transcribe the above words:-/sta:ts//breɪks//li:dz//la:fs/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 104 /li:ps//sti:ls//grxbz//sɪŋz/4. Pronunciation of –d /-ed endings Repeat these words Missed nabbed rested watched Solved crowded alarmed The past tense forms are formed by adding –d or –ed. And –d /-ed endings are pronounced /t/, some are pronounced /d/and others are pronounced /ɪd/1) –d/-ed is pronounced /t/if the base verb ends in voiceless (hard) sounds /p/, /k/, /tʃ/, /s/eg: /helpt/2) –d/-ed is pronounced /d/if the base verb ends in voiced (soft) sounds /b/, /g/, /v/, /dʒ/, /z/, /ð/, /m/, /n/, /l/and vowels sounds. eg: /rʌbd/, /fri:d/3) –d/-ed is pronounced /ɪd/if the base verb ends in /t/and /d/. eg: /kraudɪd/Read the following sentences a) The book was printed and published in Japan b) I don’t like your half-baked ides c) His students were thoroughly confused d) He realized his mistake too late (1) Transcribe the words after the hyphen : a) How do you wear your clothes – washed, starched and ironed? b) How do you eat your potatoes – boiled, mashed fried or baked c) What kind of roof does your house have – thatched or tiled? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 105 Unit – 7 AWARENESS OF DIFFERENT ACCENTS We can see a difference in pronunciation amongst speakers of English in different countries. As English is a global language it is a popular medium all over the world. So there are different varieties of English. Mother Tongue also influences a man while he is speaking English which is foreign to him. The variety of English that is spoken in various parts of India can be, grouped into ‘General Indian English’. Though the English spoken in different countries is not very different in grammar, it varies quite a bit in pronunciation. While watching television or listening to the radio, we come across a variety of pronunciations – British, American, Australian, Indian etc. It’s useful and necessary to understand these varieties. In this unit, we’ll discuss the two major varieties of pronunciation, British and American, and discuss a few major differences between them. English spoken in the different regions of Britain varies with one another. Among these, the variety that is spoken by the presenters of BBC, TV and Radio, the area around Oxford and Cambridge universities is considered as ‘Standard’ or ‘Received Pronunciation’ Certain sounds that is different in Britain and America a) British /a:/and American /æ/This is one of the most noticeable differences between British and American pronunciations. Where British English uses the /a:/sound, American English uses the /æ/sound. Some examples are given below Word British English American English ask /a:sk//æsk/bath /ba:θ//bæθ/castle /ka:sl//kæsl/dance /da:ns//dæns/fast /fa:st//fæst/b) British /ɒ/and American /a:/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 106 When British English uses the sound /ɒ/on the first syllable, American English uses the sound /a:/Some examples are given below Word British English American English a) Conduct -/kɒndʌkt//ka:ndʌkt/b) Confidence -/kɒnfɪdəns//ka:nfɪdəns/c) Doctor -/dɒktə//da:ktə/d) Politics -/pɒlɪtks//pa:lɪtɪks/c) British /ju:/and American /u:/In British English the word /prɒdju:z/is pronounced with a /j/sound before /u:/. But in American English it is said as /prɒdu:z/without the /j/sound before /u:/. Similarly British – nju:s (news); American – nu:s d) British /faɪtə/and American /faɪdər/In American English the letter /t/is often pronounced /d/when it comes between two vowel sounds. The word writer, said as /raɪtə/in British English, may sound like /raɪdər/in American pronunciation. 1. Transcribe the following words in American and British English: a) News b) Fast c) Basket d) Congress e) Rocket f) Passport g) Catchy h) Better i) Washing j) Student Stress can also be different in the same word for British and American English. For eg:-laboratory is pronounced as /ləˈbɒrətərɪ/in British English and /læbrəˈtɔ:rɪ/in American English. Do you know how the word advertisement is pronounced in both types of English? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 107 Unit– 8 INFLUENCE OF THE MOTHER TONGUE From our childhood onwards we are growing in the midst of our mother tongue. Our parents, relatives and others speak mother tongue and thus our basic structures of language will be patterned on the basis of mother tongue. We study English several years after we have been using our mother tongue. Naturally the speech habits formed in the mother tongue influence the way we speak English. This has resulted in several regional varieties of English depending on the speaker’s mother tongue. See the following dialogue:-Raju : He bit my dog, Shymu Shyamu: How! Did the dog bite him back? Is he insane! Raju: He bit with a long stick Shyamu: Oh! You mean beat……. As you can see that, in the above conversation there is a little confusion. Raju said bit, but he meant beat. This is most probably because in her mother tongue there is no /i:/sound and he is using the /I/sound in its place. The following points will help you be sensitive to others accents and correct the flaws in your own speech. a) Be aware of the fact that English is spoken with regional accents in different parts of the country and accept them. It is easy to make fun of the accent of a person from another region. But it is usually a case of people living in glass houses throwing stones at one another. b) When you listen to a regional variety of English, in most situations, you can guess from the context of the word the speaker is using. In rare cases, you may have to ask the speaker to clarify what she/he meant. c) In your own speech, you should look for the influence of your mother tongue. You can try to minimize it by conscious practice. Difficulties with Consonants Write the correct word in the brackets. The first one is done for you. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 108 (1) Exercise a) That’s a /paɪn /pair of shoes (fine) b) I need some /tɪn/milk (………) c) Here is the /dʒu:/(……….) d) Mix those chemicals with /sɪŋk/(……..) e) Have you seen my /ʃɪp/? (………) f) We ate our lunch and /den/we went out (………) g) I want to /tæŋk/you for your help (……….) After filling the above exercise complete the table given below. Identify where the speaker in the above sentences have gone wrong No Used Instead of And so Was heard as a b c d e f g /p//f//faɪn//paɪn/You would have noticed that in the examples above, instead of some of the consonant sounds in English, the speakers were using similar sounds available in their mother tongues. In most of our languages, words are spoken as they are written. But in English as you now, pronunciation does not closely follow spelling. This leads to several difficulties when we speak English. For eg:-a word like mutton is written with a double t. But there is only one /t/sound in pronunciation. Likewise/b^tə/and not /b^ttə/. So how is the word ‘filling’ pronounced? Thus we can conclude that consonant sounds are, generally speaking, not doubled in English while doubling is common in our mother tongue. (2) Do the following Exercise. The first one is done for you. a) Its made of rubber /rʌbə/School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 109 b) Why hasn’t she written yet? c) We should take immediate action d) That’s not funny e) That was a silly mistake Difficulties with Consonant Clusters If we divide a word into its constituent parts, we find that it is made up of two types of sounds: consonants and vowels. Every English syllable must have at least one vowel, though it may or may not have consonants. Look at the following examples Eye, I, ear. They have no consonants and only one vowel each. What is a consonant cluster? Consonant clusters are a group of consonants that exists before or after a vowel in a syllable. See the following sentence a) We reached the /sətɪʃen/on time. Here an /ə/sound comes in between the consonant cluster /st/As a result of the word /steɪʃən/is mispronounced as /səteɪʃən/(3) Some sentences are given below. Identify the word that is mispronounced a) Which /isku:l/do you go to ? (…….) b) I’m not interested in /sʌpts/and games (……..) c) We are from the same /səku:l/(……..) d) We should keep the highest /istændəd/(……..) e) I work in a /pəraɪvət/firm (…….) f) My grand father owns a /təræktər/(……..) 4. Difficulties with Vowels. Write the correct pronunciation in the brackets. a) This /be:d/is so hard! (……..) b) He had an open /hert/surgery (………) c) Please take your /sɪt/(……..) d) We /lɪv/for Japan tomorrow (………) School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 110 e) You have to /stedɪ/hard (……..) f) She was filled with /fi:r/(……..) g) Did you get a /lætə/from your uncle? (……..) ANSWERS UNIT – 1 1. 1Husband 1literature 1aristocrat 1stomach 1Dozen ap1pendix po1lice civili1zation 3. a) ob1ject 1bad conduct b) ex1ports c) 1desert d) 1project 5. a) 1How is it 1possible b) 1Can you 1show me your 1book? c) It is 1important to 1start as early as you 1can d) 1Why are you 1silent? e) You 1can 1attend the 1concert UNIT– 2 1. a) rice and curry b) some of them c) back to work d) an old man e) he is lazy f) not at all UNIT– 3 1. b) While you were sleeping /the world was changing without your realizing it. c) As soon as you can /please return the money you’ve borrowed from me d) As far as I am concerned /it doesn’t matter whether you win or lose the election. e) A few days after the accident /however /she went back to work UNIT– 4 School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 111 1. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) UNIT– 8 1. a) Fine b) thin c) zoo d) zinc e) sheep f) den g) thank 2. a) /rʌbə/b) /rɪtn/c) /ɪmi:dɪət/d) /fʌnɪ/e) /sɪlɪ/3. a) /sku:l/b) /spɔ:ts/c) /sku:l/d) /stxndəd/e) /praɪvət/f) /trxktər/4. a) /bed/b) /ha:t/c) /si:t/d) /li:v/e) /stʌdɪ/f) /fɪə/g) /letə/SELF-CHECK QUESTIONS 1. What is word stress and sentence stress? what are the different rules of word stress? Hints: stress-stress in prefixes-stress in suffixes-compound words-sentence stress-grammatical words and information carrying words in a sentence 2. Explain the different situations where falling tone and rising tone comes while speaking? Hints: tone-falling tone-rising tone-different situations and their examples 3. What factors should be borne in mind while speaking fluent English? Hints: speed-clear articulation-pause-loudness-with examples School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 112 MODULE III COMMUNICATION SKILLS OBJECTIVES At the end of this module you will be able to: e) Comprehend the meaning of communication and how it takes place f) Understand how to use English language in our daily life g) Understand what is group discussion UNIT-1 UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION What is communication? It is difficult to give a specific definition for communication because of its complex nature. However, an effort is made to define it to make its content meaningful. Communication is the exchange of information or ideas. It is the art or act of expressing a message in a way that allows others to understand. For communication to take place we need a sender, a message and an intended recipient. There is not need for a receiver to be present. Communication can be of different types -human, verbal, non-verbal, non-human, visual, oral, written etc. Characteristics of Communication:-Communication has several key characteristics. Some of them are given below:-i) The process of communication is continuous, ongoing and dynamic ii) Communication begins with the self iii) Communication is irreversible or it can’t be erased iv) Communication is reciprocal v) Communication is unrepeatable vi) Communication is transactional School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 113 vii) Interpersonal communication involves two individuals Communication takes places when the sender • has a message to be communicated • has a purpose to communicate the message Effective communication involves 1 Using appropriate voice and body language 2 Understanding the situation, and the people involved in it 3 Understanding the message being communicated 4 Responding appropriately See how communication happens in the situations given below. a) A man going to a travel agency to reserve a ticket Man: Hello, I want to have a ticket reserved for me from Trivandrum to Dubai. Travel agent: When do you want to go? Man: I want to go on the first of next month Travel agent: Have you been to Dubai before? Or, are you going there for the first time? Man: I’m going for the first time Travel agent: Give me all the necessary papers. We‘ll write to you when the ticket is ready. Man: Ok, thank you. b) After years Mohan meet his teacher in the street. Lets see how their conversation goes: Mohan: Good morning Sir, you may not remember me. My name is Mohan. I was your student Master: I remember. Usually I remember faces but forget names. What are you doing now? Mohan: I am a Medical Representative here Master: You used to play football well, didn’t you? Mohan: Yes, you remember it? Master: Yes, my boy. How does communication take place? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 114 1 In a face to face mode 2 In a spoken mode 3 In social, political situations Communication takes place in different situations 1 Formal 2 Semi-formal 3 Informal In these three types of communication the style of language used will be different. Some small dialogues are given below to assert the above statement. Formal communication An interview Applicant: Good Morning Sir, May I come in? Manager: Yes, come in…………. Your name, please. Applicant: I am John, Sir Manager: Ok…….. Introduce yourself. Semi-formal communication In a vegetable shop Customer: Please give me a kilogram of cabbages. What is the price? Shop keeper: The price is 20 per kilo Customer: Have you got beans? French beans Shop keeper: Yes, 22 for a kilo. Customer: Half a kilo will do Shop keeper: What else do you want sir? Customer: Nothing more. Pack this please. Informal communication Two friends meeting at a hotel Akash: Hello Bobby Bobby: Hai Akash. Why are you so late? Akash: I was very busy for the last two hours, Bobby School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 115 Bobby: Oh! Its Ok… what would you like to have? coffee or tea ? Akash: Coffee please Bobby: ok… Now, let’s discuss the difference between spoken communication and written communication. Even though in both cases an exchange of ideas, opinion, and facts takes place, there are certain differences between spoken communication and written communication. In spoken communication we get an immediate response from the audience unlike the written one. For spoken communication, one can use colloquial form of language, while for written communication a particular style of writing and grammatical rules must be observed. Facial expressions and bodily gestures can be used in spoken communication. They help the communication to happen easily, while one can communicate with others through words only in written communication. Given below is a letter and a conversation. Read these two exchanges and compare the spoken conversation with the written letter and list the differences between both forms of communication in terms of vocabulary, style, level of formality and grammar. Letter Abel Merry Weather Delta Communications Trivandrum – 1 Henry Stater Asst. Manager Insurance Com. Cochin – 2 17th October 2006 Ref: Insurance Policy No. 0079928178 Dear Mr. Henry, Many documents regarding my insurance policy no.0079928178, have been lost from me. The policy reaches its maturity this month itself. I request you to freeze my account bearing the number given above. The documents have been missing from 8th Jan, 2010. Please take immediate action, to stop forgery and misappropriation regarding policy. Yours sincerely Abel Merry Weather Conversation between two persons about loss of insurance policy papers……. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 116 Abel: Can you tell me what procedures I must follow to freeze my account Henry: Why do you want to freeze your account? Able: I lost all my documents regarding my insurance policy Henry: Ohh! When did you lose it? Abel: The documents have been missing from 8th Jan, 2010 onwards Henry: Ok, your decision is correct. Better you freeze your account. Otherwise there will be bitter consequences. Abel: I know. That’s why I need to freeze it, to avoid forgery and misappropriation regarding policy. Henry: Ok, I will help you Abel: Thank you Exercise – I Rewrite the following spoken dialogues in written form or vice versa. a) What’re the contact details? (Spoken) ……………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………….. b) Help me understand, what’s meant by ‘Design communications Management’? (Spoken) ………………………………………………………... …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………….. c) You need to consult a cardiologist if your mother is suffering from acute Cardiac pain (written)……………………………………………………………………………………. .. ………………………………………………………………………………………… … …………………………………………………………………………………….. Now, what are the essentials of effective communication? 1 A peaceful environment without disturbance 2 Correct usages, vocabulary and phrases 3 Better hearing capacity 4 Knowledge about what you are going to communicate Reasons for bad communication or gaps in communication 1 Cultural variations School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 117 2 Incorrect sentences, vocabulary or phrases 3 Inappropriate use of language 4 Inability to hear 5 Non-standard accents Exercise – 2 1. Pick the most appropriate response to the following two situations: a) You are studying for your examinations. Your neighbour is playing music at a high volume. i) Listen to music later ii) Could you please turn down the volume a little iii) Don’t play music now iv) I can’t study for my exams b) Your lecturer has given you an assignment. You have forgotten to bring your completed assignment sheets to college. i) I’ll give my assignment tomorrow ii) I can’t give you my assignment today. I don’t have it iii) I left behind my completed assignment at home. Could I submit it tomorrow? iv) I haven’t brought my assignment today. 2. What would you say in each of these situations? i) Your friend is on vacation in a different city. Ask her/him in an email to buy some souvenir for you. …………………………………………………………………………………………. ii) You are writing a letter to your employer, seeking leave for a few days next month. Give your reason …………………………………………………………………………………………. iii) You have to call the water works department to enquire about the supply of water to your neighbourhood during the summer. …………………………………………………………………………………………. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 118 Unit – 2 GREETING AND INTRODUCING How do we greet people? Greeting is an instrument for showing our care and warmth for the other person. There are different ways of greeting people. It is related to the culture of a particular region. We Indians greet each other by putting our hands together and by saying ‘namasthe’ to each other. The people of western countries shake their hands and say ‘hello’ to each other. Some others bend their heads to their chest while greeting. These are only certain ways of greetings. You can do research work to know more about the various styles of greetings if you are interested. Some useful expressions for greeting others are given below. a) Informal /friendly greetings: Hello!, Hi! b) Formal /business greetings: Good Morning! Good Afternoon! Good Evening! Good Night! c) Formal conversation starters: How do you do? How are you? d) Responses to starters: How do you do? Very well. Fine, thank you e) When meeting some one after a while: Good to see you after ages. It’s been a long time. f) Phrases to close conversation: Good night! Take care! See you later. Exercise – 1 Various greetings for different occasions are given below and below this certain School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 119 situations/events are also given. Find out which greetings match each occasion. i) Congratulations ii) It’s celebration time iii) Welcome to our team iv) Merry Christmas v) Well done! vi) Happy New Year! vii) Good luck! viii) Pleased to meet you ix) All the best for your exams! List out the different messages appropriate for different occasions. Occasions /Situation Greetings /Messages i) Farewell to a colleague ii) On the birth of a child iii) Someone leaving the country iv) When someone is ill or in the hospital v) Last instruction day in the academic year (teacher to student) vi) On someone’s arrival from a different place vii) On someone’s retirement viii) When someone wins a prize/an award ix) On someone’s death x) When someone gets promoted xi) When someone is preparing for a tough competition Exercise 2 Introducing oneself and others How would you introduce yourself in each of these situations given below? i) You are meeting a popular actor. Introduce yourself ii) You are attending an interview. How will you introduce yourself? Some useful phrases a) Introducing oneself School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 120 I’d like to introduce myself. I’m …………. My name is ………… and I am from ……………….. Hi, I am……………. b) Introducing others This is ………………….. I’d like to introduce …………… from ………………. Here’s ……………. I feel privileged to introduce……………….. c) When meeting for the first time Pleased to meet you Nice to meet you Nice meeting you Glad to meet you It’s a pleasure meeting you School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 121 Unit– 3 MAKING REQUESTS Sometimes we are not able to do certain things by ourselves. Then we need the help of others. So it is essential that we learn how to make a request. It is important to be able to make requests appropriately in different situations. A few requests for different situations are given below a) You are at the electricity office. You don’t know where the bill counter is. A stranger passes. You ask him like this – Could you please tell me, where the bill counter is? b) An old lady standing by the side of a road asks a stranger like this – Can you help me to get across? c) Your car broke down in the middle of a deserted area. After hours of waiting you saw a man coming along the path. Then you will ask – Will you please help me, repair this car? Is there any other way of making requests? List them: The most common expression for making request is ‘please’ Examples:-Please come with me to Mumbai Lend me your bike, please Some more ways of making requests is given in the table. They are arranged in their increasing degree of politeness. In the second column, the expressions that are used for responding to these requests are given. Request Response a) Can you shut the window? b) Could you shut the window? c) Do you mind shutting the Of course Certainly Right away School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 122 window? d) Would you mind shutting the window, please In a minute I’m sorry, I can’t because………… I’m afraid. I can’t because………….. The expression that you use must be appropriate to the context and the listener. Exercise – 1 Turn each of the following into a polite request as shown in the example a) Turn off the fan Ans:-Can you turn off the fan? b) Open the door (to a stranger in the train) c) Send me a mail on this (to a junior colleague at work) d) Lend me your camera for a day (to your neighbour whom you don’t know very well) e) Give us some notes on this topic (to your Teacher) f) Buy me a drink (to your friend) When you make requests, sometimes it is necessary to explain the reason for the request before the actual request is made. Example:-Seema asking her friend Reema to do her work too Seema: Reema, I’ll be boarding the train to Bombay tomorrow. I will be back only after two weeks. So I’m afraid I can’t do the work tomorrow. Can you do mine also? Reema:Of course, it’ll be my pleasure! Exercise – 2 Make appropriate requests for the following situations a) Somebody sitting on your luggage while traveling in a train b) Forget to do your home work c) You want the bottle of salt, which is now at the other side of the dinner table. d) You were absent for one week at college. How will you ask for your friend’s notebook? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 123 Unit– 4 ASKING FOR AND GIVING PERMISSION Before doing certain actions we need to ask for permission from someone else. This is more at work places. Children also have to ask permission from their parents and students from their teacher. It is important to learn how to ask for permission in the most appropriate way so that permission is granted. Asking for permission is very similar to making requests. The expressions used for making requests are also used for seeking permission. Some expressions for giving permission are:-a) OK b) Sure, go ahead c) Yes, I guess so d) All right e) No problem Exercise – 1 How will you ask permission in the following situations? Also write how the other one gives permission: The first one is done for you. a) Situation: It is raining heavily; you are inside a store and you need to step out to pick an envelope from your motor bike. You notice someone with an umbrella inside the store. Asking permission:-a) I need your umbrella, please b) May I borrow your umbrella, please? Response/Giving Permission: -a) Sure, with pleasure b) OK b) You went with your family for a walk. But you got lost in a crowded place. Ask a stranger standing nearby to allow you to use his/her phone to call your father. c) You are writing your degree examination. After writing two sheets your pen stopped writing. How will you ask your friend sitting near you his pen? Always tell others the reason before asking permission. Always use phrases like can you ………/could you………/Do you mind if ………./would you mind+verb+ing……../Is it ok if ………/would it be alright if……. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 124 Exercise – 2 a) How will you ask your teacher permission for borrowing a book b) How will you ask your friend permission for listening to music on his/her phone c) How will you ask your principal permission for leaving half an hour early d) How will you ask mother permission for going on an excursion to Delhi. HOW TO REFUSE OR DENY PERMISSION Asking for an umbrella – I’m really sorry; I need this umbrella for myself. For denying permission the following phrases are used……. a) I’m afraid I can’t b) I’m really sorry…….. c) No…… Some conversations are given below. Look how phrases denying permission are used. a) A: OK….. Madam. Then we will come to your house tomorrow and show you the features of our products. B: Not tomorrow, please. I’ll be out of station this whole week. b) John: Can I join you for your tour to Ooty? Sam: I’m afraid we can’t take juniors with us John: Ok… no problem c) Raju: Can I take your books with me? Shyam: I’m really sorry, Raju. I haven’t studied anything for tomorrow’s exam. So I need it for myself. Exercise – 3 Write a dialogue, asking permission and denying permission. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 125 Unit– 5 OFFERING HELP Helping others is a great quality that each and everyone must cultivate in their lives. It must start from childhood onwards. We offer help to those who need it. When someone offers help to us, we either accept it or decline it. Do you know how to offer help, how to accept an offer or how to decline it? 1. Offering Help We offer help to those who need it. It is related to our manners and offering help is one of the necessary qualities that must be developed in all. We use expressions like can I……/Let me help you ………./May I………/would you like me to do that/if you want, I could get it for you/what can I do for you/would you like some help/……. Some dialogues related to offering help is given below. a) Rahul: Ohh…. No need for you to take these huge bags upstairs. Let me help you Old lady: Thank you my son, I’m really tired. b) Pinky: Can I help you by writing notes for you? Mary: Yes, thank you for your offer! c) A man entered an office. The receptionist asked him like this…….. “What can I do for you, Sir?”. Man: Thanks, I want to meet Mr.Sinha 2. Accepting Help and Declining Help When some one offers you any help, it is your wish either to accept it or to decline it. Certain expressions of accepting help are:-School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 126 a) Oh……sure b) thank you c) Its so nice of you d) Thanks, for offering help e) You are so kind, thank you Certain expressions for declining help are:-a) No, I can do this by myself b) Don’t worry about me, dear c) Thank you for your offer, but don’t worry I will do this d) No, Thank you 3. Asking For Help The main expressions for asking for help are-could you do…. For me, please/will you ………/Do you mind ……… for me/please help me/Do you have enough time to …….. for me. Exercise – 1 Now, match the expressions in column A with the appropriate phrases in column B Column A Column B a) Would mind…… b) Could you possibly…. c) Do you mind…….. d) Can/could you…….. e) Would you please……. f) Can I …… g) Will you…….. h) Could you possibly…… i) Would you be so kind as to i) Opening the door for me ii) Turn on the a/c iii) Taking a picture for us iv) Have a minute v) Spare a few minutes vi) Turn down the music vii) Do me a favour viii) Ask you a favour ix) Hand me a pen/pencil x) Give me a ride home xi) Lend me your cell phone Exercise – 2 Fill in the dialogues given below: a) Anju: Ohh….. Its too…… hot here! Manju: I am trying this for an hour Anju: ……………………….. Manju: Something is wrong with my fan Anju: …………………………. Manju: Ok, thank you dear. It’s really nice of you. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 127 b) A: …………………………. B: Sure, I will help you cross this road A: Can you please take my luggage’s too, across this road. B: No,…………………………. Unit– 6 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS AND DIRECTIONS Giving instructions and directions is also a part of communication. Have you had any occasion in which you had difficulty in giving or following instructions and directions? 1. Giving Instructions In any team there will be a leader and it is his duty to give instructions to other members of the group. Useful phrases used in giving instructions are:-a) First stage of Instruction:-Firstly, first of all, To begin with, Initially, The first step/stage is…../begins with…… b) Second stage of Instruction:-Secondly, Thirdly, etc…, After this, Next/Then/Subsequently, The next step is/In the next stage/In the following stage. c) Final Stage:-Later/Eventually, Following this/…. Until…. Lastly/finally/In the last stage, Lastly/Finishes with……/concludes with/The last step is………. d) Additional Phrases:-Before hand/Earlier/Previously/Before this/Simultaneously/With care/Slowly/Carefully/So as not to….. Some situations for giving instructions are given below:-a) In a Yoga class Instructor says like this…… “Now everyone breathe slowly……. put your arms and feet on the ground slowly………. concentrate on a point…… b) A: Do you know how to use this camera? B: Oh….. Yes, I’ll tell you. Adjust your camera lens first. Then take camera settings and carefully adjust picture quality. After that …… click here….. OK A: Ok. Now I understand, Thank you School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 128 c) A teacher giving instructions in a class:-First of all open your English text. Now take page number 21. Write down the answers of those questions given in that page. Carefully write the answers. 2. Asking for Directions Certain expressions used for asking directions are:-Can you tell me.. Please? /will you be able to….?/please, tell me what to do?/How do I find….?/Where is…..?/How do I get to…..? Exercise – 1 Situations a) You are in a new city. You need to go to a friend’s hostel. Approach a stranger to ask for directions. Ans:-Excuse me Sir, can you please tell me where is Jubilee Ladies Hostels. The address says that it is situated near St.Thomas Cathedral. b) You are in a large hotel, looking for a washroom. Seek the help of members of the hotel staff. c) You read an advertisement announcing a sale of Nike Footwear and Polo shirts and teeshiirts Call the number given in the advertisement to ask for directions to the store. 3. Giving Directions Certain expressions of giving directions are:-a) First of all b) Go straight on….. c) Turn back…./Go back d) Turn left/right…. e) Go along f) Cross g) Take the first/second road…… h) It’s on the…. i) Opposite j) Near k) Next to l) Between m) At the corner Some situations for giving directions are:-School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 129 a) At the bank C: Good morning Sir, I wish to open an account D: Ok. I’ll tell you the procedures First of all you get a form from the bank counter. Then fill it and bring it to me. b) A man standing in the middle of a junction without knowing which way to go to the post office meets a stranger. He asks the stranger the way. Stranger’s reply: Go straight, and then turn left. You will see a red building. By the right side of this building you can see the post office. Man: Thank you….. It’s so nice of you……… bye c) Trying to locate the market Mary: Excuse me, am I going the right way to Big Bazaar. Shopkeeper: Sorry? Mary: I wanna go to Big Bazaar. Am I going the right way? Shopkeeper: No, you need to go back. Mary: Oh, have I come too far? Shopkeeper: No, not really Mary: Where’s it, please? Shopkeeper: Head back on this road till you arrive at the crossroads. Turn right, and you’re on the High Court road. Look out for a large pink building which says My Rose Café. Big Bazaar is right next to the café. Mary: Ok. Thank you Shopkeeper: Don’t mention it. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 130 Unit – 7 GROUP DISCUSSION Group Discussion is an important aspect in all kinds of recruitment process. Have you wondered why it is like that? It is because most organizations expect their employees to cooperate and collaborate with each other and work together as a team. Every company needs team players and not individuals. Cooperation, collaboration and strong team dynamics are the foundation for today’s most successful personal and professional teams. Now the work culture is shaped on the basis of these people skills. What are people skills? When you are part of a team, it is inevitable that you work with a few others who may not always be of the same temperament, aptitude, outlook, belief etc. The people skills include the following:-1 To be pleasant in communication 2 To accept criticism without taking it personally 3 To focus criticism on ideas and not on people 4 To appreciate good ideas and suggestion, remarks, comments and observations made by anyone in the group 5 To analyze and evaluate ideas and objectives without feeling biased about its source. 6 To be sensitive to the taste, attitude and temperament of other members in the group 7 To avoid hurting other’s feelings What is a Group Discussion? The first important research study of small group communication was performed by social psychologist Robert Bales and published in a series of books and articles in the 1950s. As the name suggests, in a group discussion a group of people sit together and express their opinion on a particular topic. Every member can express their opinion about the subject Why are group discussions held? Group discussions are held to:-School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 131 1 Know more about a particular topic or subject. (This is commonly done in academic institutions among students and teachers. 2 Explore ideas and exchange information (Common in both academic and work environment) 3 Critique proposals or new ideas 4 Explore new possibilities 5 Look for the best solution to a problem 6 Prepare news policies Skills required for effective participation in group discussion a) Good Communication Skills For the effective participation in group discussions you need to be a good communicator. To be a good communicator, you should:-Know what must be communicated Arrange your thoughts and ideas in an order Think clearly and logically Be creative in your communication Express agreements, disagreements and reservations without hurting listener’s feelings Evaluate and analyze a problem from multiple perspectives Speak accurately and appropriately b) Interpersonal Skills Interpersonal skills help you to interact with other members. The term interpersonal means between two or more persons. If we have this skill communication will go on smoothly. This skill will help you to: • Remain focused on the objective of the discussion and not digress • Accept criticism of your ideas with a smile and not consider it an attack on you • Disagree with someone else’s idea and still be pleasant • Find positive aspects in ideas • Recognize every member of the group as equal • Ensure that every member gets equal opportunity to speak c) Leadership Skills Every team must have a leader. All of us may not have leadership skill. It must be developed in us. This skill helps us to: School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 132 Lead a team Inspire the team Give a sense of direction to the team Initiate a discussion Encourage every member to be active Help them attain their aim Summarize the discussion d) Problem Solving Skills Problem solving skills are those skills that must be developed in every individual. This skill will help us to:-a) Solve a problem b) Think about the various steps in solving the problem c) Help the group members in solving it Types of Group Discussion Group discussions can be divided into two:-Topic – based Case – based Topic – based Group Discussion In this type the discussion is made on a topic given to the group. In most cases the topic may be of social relevance. So you must be aware of what’s happening around you. A good reader only can make meaningful contributions to the discussion. There are different types of topics:-a) Factual topic:-If you are given a factual topic, you have to show your understanding of that topic and the basic facts about it b) Controversial topic:-It gives scope for arguments and debates. Since the topic is a controversial one, people will have different views on it. c) Abstract topic: -For an abstract topic you have to present your views about it. It is not a concrete topic, so it will never have a base. An example for a factual topic is ‘Five year plans in India’. Example for a controversial topic is ‘Reservation for Women in Indian Parliament’. While, ‘The Number Thirteen’ is an abstract topic. Case – based Group Discussions School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 133 In case-based group discussions, a case or a situation and information about this situation are given to you and you are asked to resolve this situation. Here is an example of a case – based group discussion:-A manufacturing industry is setting up a new factory in one of the states. Work has been progressing well and the production is expected to start in about four months from now. Suddenly a political crisis emerges. One of the political parties has alleged that one part of the land allotted to the factory has been acquired from poor farmers by force and hence, is demanding that the land be turned to them. Returning the land would mean losing a large part of the factory. Now, look at it from the company’s perspective. What would you do to resolve the issue amicably? Then, look at it from the government’s perspective. How would you resolve the issue? Roles and Functions in a Group Discussion Each and every member of the group has to function and work hard for the benefit of his group. So their role is a productive one. The two objectives that each member has to keep in mind are:-a) To achieve the immediate purpose of the discussion here we have to finalize a plan, make recommendations and resolve an issue. These kinds of roles are known as task building roles. b) To strengthen and maintain the group. If a member is only concerned about himself/herself, he/she won’t be a help to the group. On the other, he/she has to play productive roles by helping other members and by spreading a positive energy to the whole team. Let us study in detail the roles that the members could play in a group discussion:-1. Task Building Roles Task building roles include:-a) Initiating: -In every group discussion, one person has to initiate the discussion. The initiator presents the topic and puts the topic in perspective. After initiating the discussion, the initiator should invite other members to present their views, ideas, opinions etc. b) Reacting and asking for reactions:-It is inevitable that in a discussion you tend to agree or disagree with other’s opinions. Do not hesitate to express your reactions but learn to express your disagreement with someone’s idea or opinion and not with the person. A member who plays an active role will also try and get every member in the group to express his/her views. c) Explaining, elaborating and exemplifying: -Sometimes, we notice that someone has an School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 134 interesting idea but is unable to express it well. It may be useful for another member to pick it up and explain, elaborate and also give examples, if necessary, so that the group has a better understanding of it. d) Clarifying, synthesizing:-Sometimes we do not understand the speaker well. On such occasions do not hesitate to seek clarification on anything that you don’t understand. You are actually giving an opportunity to the speaker to reassure himself/herself that her/his message has been understood correctly by the group. e) Challenging:-There may be occasions when you may need to challenge an idea. Do not hesitate to do it as politely as possible. f) Summarizing:-Towards the end of the discussion, it is necessary for one of the members to summarize the discussion. 2. Group building and maintenance roles Every member of the group must play a constructive role in strengthening the performance of the group and also in maintaining a rapport among members. Some of the roles that you could play in this direction are:-a) Encouraging others:-We have to encourage others to break their shell of indifference and come out, express their ideas. Group discussion is a platform for its members to express themselves. b) Complimenting others on their useful contributions:-When any of the members express a good idea, others have to compliment him. This will be an encouragement to every one in the group, which will accelerate them to give out more ideas. c) Being supportive:-Each and every member of the group has to support and help one another. d) Mediating:-Differences of opinion are sometimes inevitable in a group. When there are differences, it is useful if one or the other member plays the role of a mediator and attempts to iron out the differences. Discussion Etiquette Here are some ground rules for conducting yourself in a group discussion. DOs a) Don’t assume that you are more knowledgeable than others. You have to respect others. b) Agree with and acknowledge what you find is agreeable in other’s opinions and views c) Disagree politely with ideas, not with the person d) Offer chances to silent partners e) Expect others to disagree with some or all your views. They are entitled to do so just School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 135 much as you have the right to disagree with their views. f) Keep the discussion focused on the main topic. When there is a digression, bring it back to the main point g) Make yourself audible to everyone in the group h) Put up signals to indicate your responses to the discussion. Don’ts a) Don’t get into a conversation with your neighbor or a person across the table while someone is speaking to the group. b) Don’t use strong expressions such as ‘that’s absolutely irrelevant/wrong/stupid/to express disagreements. c) Don’t try to dominate the discussion. It’s not considered a positive quality d) Don’t sound rude or aggressive e) Don’t interrupt a speaker unless it’s very essential. ANSWERS UNIT – 1 Exercise – 1 a) What are the details you can give me in order to contact you? b) Can you help me to understand what is meant by ‘Design Communications Management’? c) You should consult a cardiologist if your mother is suffering from acute cardiac pain Exercise – 2 a) ii) Could you please turn down the volume little b) iii) I left behind my completed assignment at home. Could I submit it tomorrow? 2. i) Would you please buy some souvenirs for me ii) Since I have to attend my sister’s wedding on the fifth of next month, I request you to grant me leave for 10 days iii) Excuse me Sir; I want to know whether there will be continuous water supply everyday during summer in Rose gardens? Unit – 5 Exercise – 1 a) iii b) xi c) I d) ii e) ix f) iv g) v h) x i) vii School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 136 TELEPHONE SKILLS OBJECTIVE a. The different stages and difficulties in telephone communication b. The techniques in handling calls c. The distinction between direct and indirect requests d. How to ask for and give information through telephone Unit-1 UNDERSTANDING TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION Introduction Every one uses telephone in daily life. But most of us are ignorant of the etiquettes we have to follow while speaking over a telephone. Certain skills are needed while handling a call. In face-to-face communication, facial expressions and body language are used as tools in helping verbal language. But facial expressions and body language are absent in telephone conversation. Here voice plays a central role. We have already talked about communication and its types. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 137 Now, let’s discuss the advantages and disadvantages of telephone as a medium of communication. Advantages 1 One can convey matters very fast. 2 Information will reach distant places immediately Disadvantages 1 Persons involved in the conversation cannot see each other 2 Expressions, emotions and feelings cannot be known clearly 3 Cannot involve in lengthy conversations In telephone conversation we can make preparations before making a phone call. Professionals and business men can make use of this. Before making a call like this you have to think about the points that will be relevant during the telephone conversation. Then write these points in a sheet of paper. When you do all these things you will be able to communicate the points without any gap. Although a telephone call could be as short as a few seconds, it helps to understand the various stages of a call. Whether it is a formal or an informal call, the stages exist in some form or other. Those are different stages for a telephone conversation. Certain appropriate phrases that can be used in each stage is listed below. Stage Phrase 1) Opening Good morning! Hello! This is …… 2) Warming up I’d like to speak to…… Can I speak to…? 3) Giving the message I’m calling about….. Could you give her a message? 4) Rounding off Thanks for your help. Fine/Great/OK I’ll look forward to your call. 5) Closing Goodbye Goodbye for now….. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 138 Some expressions of response to a call are:-Good morning /Hello! Who’s calling please? Nice to hear from you Just a minute Hold on please I’m sorry she’s not in The line is busy will you hold I’ll give her the message Thank you for calling Goodbye Unit – 2 HANDLING CALLS We make different types of telephone calls, both for personal and official or business purposes. For different types of calls we use different types of languages, etiquette and manners. When someone answers your call, you need to say who you are and say who you want to speak to. The way you do these will depend on:-a) Who is answering the call, (someone known to you? a stranger?) b) What your relationship with the person is (friends? Acquaintance? Relative?) c) What kind of a situation you are in at the moment of making the call (formal? Semiforrmal Informal?) For all these questions we use the following phrases. a) Yes, this is Mr.……….. Can I talk to Mr.………. (stranger) b) Hello, Mr. ……. where are you now? (some one known) c) Hai …… my dear ………. how are you? (friends) d) Hello…….. dear uncle (relative) e) Hello, I’m in a tragic situation Given below are short conversations. See how people identify themselves and says who School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 139 they want to speak to. i) A: My name is Patricia. I’d like to speak to Anju Reddy, Please B: Hold on the line, please. I’ll see if she’s in. ii) A: Good afternoon. It’s Sunita Mishra here. Can I speak with Arti, please? B: Yes, Just a moment iii) A: Hello! I’m Sam, calling from NDB Bank. Can you put me through to Vincent George in the marketing division? B: Hold the line, please. Hmm….. I’ll see if he’s available. iv) A: Hi! This is Manju. Is Nisha there? B: No, she’s just stepped out. When you answer a business call at work, you may be answering a call for someone else. If the person called is not available to answer the call, you will have to give information about him/her. Some exercises for handling calls is given below:-i) A: Could you put me through to Dr.Inderkaur? B: She’s in a meeting right now. Any message for her A: No thanks. I’ll speak with her later. ii) A: This is Aniket calling from CIPLA. Can I speak with Reena George, please? B: I’m afraid she’s not come in as yet. Would you like to leave a message for her? A: No, thanks. Please tell her that I called her. B: I will. iii) A: Could I speak with Mr.Banerjee? B: He’s just stepped out of his cabin. Could you hold for a moment, please? A: Sure, Thanks. Exercise – 1 You are answering the calls in the following situations. The person the caller wants to speak to is unavailable. What would you tell the caller in each case? i) The person is speaking on his mobile ii) The person is on leave iii) The person is busy at the moment iv) The person is in a meeting School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 140 v) The person is not available right now Some useful phrases while using telephone a) I am calling from……….. b) I would like to make an appointment with ……….. c) Would it be possible do make an appointment with ………….? d) When will she be available? Exercise – 2 Write a dialogue for the following situation You are the secretary of the ‘Literary Club’ of your college. Now the literary club members have decided to conduct its inauguration. On behalf of the club invite any famous writer for its inauguration. Before visiting his residence talk to him on telephone. Unit – 3 LEAVING A MESSAGE On certain occasions when the person you have called is unavailable, it may be necessary to leave a message for the person. In such situations, both the caller and the person answering the call will have to be very clear in leaving and taking the message. At the end of the call, either the caller or the person answering the call should check whether the message has been received correctly. What all items of information must be included while leaving a message? d) For whom is the message e) From whom is the message f) Subject g) Time of call h) The number to which the sender should be called back. Some useful expressions for leaving messages are given below a) Can you leave this message for him, please? b) Can I leave a message for her, please? c) Could you give him this message? d) I’d like to leave a message for her. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 141 Two conversations are given below to make you understand how to leave message a) A: Good morning, Bell International. How may I help you? B: Good morning. Can I speak with Mr.John Parker? A: Mr.Parker is not in as yet. He’ll be at work only after two in the afternoon. Who’s calling, please? B: This is Archana Varma from Cochin A: Would you like to leave any message, Ms.Varma? B: Yes, could you tell him that the meeting scheduled for the 18th has been postponed? We are now looking at the 22nd or the 23rd. Please ask him to call me back and confirm the suitability of either of these dates. A: Meeting of 18th postponed. Possible fresh dates are 22nd or 23rd. You want confirmation, right? B: That’s right A: Can I have your first name again, ma’m? B: It’s Archana – A-R-C-H-A-N-A A: I got it. Can I also have your telephone number? B: Well, Mr.Parker has my number. A: Thanks. I’ll leave the message for him. B: Thanks so much. Bye A: Bye…….. b) A: This is Tanya. Can I speak to Anurag Hegde? B: Mr.Hegde is in a meeting. Can you call back after 12:30? A: Uh…. I’m afraid I won’t be able to. Can I leave a message for him” B: Sure, please tell me. A: This is about Dr.Anita William’s visit. B: Dr. Anita William? A: Yes, she’s free to visit your factory on the 14th or the 16th of next month. Could you ask Mr.Hegde to speak with Dr.William and confirm which of these dates is convenient for him? B: 14th or 16th of next month, right? A: That’s it B: All right, I got it School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 142 A: Thank you. Bye B: Bye Leaving a message on an answering machine At certain times when the person you are calling is not available, you can hear an answering machine answering the phone call. The machine usually asks you to leave a message. You are expected to say whatever you want to tell the person and your message gets recorded on the machine. This helps the person to listen to the recorded messages when he/she returns and take suitable action. In each situation the answering machine will answer like this…….. You are trying to reach (name). Unfortunately he/she is not available. Leave a message for her/him. Now, lets discuss what all things must be included while leaving a message in the answering machine and in what sequence are the details given? a) Your name b) Matter Read the following messages:-a) You are Mr.Sam. Your company has decided to conduct a conference tomorrow at 10 am. Now it’s postponing the conference to day after tomorrow due to some unforeseen reasons. Message This is Mr.Sam. There’s a change in tomorrow’s conference. The Managing Director of our company was hospitalized due to severe fever. So tomorrow’s conference has been postponed to day after tomorrow. Please, do attend the meeting. Thank you b) You are Sheryl Singh. You are scheduled to meet Mr.Dhanraj Naik tomorrow at 10am. You are unable to meet him as scheduled because you have to go out of town on an emergency. You expect to come back to town in two or three days. You will call him after your return. Do not forget to make an apology for not being able to keep the appointment. Message This is Sheryl Singh. I am sorry to tell you that I won’t be able to see you tomorrow at 10 in the morning because I am going out of town on an emergency. I hope to get back in two or three days. I’ll call you when I’m back. i) You are Sandhya Rao, customer service executive with ICT Bangalore. You have fixed an appointment for Aparna Sen with Mr.Alok Bhalla, Director, ICT, and Bangalore at 11:30 am tomorrow. Aparna Sen wanted to discuss two important projects with Mr.Balla. However, Mr.Balla is free only for half an hour. So the discussion will be only on one of the projects. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 143 Message I’m Sandhya Rao from ICT, Bangalore. I’m calling about your appointment with Mr.Bhalla our Director, tomorrow at 11:30 am. Mr.Bhalla will be free only for half an hour and so he wants you to be informed that he’ll be able to discuss only one of the two projects. Thank you. Unit – 4 MAKING REQUESTS As in face to face communication, in telephone conversations too it is important that requests are made using appropriate language. While it is difficult to say ‘no’ to a request when talking to someone face-to-face, people find it easy to do so when talking on the phone. So it is important all requests are made in the most appropriate manner. So that it yields the desired result. Read the following dialogues. Two versions of each call are given. Identify how they are different from each other. Which of them works better? Find out. a) i) A: Hello, 6093367 B: Hello. Is this Mrs.Khanna? A: Mrs.Khanna is away at Kanpur. Who’s calling? B: Parvati Bose A: Mrs.Khanna will be back next Monday. B: Ask her to call me back A: Well, OK B: Thanks, Bye ii) A: Hello, 6093367 School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 144 B: Hello. Can I speak to Mrs.Khanna, please? A: Mrs.Kanna is away at Kanpur. May I know who’s calling? B: Parvati Bose A: Mrs.Khanna will be back next Monday. Can I take any message? B: Could you ask her to call me back? A: Yes, sure B: Thank you. Bye. b) i) A: Good afternoon, Railway enquiry. B: Tell me which trains are there from Hyderabad to Delhi? A: Dhakshin Express, AP Express and Rajadhani Express B: What time do they leave? A: 22:30 hours, 7:10 am and 6:50 am respectively. B: Daily? A: Yes B: Thank you ii) A: Good afternoon, Railway enquiry. B: Can you please tell me which trains are there from Hyderabad to Delhi? A: Dhakshin Express, AP Express and Rajadhani Express B: Would you mind telling me at what time do they leave? A: Sure, I’ll tell you….. 22:30 hours, 7:10 am and 6:50 am respectively, Sir. B: Daily? A: Yes, Sir B: Thank you for your help. c) i) A: Is that Natasha? B: Yes A: Hi, Natasha. Could you pick up Charlie on your way? I’m getting a little late. B: No problem. I’ll do it A: Thanks, bye B: Bye School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 145 ii) A: Is that Natasha? B: Yes A: Natasha, I’m coming to work late. Pick up Charlie on your way Ok? B: Well, OK A: Thanks, bye B: Bye d) i) A: Can I speak with Mr.Rajesh Reddy? B: Speaking A: Mr.Reddy, I’m Ajay calling B: How are you Ajay? A: I’m fine B: Tell me what I can do for you. A: I’m working on a project on biotechnology B: Okay…….. A: I was wondering if I could discuss some aspects of this with you. B: When do you want to come in? A: At your convenience B: Can you make it on Monday at say four in the afternoon? A: That’s very kind of you. Thank you so much B: That’s Okay. ii) A: Can I speak with Mr.Rajesh Reddy? B: Speaking A: Mr.Reddy, I’m Ajay calling B: How are you Ajay? A: I’m fine B: Tell me what I can do for you A: I want to discuss my project with you. So I want to see you B: I’m not free now A: So shall I see you later next week? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 146 B: Check with me next week, all right? A: Ok. Thank you. The choice of expressions for making requests will depend on who you are talking to, what your relationship is with the person and what kind of context or situation it is (formal or informal) Some useful ways of making requests are given below a) Can you call me back after half an hour? b) Could you delay it by a day? c) Send it by speed post, could you? d) Do you mind if we postpone it by three days? e) Would you mind telling me when it’s convenient for you? f) I was wondering if I could see you tomorrow g) Will you give me the recipe for the cake you baked? In communication, indirect requests are considered more polite than direct requests. Example Direct: Send me the papers tomorrow Indirect: Can you send me the papers tomorrow Exercise – 1 Turn these direct sentences into indirect requests i) Shut the door ii) Meet me at the lobby iii) Give me those reports iv) Make the picture a little darker v) Tie up the bag vi) Ask Lily to speak to me. vii) Send the report to me in two days viii)Cal Anna and ask for a new folder. In a real conversation, we usually use a combination of indirect requests and wh-questions. Example A: Good morning, railway enquiry B: Good morning. I would like to travel from Hyderabad to Cochin by II AC sleeper on 21 February. Can you tell me if berths are available on that date? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 147 A: 21 Feb……….mm. By II AC, right………. there you are. Yes, sir. It’s available. B: And what would be the single fare? A: It’s Rs.1440 B: Thanks A: Thank you Fill the dialogues given below. You may use wh-questions too along with indirect requests. 1) Meghana: Hello……………………………? Karuna: Yes. Karuna here? Meghana: I’m Meghana Karuna: Hi Meghana! How are you? Meghana: Fine. Thanks Karuna: Whats the matter? Meghana: ………………………………………………? Karuna: Ya….. Sure, I’ll come with you. Meghana: Thank you Karuna: It’s Ok 2) A: ……………………………………………..? B: The station? Its right there A: No. I’m talking about the police station B: Oh, I see. It’s on James Street A: …………………………………………………? B: mm………. mm………….. Just about 2 km from here. A: That’s great. One other thing………………………………….? B: Change for five hundred? I’m sorry, I’ve none at all. A: That’s Ok. I’ll try in a shop 3) A: I’m Mr.Raj, calling from Ram Nagar. Is this hotel Regency? B: Yes, How can I help you, Sir? A:…………………………………? B: Change tomorrow’s reception? Ok, to which date, Sir? A: …………………………………..? B: To the seventeenth of this month. Please hold on. Let me check School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 148 A: Ok, I’ll wait B: You are lucky, Sir. This date can be fixed. No other bookings on that day. A: Ok, then. Thank you B: You are welcome Sir. Unit – 5 ASKING FOR AND GIVING INFORMATION There are many occasions when you have to give the caller some information on the phone. On certain occasions the listener may want to make a note of the information that you give. Some useful expressions that may help you in giving information are:-Sender Receiver Ready Go ahead Have you got that? Got that Anything else? That’s all Could you read that back to me Could I read that back? Would you like me to read it back to you? Read the following dialogue:-A: Hello, how may I help you? B: Hello. I’m Mr.Roy. Can you please tell me the Territorial Manager of your company Mr.Raj’s address? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 149 A: Sure, Ready? B: Go ahead A: Mr.Raj, 12B, Giri Nagar B: Is it 12B? A: Yes 12B, B for boy? B: OK A: Giri Nagar, Palarivattam, Cochin-12 B: That’s very nice of you. Thanks a lot A: You are welcome There are occasions when we have to spell words over the phone. When the listener has difficulty in understanding the sound of a particular letter, it is useful to give a word beginning with that letter that you think is familiar to the listener. Example:-i) A: Can you spell the word for me, please? B: It’s P-A-N….. A: I’m sorry is that first letter P or B? B: Its P…….. P for Parrot ii) A: How do you spell the name? B: It’s D-E-B…….. A: I’m sorry, is it B or V? B: It’s B for Bombay Exercise – 1 For each of these letters, write the name of a place, person or thing that you think will be globally understood. A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z. Exercise – 2 Imagine you are talking to a foreigner who is not familiar with these names. Dictate the words to him: First one is done for you i) DEVI -Its D-E-V-I D for Doll School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 150 E for Egg V for Van I for Ink ii) ICSE iii) KOZHIKODE iv) PAYASAM v) BIRIYANI Besides indirect requests using can or could, we use wh-questions for different purposes. Some useful phrases are given below. a) Asking for information – what is the new offer about? b) Asking about place – where can I send it do? c) Asking about choices – which is the shortest way to get there? d) Asking about reason – why should I pay for it a second time? e) Asking about manner – how do I place an order for this Exercise – 3 Fill in the right question word in the following blanks i) You want to know the arrival time of the train …………………………….. Is it expected? ii) You want to know the reasons for being charged. Can you tell me ………………………. I am being charged a late fee? iii) You want to know the name of the person. You should report to for the interview. …………………….. should I report to when I arrive? iv) You want to know the exact location of an office on M.G.Road. Can you tell me ……………….. on M.G. Road your office is? v) You want to know the road you should take from the round about Could you tell me ……………….. road! Should I take from the round about vi) You want to know the approximate distance to the station. …………. far is the station from your office? Exercise – 4 School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 151 What question would you ask for each of the following situations? i) You want to know the spelling of the Director’s name ii) You want to know the caller’s credit card number iii) You would like to know the mode of payment of fees. iv) You want to know the reason for the delay in delivery of the books you have ordered. v) You want to know when you will receive a reply to your letter. vi) You want to know where you should meet your friend in the evening Exercise – 5 You want to buy a new car. Call a sales executive and find out the details of the car – company name, mileage, colour, amount etc. ANSWERS Unit – 5 Exercise – 3 a) At what time is it expected? b) Can you tell me why I am being charged a late fee? c) Whom should I report to when I arrive? d) Can you tell me where on M.G.Road your office is e) Could you tell me which road I should take from the round about f) How far is the station from your office? SELF CHECK QUESTIONS: 1. What is communication? How does communication take place? HINTS: define communication-its characteristics-conditions where it takes place School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 152 2. What is Group discussion? What are the skills required for the effective participation in a group discussion? HINTS: group discussion-communication skills-interpersonal skills-leadership skills-problem solving skills 3. Types of Group discussion? Describe the different roles in group discussion? 4. Describe the etiquettes involved in telephonic conversation. MODULE –IV READING Objectives 1. To learn how to choose a required text for information. 2. To understand about different reading skills. 3. To learn how to improve vocabulary. 4. To explore strategies to comprehend textual information . UNITS 1. Reading 2. Choosing What to Read 3. Surveying a Text School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 153 4. Identifying Important Points 5. Making Inferences 6. Reading Texts and Graphics 7. Comparing Sources 8. Reading Critically 9. Comparing View Points 10. Reading for Research Unit -1 READING As students, you will find that there is always too much to read. Your reading is influenced by many factors. The nature of the content, familiarity with the subject matter and language competency are some of these. When you read, it is important that you have a clear purpose. Purposeful reading saves time for you to spend on other study activities. Sometimes you need to find information quickly, to identify what is important in a text, to compare different sources of information and to read critically. For that, you have to develop certain reading skills. There are different strategies for reading. To narrow down your choice of texts to read you use the following reading methods. i) Surveying ii) Skimming iii) Scanning Once you have shortlisted your texts for detailed reading you use the following reading methods. i) In-depth reading ii) Critical reading Surveying School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 154 Surveying a text means reading to obtain a general idea of its contents. Reading for a general idea depends on good sampling. Sampling means knowing where to look and also knowing which parts of the text can help us most. We read a little, take a sample and predict what will come next. The sample provides clues as to how the text will continue. Then we take another sample and adjust our prediction. Each time, the sample provides clues as to how the text will continue, because we don’t read everything when we read to get a general idea. This kind of reading also depends on good prediction skills. Effective sampling comes with experience and its helps you to make predictions more accurately. Skimming Skimming is a process of speed reading that involves visually searching the sentences of a page for clues to meaning. To skim a text i) Establish questions prior to reading. ii) Allow your eyes to move quickly over a page until you find a relevant section. iii) Look for keywords or names. Phrases such as on the other hand and finally often signify a summary of the author’s main arguments or conclusions. iv) When you locate information requiring attention, slow down to read the relevant section more thoroughly. Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text and it is not a substitute for thorough reading. Scanning Scanning means reading to find specific information. You have a specific target and you search the text quickly for the information you need. Scanning is one of the reading skills you require to locate information quickly using the index of a text book. To do this, identify the keywords in your search item. Then let your eye go up and down the index columns until you find references beginning with the keywords. Then focus more finely to search for the specific references you want. With practice, you can become faster at scanning by narrowing the area you scan as quickly as possible. Sometimes you may not be able to find the information you want in an index, although the book may contain all the information you need. If you cannot find your topic, first make sure that you are using the correct keyword. Often more than one keyword is possible. For example, The eclipse of the Moon may be listed in an index as: Eclipse, of the Moon Or Moon, eclipse of Task Each of the following topics (1-10) comes from a geography text book; match them with a more general keyword (a-j) from the index. Topic Index Keyword School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 155 1. Railways a) ores 2. cultivation of oranges b) urbanization 3. troposphere c) sea routes 4. cotton growing d) mining 5. under population e) transportation 6. Panama canal f) Climate 7. growth of New York g) atmosphere 8. uranium h) population 9. coal production i) industrial crops 10. rainfall j) citrus farming Word study Words are one of the first problems that readers face, that is, words which are unfamiliar, words which change, and words which are missing. To avoid repetitions, writers often use different words in a text to refer to the same thing i.e., they use synonyms or pronouns. There, the meaning remains the same but the words change. Sometimes they also omit words or phrases. Words which substitute for other words 1. Use of synonyms Example Before accepting information published in a book, you should spend a few minutes examining its structure. The work is likely to be authoritative if produced by a publisher who specialises in the field. The foreword, preface or introduction will often summarise the purpose of the volume. Here book, work and volume mean the same thing. They do not signal new topics. They are synonyms. This recognition will be of help while you are reading a text. 2. Use of pronouns Example The index can reveal the scope of the book by listing the topics discussed and the number of pages devoted to them. It can also reveal bias by the number of references under particular topics. To avoid repeating a noun, writers may change it to a pronoun. In this example topics becomes them; index becomes It. If you have difficulty with a pronoun, look back in the text to find the noun referred to. Omission of words Sentences which appear to have words missing may also cause problems. Sometimes writers omit words to avoid unnecessary repetition. Example a) It is important that you have a clear purpose when you read. If not, you may waste valuable study time. b) It is important that you have a clear purpose when you read. If you do not have a clear purpose, you may waste valuable study time. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 156 Here if not in the first sentence stands for it you do not have a clear purpose. Example a) Dictionaries and encyclopedias are important information sources. Both can be found in the reference section of you library. b) Dictionaries and encyclopedias are important information sources. Both dictionaries and encyclopedias can be found in the reference section of your library. Here both in the first sentence stands for dictionaries and encyclopedias. Vocabulary building: Making word cards One way of remembering the important words in Academic English is to keep a vocabulary notebook or a set of word cards. You can include the following information about a word in your word card. 1. Translation in your language 2. Part of speech 3. Pronunciation 4. Example sentence 5. Words with a related meaning 6. Words which are related grammatically 7. Words which occur together with the key word (collocations) Study this example of a word card: Key word Translation Publication Part of speech Pronunciation Noun pʌblɪkeɪʃən Example Related meaning She is a prolific writer with many book, article, paper publications in her field Related grammatically Collocations publish, publisher official +, research + Task Make word cards for the following keywords: 1. academy 7. draft 2. acknowledge 8. exclude School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 157 3. author 9. focus 4. chapter 10. guideline 5. conclude 11. indicate 6. debate 12. significant Unit-2 CHOOSING WHAT TO READ As you have a lot to read, it is important that you are able to quickly select the most appropriate source for your needs. To do this, you must have a clear purpose for your reading and you must be able to predict which source will help you most to meet that purpose. Reading with a purpose When you read, it is important that you have a clear purpose. Having a clear purpose helps you to narrow the choice of book from a reading list. Once you have chosen the book, you have to select the best chapter and section. Having a clear purpose also helps you to locate the most useful part of a text for your needs and to ignore those parts which will not help you. Making predictions Making predictions means making intelligent guesses about what a text book, chapter or section contains using only a small sample of the text. By small samples is meant the title, the author, the chapter titles, paragraph etc. It is an important strategy when choosing what to read. The more we know about our subject, the easier it is for us to make predictions because we can relate the sample of the new text to our existing knowledge. When our knowledge of the subject is School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 158 limited, we have to make maximum use of all available clues to predict well. Predictions can be made by i) using the catalogue A catalogue gives you some important details like the title, the author and the year of publication. The title gives you an idea about the topics covered by the book. The author’s name should help you predict the quality of the book and its expertise in that area. The date helps you to understand if the book is of current relevance. You thus decide to choose the book that you need. ii) looking at the contents pages The table of contents with its subheadings will help you to predict whether your questions on a topic can be answered. Making accurate predictions from chapter headings can help you make the right choice in what to read and can save you valuable study time. A typical textbook has this structure: Introduction Contents Chapters 1 2 3 etc. Further Reading Appendices Index iii) looking at the features of the selected chapters When you have selected a suitable textbook and identified the chapters most appropriate to your needs, it is useful to see what help is given in each chapter to enable you to read it effectively. Given below are some common chapter features: 1. Title 2. Introduction 3. Section headings 4. Sub-section headings 5. Highlighted words 6. Diagrams and illustrations (graphics) 7. Summary 8. Suggestions for further reading 9. Problems/Tasks 10. Notes/References School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 159 The best guide to the organisation of the chapter and the topics it covers is provided by the introduction and the section headings. Using these samples, you can predict the topics covered. You can check your predictions using the summary. Summaries can help you in two further ways. They can provide a quick overview of the whole chapter before you read it. They can also provide a useful comprehension check after you have read the chapter. If time is short, read the summary instead of the whole chapter. You may refer back to the chapter for points that are not understood. Sometimes graphics provide summaries which are easy to read. Task Read through the list of seven students. Then study the print out from an online catalogue search for books on study skills which follows. Choose the best book for each student. 1. A student anxious about a forthcoming examinations. 2. A college student wanting advice on how to prepare a report. 3. A student who wants advice on all aspects of study. 4. A student preparing for a BA in sociology wanting general advice. 5. An MBA (Master of Business Administration) student who does not have enough time to get through long reading lists. 6. A Student who has problems taking notes in lectures. 7. A mature student going to college for the first time and worried about studying on her own. Title (long) Author Date Getting organized Fry, Ron 1997 Guide to learning independently Marshall, Lorraine A 1998 How to manage your study time Lewis, Roger 1994 How to pass exams without anxiety Acres, David 1992 Learn how to study: a realistic approach Rowntree, Derek 1998 Lectures: how best to handle them Race, Phil 1989 MBA hand book: study skills for managers Cameron, Sheila 1997 Reading at university: a guide for students Fairbairn, Gavin 2000 Student’s guide to exam success Tracy, Eileen 2001 Study skills and tomorrow’s doctors Bullimore, David W. 1998 Studying for a degree in the humanities and the social sciences Dunleavy, Patrick 1986 Successful study for degrees Barnes, Rob 1995 Writing essays Williams, Kate 1995 Writing reports Williams, Kate 1995 Task School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 160 Look at the Table of Contents given below. Which chapter would you consult for information on the following? 1. Changes in population age profiles in Western Europe. 2. Oil consumption in Africa. 3. Key factors in shaping the recent past. 4. The growth of Beijing. 5. The role of nations in a unified Europe. 6. Euros and dollars –will both prevail? 7. Effects of developed world demand on developing world agriculture. 8. Production of western consumer goods in developing world countries. 9. Nomadic peoples in the 21st century. 10. Societies before industrialisation. SECTION 1 THE WORLD BEFORE GLOBALIZATION: CHANGING SCALES OF EXPEREINCE Chapter 1 Pre-capitalist worlds Chapter 2 The rise and spread of capitalism Chapter 3 The making of the twentieth-century world SECTION 2 SOCIETY, SETTLEMENT AND CULTURE Chapter 4 Cities Chapter 5 Rural alternatives Chapter 6 Geography, culture and global change SECTION 3 POPULATION, RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT Chapter 7 Demographic transformations Chapter 8 Resources and development Chapter 9 Changing geographies of global food production Chapter 10 Alternative geographies of global development and inequality SECTION 4 PRODUCTION, EXCHANGE AND CONSUMPTION School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 161 Chapter 11 The geography of the economy Chapter 12 The global production system: from Fordism to post-Fordism Chapter 13 The global financial system: worlds of monies Chapter 14 Worlds of consumption SECTION 5 GEOPOLITICS, STATES AND CITIZENSHIP Chapter 15 Geopolitical traditions Chapter 16 The place of the nation-state Chapter 17 States, citizenship and collective action Conclusions Challenges and promises [Source: Daniels,P., Bradshaw,M., Shaw, D. and Sidaway, J.(2001) Human Geography: Issues for the 21st Century(Harlow: Prentice Hall) Now check your answers with the key given below: 1. Chapter 7 2. Chapter 14 3. Chapter 3 4. Chapter 4 5. Chapter 16 6. Chapter 13 7. Chapter 9 8. Chapter 12 9. Chapter 5 10. Chapter 1 School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 162 Task Read the excerpt given below and prepare a list of questions. The golden Temple stands in the city of Amritsar. It is most sacred to Sikhs. It stands in the heart of the city of Amritsar. The Temple stands in the centre of a big tank which is always full to the brim with clear water. The tank was excavated by Guru Ram Dasji in the year 1589. On all the four sides of the tank runs a broad path paved with beautiful marble tiles. A marble causeway leads to the temple proper. The walls of the temple are also made of marble. There are beautiful floral decorations on the walls. These are inlaid with precious stones. The temple has a gilded dome. It has four doors instead of one. The temple is open to all castes and creeds. The reflection of the temple in the clear water of the tank is a sight to see. Task Read the given passage and make a list of questions. The achievement of science in the twentieth century has been very great. Its influence can be felt in every sphere of life. From the small pins and needles to the huge iron sheets and joints, most of the things we require for our everyday use, come out of factories where scientific principles are utilised for practical ends. Science has enabled man to bring forces of nature under control and to use them for his own advantage. It has brought the distant parts of the world close together. Our knowledge of the universe has been much widened on account of the untiring efforts of the astronomers. Remarkable cures of human diseases have been possible owing to the discovery of some wonderful medicines. Word Study: Dealing with unfamiliar words Unfamiliar words pose difficulty in reading. So it is very important to build up a vocabulary. However, it is impossible to know the meaning of the large number of words encountered while reading. The first decision to make when faced with an unfamiliar word is ‘Do I need to know its meaning?’ You can only answer this question if you have a clear purpose in your reading. The second decision to make when faced with an unfamiliar word is ‘Do I need to know its exact meaning or its approximate meaning?’ Most of the time when you read, an approximate meaning is sufficient. There are some strategies for finding approximate meaning. The first step is to identity what kind of word it isnooun verb, adjective etc. This limits the range of possible meanings. You can identify what kind of word it is by noting its position in the sentence. You can also look for clues in the form of the word, i.e., verb endings. Word study: Building an academic vocabulary Knowing the headwords in the Academic Word List, Appendix, and the other members of their word families, will help you with your academic reading. Remembering these words is not easy. One way of remembering words with related meanings is to group them in sets. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 163 Example Academic Publications Text books Journals Reference Works preface article encyclopedias contents abstract dictionaries chapter introduction index methods results discussion references School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 164 Unit -3 SURVEYING A TEXT You have already learnt what ‘surveying a text’ means. When you survey a text, make sure that you select good samples. Only then will you be able to get a general idea of a text. Linking words While sampling will help us to obtain a general idea of a text, we need to know how the facts and ideas which compose the text are linked to understand the meaning of the text in detail. Authors sometimes use linking words and phrases to mark the connections between the ideas in their writing. Knowing these words will help you both to understand how the ideas in a text are connected and also to make more accurate predictions as you read. Some linking words are given below: 1. Linking words for reason :-because, since, for, as 2. Linking words for contrast :-whereas, but, although, however 3. Linking words for conclusion:-Consequently, as a result, therefore, hence 4. Linking words for rephrasing:-in other words, that is 5. Linking words for example :-for example, for instance 6. Linking words for addition :-furthermore, in addition, moreover, besides. Task Read the following passage and fill in the blanks with suitable linking words from the two alternatives given. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY Reliability and validity are key concepts in any form of enquiry. Reliability is a measure of consistency. Furthermore/For example, if a clock is sometimes fast and sometimes slow, it is unreliable. If a questionnaire produces different results for the same group of people each time it is used, then the questionnaire is unreliable. Validity is a measure of truth. It is possible for a questionnaire to be highly reliable yet invalid, like a clock which is always ten minutes slow. In contrast/In other words, a clock which is always right provides a valid and reliable measure of time. Similarly, a questionnaire which really measures what it claims to measure is a valid questionnaire. We can assess how valid our questionnaire is by comparing its results with an independent measure. In addition/For instance, if we ask people how often they visit their local theatre and then check the results against ticket sales, we will know how valid our questionnaire is. However/Because, often independent measures are themselves unreliable and of low validity. Furthermore/Consequently, in many cases there are no independent measures. In other words/However, a ‘true’ answer does not exist. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 165 Word study: Using immediate context We can guess the meaning of unfamiliar words by a) identifying the part of speech each word belongs to (e.g., noun, verb, adverb, adjective, etc.) Task The extract below contains some words in bold type that may be unfamiliar to you. Try to guess the meaning of each word by identifying the part of speech it belongs to. Go through the table given below and check your answers. Questionnaires have certain obvious advantages; but they also have drawbacks. Spontaneous answers cannot be distinguished from thought-out answers. Questions can be misunderstood because it is difficult to avoid ambiguity except in the most simple questions. Different answers cannot be treated as independent since the subject can see all the questions before answering any one of them. Word Part of speech Meaning drawbacks Noun disadvantages, limitations spontaneous adjective unplanned, immediate, without thinking ambiguity noun unclear meaning because there could be two meanings b) By examining the immediate context of the word, that is, the sentence in which it appears. Often the sentence contains enough clues to help you to get an approximate meaning of the word. Linking words can help. 1. Questionnaires have certain obvious advantages, but (=expect a contrast) they also have draw backs. The linking word but denotes a contrast. The contrast is between advantages and drawbacks. Thus if you know the meaning of one of these words, you can find out the meaning of the other. Hence we can work out that drawbacks means disadvantages. 2. Spontaneous answers cannot be distinguished from (=expect an opposite) thought-out answers. Here the meaning of spontaneous is identified as opposite of thought-out. In other words, spontaneous means without thinking. 3. Questions can be misunderstood because (=expect a reason) it is difficult to avoid ambiguity. In this case the linking word because suggests that ambiguity is the reason why something may be misunderstood. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 166 Task Read the following sentences and guess the meaning of the italicised words-by using the clues in the sentence. 1. The interview is a flexible tool which can be altered to suit its role in the study. 2. Replies can be more candid since respondents do not have to commit themselves in writing. 3. The interviewer can distinguish between a genuine and an insincere response. 4. Interviewers can control the sequence of items; hence the respondent cannot look ahead and anticipate the trend of the inquiries. 5. The problem of taking full note of a conversation during an interview is usually solved by restricting writing to marks or numbers. 6. Interviews may give an inkling of their own opinion or expectations by their tone of voice, the way in which they read the questions, or simply by their appearance, dress and accent. 7. Questionnaires can be anonymous – but not if identification is required for follow-up study. 8. Respondents fill in their own answers and so cannot be misheard. Now check your answers with the key given below 1. flexible = adaptable (‘can be altered’) 2. candid=frank (‘since...not have to commit themselves’) 3. insincere=not genuine (‘distinguish between a genuine...’) 4. anticipate= predict (‘look ahead’) 5. restricting=limiting (‘problem...full notes...solved...marks or numbers’) 6. inkling= hint (‘tone...way...appearance, dress and accent’) 7. anonymous=without identification (‘but not if identification is required’) 8. misheard=misunderstood (‘fill in their own...and so cannot be...’) Word Study: Collocations Collocation refers to the characteristic co-occurrence patterns of words. Collocations are word partnerships. Some words naturally partner with other wards. For example, ‘strong tea’ and ‘powerful engine’. Both ‘strong’ and ‘powerful’ have similar meanings but we cannot say ‘powerful tea’ and ‘strong engine’. Another example: ‘Fasten your seatbelts’; not tighten your seatbelts’. Learning collocations is an important part of learning the vocabulary of a language. So when you learn a new word, remember to write down other words that collocate with it. There are different types of collocation made from combinations of verb, noun, adjective etc. some of the most common types are:-School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 167 1. Adverb + Adjective completely satisfied utterly stupid richly decorated 2. Adjective + Noun excruciating pain regular exercise major problem 3. Noun + Noun a surge of anger round of applause a sense of pride 4. Noun + Verb lions roar plane took off dogs bark 5. Verb+ Noun commit suicide commit murder launched the product 6. Verb + Exression with preposition burst into tears filled with horror 7. Verb + Adverb whispered softly walk slowly wave frantically School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 168 The table given below lists a number of common academic head words with their collocates alongside. Study it carefully. Collocates head word collocates Appropriate response Asses situation Legitimate Authority Conclude agreement come to Conclusion Experimental design (N) display (V) findings Market Economy Enforce law Evaluate progress Exceed limits Scientific Method Normal circumstances Changes Occur Positive transfer Primary education Medical research (N) Specific gravity class structure theory evolution School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 169 Unit -4 IDENTIFYING IMPORTANT POINTS In unit 3 we studied how to survey a text to obtain a general idea of its contents. We found that good sampling, i.e., making intelligent guesses based on these samples, were important when reading for a general idea. Identifying what is important in a text depends on good sampling but it also depends on knowing what to look for-the clues that help us to identify the important points and to separate them from the less important details. Sign post expressions Signpost expressions are clues which help you to find the important parts of a text. They can also warn you that some things in the text are not so important. Some of the signpost expressions are given below 1. These phrases indicate an important point: The main/important point/reason... The point to note here... Above all... 2. Signposts showing how many important points to expect: There are three major barriers... 3. Important points may be highlighted using italics, bold type or CAPTITALS. An important requirement for development is freedom from debt. 4. Signposts indicating contrast: But, however, whereas. The rising birth rate is not due to increased fertility, but to a sharp decline in the death rate. 5. Asking a question in a text is a way of highlighting the answer that follows. For example: Why is a piped water supply so important? Disease due to contaminated water is a common cause of death in childhood. 6. Signposts used to repeat an important point: In other words, to put it differently Death control can be achieved autonomously. In other words, the death rate can be cut without anything else changing. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 170 7. Singposts for conclusion will help you find the main point or result. Therefore, the result, in conclusion, we can conclude etc. 8. Examples are signposted by phrases such as: For example/instance, such as, to illustrate, these include Punctuation is also used for this. The developing countries are dependent on cash crops-sugar, coffee, cotton. Task Read the given passage and identify the signposts used. The main reason for the reduction in the death rate in the developing world has been improved public health measures. For example, in Sri Lanka the death rate was halved over ten years by spraying the mosquitoes which carry malaria, Why is it so easy to cut the death rate in this way and yet so hard to reduce the birth rate? One answer is that public health measures can be very cheap. Anti-malarial spraying is inexpensive. But this is not the important point. For birth control programmes to be successful a change in attitude is required whereas death-control can be achieved autonomously. In other words, the death rate can be cut without anything else changing. Text organization Signpost expressions are also used to indicate how the text is organised and to show when new topics are introduced. Some of the signpost expressions for text organisation are given below. 1. Signposts which show the order in which topics will be covered. There are three major reasons: ... I will discuss them first 2. Signposts which indicate a change of topic: Let us consider now... Having dealt with... Next... Lastly... Asking a question in a text can both indicate a change of topic and highlight the answer. Can the process of desertification be halted? 3. Signposts which indicate the end of a topic or the end of a text: We may conclude that In conclusion School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 171 Word study: Building an academic vocabulary. Apart from word card construction and grouping words into families, vocabulary can also be built by grouping words into sets according to their meanings. Task A list of words is given below. All these words share the idea of causing something to happen. Group them into the following sets. 1) Cause + START 2) Cause + MORE 3) Cause + HARM 4) Cause + LESS aggravate dislodge increase reduce create double lower restrict cut halve precipitate set off damage hamper raise worsen Now check your answers with the key given below: 1. Cause + START Create set off dislodge precipitate 2. Cause + MORE increase raise double 3. Cause + HARM aggravate worsen damage hamper 4. Cause + LESS reduce halve restrict cut lower School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 172 Unit-5 MAKING INFERENCES Sometimes it can be difficult to understand a text because it contains few linking words and few signposts expressions. In such situations we have to make use of two kinds of information to make sense of what we read. 1. Information from the text, i.e., clues from the words, sentences and ideas which make up the text. 2. Information we provide ourselves, i.e., clues from outside the text, from our own knowledge of the world. Study the given examples 1. Statement: Bats eat moths. One species of moth has developed exceptional hearing which gives it a considerable advantage over other moths. Question: Why is it an advantage that one species of moth has developed exceptional hearing? From the text Knowledge of the world Bats eat moths Bats produce high-frequency + sound inaudible to many species. One kind of moth has exceptional hearing. Answer: This moth can hear the sound of hunting bats and evade them. 2. Statement: Parents who do not have their children vaccinated put not only their own children at risk but the whole community. Question: Why is this so? From the text Knowledge of the world parents who do not have immunisation is necessary children vaccinated put their to present spread of infection children and whole community at risk. Answer: They may infect other children and unimmunized adults. combining information in this way is called making inferences. It is one of the most important reading skills to develop. Task Answer the questions that follow each of these statements. 1. Some types of fishing net are killing large numbers of immature fish. Increasing the size of the mesh would solve the problem. How would this help? School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 173 2. Before Ross’s research into malaria, it was considered dangerous to spend the night in damp areas. What did Ross disprove? Now compare your answers with the key given below: 1. The young fish can escape through the larger spaces. 2. That malaria was caused by breathing bad night air from wet areas. Note taking: Linear notes Taking notes is an important way of learning from a text and making it easy to revise our knowledge in the future. When we take notes on a text, we have to do three things. 1. recognise what’s important. 2. reduce the important point to note form. 3. show how the important points are linked. We can reduce the important points by omitting all but the key words and by using abbreviations, either standard or personal. We can use symbols to show the relationship between the points. Given below is a list of symbols and abbreviations. Study it carefully. Symbols Meanings Standard Abbreviati ons Meanings Other abbreviatio ns Meanings = is equal to re. regarding with reference to govt. government > more than, greater than etc. etcetera, and so on and other things hypoth. hypothetical < less than viz. that is to say, they are, namely prob. probably + + + very greatly c.f. compare impt. important → leads to causes, results in a.k.a also known as temp, temporary ← caused by, results from, is the effect of n.b note well std. standard ? possibly ca. circa, about v. very ?? unlikely e.g. for example, for instance discussion discussion School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 174 The following symbols and abbreviations are commonly used in note-taking to show how important points are linked. Study it carefully. Idea Linking words Symbols & Abbreviations Reason because, since . . , b . Contrast but, in contrast, whereas BUT Result as a result, consequently, so, therefore. ∴, t Rephrasing in other words i.e. Example for example, for instance, such as e.g. Addition furthermore, in addition, moreover. & State Example Symbols Increase accelerate, increase, size Decrease fall, reduce, slow down No change equal, static = Pace of change sharp/ly, steep/ly , Change by a set amount double, treble, halve 2X, 3X, ½X Possibility could, may, might ?, ?? Cause and effect cause, lead to, result in → Effect and cause cause by, due to, result from ← Task Prepare notes on the following passage. POVERTY AND UNEMPLOYMENT It has been rightly pointed out that poverty and unemployment are two major problems of Indian economy. Poverty stops people from getting education which, ironically, leads to large-scale unemployment. With the ever-rising figures of unemployment in the country’s employment exchanges, people often wonder whether taking trouble to educate themselves and their wards is worth all the sacrifices made. Poverty and unemployment should therefore, be delinked if the Indian economy is to flourish. Poverty must be tackled on a war-footing. This can be done through several poverty alteration programmes that have already been announced, but not properly implemented. Proper implementation is what is required for these poverty alleviation measures to be affective. Former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi once remarked that out of every rupee earmarked for poverty alleviation, just 15 paise reached the masses. The rest was gobbled up by bureaucrats and middlemen responsible for implementing these measures. Such a sorry state of affairs must School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 175 be put an end to immediately if we have to make a visible dent on the pervading poverty in the country. The other and equally serious problem of unemployment could be tackled through the vocationalisation of education at all levels. Only those found eligible should be admitted to institutes of higher learning in their fields of specialisation. Students must be encouraged to look for other employment avenues than white-collar jobs. They must be taught the dignity of labour. This can be done only through example, not by utterances from a pulpit. The planners must identify themselves with the problems of the unemployed youth in diverse fields so as to work out a realistic solution. If this can be done, the problem of unemployment will no longer be a spectre haunting the Indian economy. And if we can tackle both poverty and unemployment in the near future, most other problems facing our economy will disappear. Identifying text structure Identifying text structure is useful because it helps us understand how the topics in a text relate to each other. It also helps us to give a structure to our notes and summaries. Texts may be divided into sections, each marked by section headings. Each section may further be divided into paragraphs. When we come to a text, we have expectations about its structure. For example, we may expect the first paragraph to give an introduction and the last to provide a conclusion. A new paragraph may indicate a minor shift of topic and a new section a major shift. However, there can be exceptions. A new paragraph does not always mean a new topic. A single topic may be developed over several paragraphs. A paragraph may include more than one topic. Task The following is the title and first paragraph of a text. How would you expect it to be structured? More than one cure for extinction A. The fight to save Australia’s koalas is being waged on three fronts: in the laboratory, the forest and the political area. Answer:-Structure of the text: The text could be divided into four sections: 1. Introduction 2. The laboratory 3. The forest 4. The political arena. Word study: Building an academic vocabulary, academic words and related forms. When you learn a new headword, try to learn the other members of the word family at the same time. This will help you to read with more understanding. For example: Verb Noun Adjective analyse analysis analytical School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 176 Task Try to find the related forms of each of these headwords. Verb Noun Adjective Benefit compensate consume contradict cooperate Create Define Distort emphasise finance diversify Induce illustrate Invest Now check your answers with the key given below: 1. benefit, beneficial 2. compensation, compensatory 3. consumption, consuming 4. contradiction, contradictory 5. cooperation/cooperative, cooperative 6. creation/creator, creative 7. definition, defining 8. distortion, distorting 9. emphasis, emphatic 10. finance, financial 11. diversification, diverse 12. inductance/induction, induced 13. illustration, illustrated 14. investment/investor, investing School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 177 Unit -6 READING TEXTS AND GRAPHICS Academic writers use graphics for many reasons. Graphics are used in all subjects but are particularly common in the sciences. Graphics, sometimes, are self-explanatory but often they have to be read along with the text to be understood. Both text and graphic contribute to the meaning. The kind of graphics we use depends on the kind of information to be presented. Graphics give general information and specific information. Some of the most common types of graphics are: 1. Table 5. Horizontal bar chart 2. Graph 6. Pie chart 3. Flowchart 7. Tree diagram 4. Vertical bar chart 8. Schematic diagram 1. Table SUBSTANCES Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) 0.0 ACID NEUTRAL Gastric Juices 1.0 Lemon Juice 2.3 Vinegar 2.9 Wine 3.5 Tomato juice 4.1 Coffee (black) 5.0 Acid rain 5.6 Urine 6.0 Rain water 6.5 Milk 6.6 School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 178 Pure water 7.0 Blood 7.4 Baking soda solution 8.4 Borax solution 9.2 Toothpaste 9.9 Milk of magnesia 10.5 Limewater 11.0 Household ammonia 11.9 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 14.0 Information given The PH of common substances; can also be shown by a bar chart. 2. Pie Chart Quantities are expressed in Mtoe (millions of tonnes of Oil equivalent) Information given Annual energy consumption excluding fossil fuels. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 179 3. Flow Chart Information given How sulphuric acid is made. 4. Graph Information given The growth in world population, could be shown by a vertical bar chart also. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 180 5. Vertical bar chart Information given The extinction of species. 6. Flow chart Information given The rock cycle. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 181 7. Schematic diagram Information given The physical world. Reading graphics Graphics give us the main idea as well as specific details. For example the first graphic presentation above (1. Table) give us the main idea and specific details. Main idea:-Substances range from very acidic with a PH of O to highly alkaline with a PH of 14. Specific details:-i) PH value of each substance. ii) comparative study of PH values. iii) which substances are acids, which are alkalines and which are neutral. Task Look again at the above graphics (2 to 7). Note down a specific detail and the main idea for each graphic. Then compare your answers with the key given below. 1. Pie Chart Main idea : Alternative energy sources produce the equivalent of School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 182 more than 1,600 million tonnes of oil. Specific detail : Solar energy provides the equivalent of 12 million tonnes of oil. 2. Flow chart Main idea : Sulphuric acid is produced from sulphur by a process involving heat and a catalyst. Specific detail : Water is added in the final stage to dilute the acid. 3. Graph Main idea : The population of the less developed world is increasing much more quickly than that of the developed world. Specific detail : World population will exceed 8,000 million by 2025. 4. Vertical bar chart Main idea : The pace of extinction of species has accelerated rapidly since 1900. Specific details : The passenger pigeon was extinct by 1914. 5. Flow chart Main idea : The formation of the different types of rocks is a cyclical process. Specific detail : Metaphoric rocks may be formed by heat or pressure. 6. Schematic diagram Main idea : The physical world consists of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. Specific detail : The lithosphere is about 60km in depth. Marking text structure Some graphics show how the text is structured. This is useful in two ways. 1. in making parts of the text for later revision and reference. 2. in note taking The text below has this structure. Topic: Using Sea-Water in agriculture School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 183 Introduction: Problems Para 1 Methods for removing salt: Problems Para 2 Evaporation methods Solar methods: problems Para 3 Arizona scheme Basics Para 4 Potential Para 5 Control of evaporation, and particularly transpiration of water through plants, is obviously of crucial importance in all regions of the world where water is scarce. It is being investigated most thoroughly in connection with the use of sea water for agriculture. Sea water can actually be used as such for watering certain plants, on certain soils. But it seems unlikely that it can be at all widely used for growing to plants useful for food, and it is not at all certain how long it can be carried on before the accumulation of salt in the lower parts of the solid makes it unusable. Most attempts to use sea water for agriculture depend on first removing the excess salt. There are two basic methods of desalination. One depends on using a membrane which will allow the water to pass, but will hold back the salts (reverse osmosis). The other is distillation, that is to say water vapour or steam is produced and this, which does not contain salts, forms fresh water when it is condensed. The production of steam can be done by actually boiling the sea water, or, more gently, by encouraging evaporation from the surface of sea water which is warmed but no raised to boiling point. Both the membrane-filtering techniques and the boiling technique require large amounts of concentrated energy. They are essentially industrial processes of a very energy-consuming kind. The evaporation methods are much less demanding, and I will discuss them first. The cheapest way of evaporating sea water is to use the heat of the sun. The sea water is run into shallow tanks of concrete or plastic, preferably with a black bottom which absorbs the sun’s heat. The tanks, which are usually built long and narrow, are covered with a transparent off with curved or sloping sides. The water in the tanks is warmed, evaporates, and the water vapour condenses again of the cooler galss roof and runs down the sides to be collected in a trough at the bottom. Installations of this kind are already in use in many arid regions near the sea, from the coasts of Chile to the Aegean islands. It is a very satisfactory process provided on e does not want too much water. It has mostly been used to provide drinking water. The quantities required for agricultural irrigation would require enormous areas of tanks. A much more sophisticated low temperature evaporation scheme is being developed in Arizona. The scheme involves using cold water which is pumped into the installation to aid the condensation of the water vapour which has been produced by hot sea water. Originally solar energy was used to heat the sea water, but since any place that wanted to run such a scheme School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 184 would certainly be generating its own electricity, probably with a diesel engine, use was later made of the ‘waste heat’ in the cooling water of the engine. They also introduced another improvement which is of very general application. The fresh water was used on plants grown in plastic greenhouses. A large sheet of plastic is attached to a low brick or stone wall, and a small pump keeps the air pressure inside the plastic a little above the air pressure outside, so the plastic is inflated in the form of the long low sausage. The plastic is transparent to the sunlight which the plants need, while the water, led to the plant roots and transpired through their leaves, is trapped inside and not allowed to escape back into the general atmosphere; it can be used again and again. There are quite a large number of areas in the world in which arid deserts come near enough to the sea coast for developments of this kind to make important contributions to the world’s food supply. [Source: Waddington, C.H. (1978), The Man-Made Future (London: Croom Helm), pp 98-100, abdridged) Spider Notes Spider notes are a useful alternative to linear notes as they give a better visual display of the text structure. It is also simple to add supporting detail and to show links between any parts of your notes. Now see how spider notes are made on the above passage. Using graphics according to the information to be presented Some kinds of texts can be represented easily by rough diagrams. The kind of diagram you produce will depend on the type of text you have to deal with. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 185 • a text which describes a process can be represented by a flow chart. • a text which classifies can be shown by a tree diagram. • a text which has to show quantities or percentages for each item could better use a pie chart. • a text which explains how two variables relate to each other can be represented by a graph. Word study: Using the wider context, academic words and related forms You have studied how to work out the meaning of a word by identifying the kind of word and using its immediate context, that is the sentence in which the word occurs. In several cases this may not give you enough help. It is necessary then to look at the wider context for more clues. This has to be supplemented with your own knowledge of the world. Example Read the passage below and try to work out the meaning of incidental by using the wider context. Sound Sources Many phenomena produce sound in an incidental but unavoidable fashion. For example, the combustion of fuel in an engine always produces some sound as a byproduct. This sound is both annoying and wasteful of energy. However, there are many man-made and natural sources for which sound is the desired output. These usually have two primary components: a mechanism for producing a vibration and a resonant structure. Explanation The second sentence in the above passage tells us that sound made by burning fuel in an engine is an example of sound produced in an incidental fashion as a by-product. By joining this information from the wider context of the text with our own knowledge that fuel is burned in an engine to produce power not sound-we find that incidental means here unplanned. Task Find the related forms of each of these academic headwords. verb noun adjective manipulate margin mechanism minimal modify norm School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 186 nuclear participate perceive philosophy precise publish pursue random react recover regulate verb noun adjective recover regulate reinforce respond significant specific stable stress submit School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 187 symbol technical theory unify valid vary vision Now check your answers with the key given below: 1. manipulation (n), manipulatory (adj) 2. marginalise (v), marginal (adj) 3. mechanise (v), mechanical (adj) 4. minimise (v), minimum (n) 5. modification (n), modifying (adj) 6. normalise (v), normal (adj) 7. nucleus (n) 8. participation/participant(n), participating (adj) 9. perception (n), perceptive (adj) 10. philosophise (v), philosophical (adj) 11. precision (n) 12. publication/publishing(n) 13. pursuit (n), pursuing (adj) 14. randomise (v) 15. reaction (n), reactive (adj) 16. recovery (n), recovering (adj) School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 188 17. regulation (n), regulatory (adj) 18. reinforcement (n), reinforming (adj) 19. response (n), responsible (adj) 20. signify (v), significance (n) 21. specify (v), specification (n) 22. stabilise (v), stability (n) 23. stress(n), stressed/stressful (adj) 24. submission (n), submissive (adj) 25. symbolise (v), symbolic (adj) 26. technique /technology (n) 27. theorise (v), theoretical (adj) 28. unification (n), unifying (adj) 29. validate (v), validation (n) 30. variation (n) , varying (adj) 31. visualise (v), visual (adj) School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 189 Unit -7 COMPARING SOURCES When you do assignments, dissertations and projects, you have to demonstrate that you have consulted a range of sources and taken different viewpoints into account. It may also help your understanding of a particular topic to refer to texts with different viewpoints. When we consult several sources we should have a clear purpose. This may include. 1. clarifying something we are not sure about. 2. checking the accuracy of our information. 3. getting additional information on a topic. 4. comparing viewpoints on a topic. It helps us to have specific questions in mind before comparing sources. These help to guide us to the information we need. Indentifying viewpoints Identifying differences in the factual content of texts is fairly straight forward. Identifying different viewpoints is more difficult. Under standing the writer’s purpose and the structure of the text can help. These are the first steps in critical reading. Task Study the following article titles and introductions. Can you identify the authors’ view points? For each, select whether it is optimistic, pessimistic, neutral, for or against. 1. Fuelling the future How can we continue to consume vast amounts of energy without filling the atmosphere with smog, heating up the planet and depleting valuable natural resources such as oil and natural gas? A 160-year-old technology called the fuel cell is finally coming of age and may well be the answer ‘Inside science' 141, Author : David Hart, 16/6/2001. 2. Small is great Imagine what could be done with machines as small as those inside a living cell, whose components consist of individual molecules and are measured in nanometers. We could yet have a computer that fits inside a shirt button or health monitors that circulate in our blood stream ‘Inside Science’ 147, Author: Steve Adams, 14/7/2001. 3. Mass extinctions Five times in the past, the global ecosystem collapsed and most of the life forms of the planet suddenly went extinct. Today the world may well be in the middle of the sixth mass extinction triggered not by any external influences but by mankind’s own destructive ways. ‘Inside Science’ 126, Author: Gail Vines, 11/12/1999. 4. Life, but not as we know it Imagine a world where bio-technology controls every aspect of human behaviour and narrows the range of ‘acceptable’ emotions. The future is already with us in the shape of drugs such as Prozac, warns Francis Fukuyama’, Author: Nick Saunders, 20/4/2002. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 190 5. Not now, Dr. Miracle Cloned babies are a bad idea when science is still in its infancy ‘Comment’ 17/3/2001. Now check your answers with the key given. 1. optimistic about the future 2. optimistic about the future 3. pessimistic about the future 4. pessimistic about the future 5. against human cloning Word study: Word structure One way of working out the meaning of an unfamiliar word is to look for clues in the structure of the word. For example, we can break down the word uncertainty into its components like this: Word class Meaning Root certain adj sure + suffix certain+ ty noun sureness +prefix un+certainty noun not being sure Working out the meaning of word from its structure can only be done with minority of English words. Use this method once you have tried all the other ways of identifying an unfamiliar word. Some apparent prefixes are in fact part of the root. For example, respect, reject, receive etc. Task Work out the word class and meaning of each word in the list below. 1. inactive 7. transformed 2. disproportionate 8. employment 3. reintroduced 9. futility 4. improbable 10. rationalise 5. irrelevance 11. shortening 6. unquestionably 12. standardise School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 191 Now check your answers with the key given: 1. adj., not active 2. adj., not in proportion 3. verb -past tense and p.p. (past participle), introduced again 4. adj., not probable 5. noun, something not relevant 6. adv., without question 7. verb -past tense and p.p. (past participle), changed into another form 8. noun, being employed 9. noun, being futile 10. verb, present tense make rational 11. verb -pres. p (present participle) making something shorter 12. verb, present tense make something standard. Study the following English affixes Affix Meaning Effect Example a-without adj→adj amoral -able/ible having qualities of noun → adj sustainable, variable responsible anti-against adj → adj anti-malarial -ator object or person doing verb → noun cultivator, predator auto-of oneself, independent autonomously automatic de-opposite of deforestation dis-negative, opposite of verb → verb disapper, disagree -ic noun → adj specific -ify cause to be noun → verb adj → verb modify, unify, clarify inter-between international -ity adj → noun instability, security mis-bad, wrong misuse over-above, to excess overfishing School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 192 We can summarise our approach to unfamiliar words as follows: Do I need to know the No meaning of this word? Read on Yes Is an approximate No meaning sufficient? Use a dictionary Yes Identity the kind of word Use the immediate context Use the wider context Use the word structure Task Complete the following passage by choosing the correct words from the given list. The idea that robots will take over the earth is (1) and it is (2) that some authorities are taking seriously such claims by some robotics researchers. Their predictions are based on two false (3). We accept them because we are (4) by ‘astonishing facts’ linked to Moore’s Law on the doubling of computing power every 18 months. The first is that an increase in (5) power equals an increase in robotic intelligence. This is false because we haven’t done well in giving machines (6) sense and the ability to learn. In addition a problem is always more difficultt than we (7) even when we take this unanticipated difficulty into account (Hofstadter’s Law). The second assumption is that anything which displays aspects of (8) behaviour is animate. Because robots show some minor aspects of animate. Making (9) claims for robotics is dangerous because government (10) for robotics may be put at risk. [List:-common, animate, assumptions, funding, silly, anticipate, distracted, processing, unfortunate, exaggerated] Now check your answers with the key given. 1. silly 2. unfortunate 3. assumptions 4. distracted 5. processing 6. common 7. anticipate 8. animate 9. exaggerated 10. funding School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 193 Unit -8 READING CRITICALLY Critical reading means testing the strength of an argument, proposal or explanation in a text. It also means measuring the ideas in a text against your own ideas and against those of other writers. Steps in critical reading A first step in critical reading is to break down the argument into points. You can do this by making notes using the techniques you studied earlier. Then ask yourself these questions: a) Are all the points supported (or are some just assertions)? b) Are unsupported points either known facts or generally accepted opinions? c) If a point is supported by examples, are they well-chosen? d) Does the conclusion follow logically from the points? Forms of argument Argument 1 Structure Opinion Supporting reasons Counter-argument dismissed Conclusion (opinion restated in stronger terms) Example Read the passage given. Marriage has a beneficial effect on men. Compared to single men of the same age group, married men enjoy better physical and mental health. Their lives are likely to be longer and happier. In addition, they enjoy more successful careers, fill higher status occupations and consequently earn more money. Critics may argue that more successful men tend to get married, but the evidence shows that it is marriage which brings about these beneficial effects. Hence the best guarantee for a long, happy, healthy and successful life for a man is to have a wife devoted to home making and the care of her husband. Now look at the structure of the above passage in the form of Argument 1. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 194 Argument Summary Opinion Marriage is beneficial to men Supporting reason Better health, Longer, happier lives. Better careers. Counter argument dismissed Not the case that more successful men marry but that marriage makes men successful Conclusion Marriage is the best guarantee for health, happiness, success for a man. Argument 2 Structure Evidence Conclusion Example Read the passage given. Surveys show that more wives than husbands express dissatisfaction with their marriage and consider their marriages unhappy. More wives start divorce proceedings. In addition, wives are much more likely to suffer from stress, anxiety and depression than their partners. Compared to their single peers, wives have poorer physical and mental health. It is clear that for many women, marriage cannot be considered a beneficial experience. Now look at the structure of the above passage in the form of Argument 2. Argument Summary Evidence More wives are unhappy. More wives start divorce. Wives suffer more stress. Single women are healthier. Conclusion For many women, marriage is not beneficial Both these forms of argument are common in texts. Careful reading of the first and last sentence will often disclose the writer’s main point. If you do not accept their point, check the rest of the text for the supporting points. Paragraphs are often steps in an argument rather than complete arguments. Word study: Maximisers and minimisers Writers try to persuade not only by well-structured argument, but also by well-chosen words. Maximisers are words or phrases used to produce maximum effect in favour of an argument or point of the writer. They emphasise the message. Completely, absolutely, in all respects, altogether, entirely much, fully, quite. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 195 Minimisers are words or phrases used to minimise points which are against the opinion of the writer. Merely, at least, to some extent, only, simply, hardly. Task Read the following text with and without the words in italics. What effect do these words have? The traditional approach to parenthood is completely unsatisfactory. Women have to spend many hours in child-rearing. Those with professional skills may sacrifice their career in all respects for the benefit of only one child. Because women spend time caring for their children, the services of many expensively trained teachers, nurses, doctors and other professionals are altogether lost to society. Even if child-rearing is shared by the father, it simply means that two people waste time on an unproductive task for which they may be entirely ill equipped. Society would be much better served if parenthood was made the responsibility of well-trained professional parents who would look after groups of children as a paid occupation. This would end amateur child-rearing and allow the biological parents to fully develop their careers for the benefit of society. Critics may argue that children reared in this way would feel rejected, at least to some extent, by their natural parents. This is quite untrue. Evidence from societies where collective child-rearing is practiced shows that children merely experience minor upsets and are hardly affected by the separation. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 196 Unit-9 COMPARING VIEWPOINTS You studied how to break down an argument into points. When comparing different viewpoints, we can proceed in the same way; then compare the arguments point by point. Before doing this, it is useful to be clear about your own opinions on the topic so that you do not simply absorb what you read but react to the writer’s views. You can then argue with the text, deciding whether to accept or reject each idea or to wait for further evidence before deciding. It would become easier to compare if you record your ideas and opinions on first reading. Summarising is another useful tool in comparing viewpoints. Detecting false forms of argument Read the following passage and identify the falsity of the argument. Women are more likely to strike than men because they take a more emotional attitude to problems at work. The majority of workers in the clothing industry are female. Hence labour disputes are a common feature in factories which produce garments. This argument appears to be well-constructed but would you accept that women strike more than men because they are more emotional? The statement on which the argument is based is false. Task Read the following paragraphs carefully. Identity the falsity of the arguments. 1. During the strike of power workers in the UK in 1975, factories were only able to operate for three days per week instead of the usual five. Nevertheless, productivity manufactures have nothing to fear from reducing the working week by 40%. 2. Much of the success of Japanese industry is due to the way in which management and workers are treated as equal partners. There is no gap between white collar and blue collar workers. Both share the same canteens and there is only one entrance for all employees. If these measures were adopted in our country there would be much less industrial friction. Word study: Emphasising and distancing Apart from maximisers writers also use certain other words or phrases to produce the effect of emphasis. eg: must, clearly, surely Writers may also try to distance themselves from statements which they do not agree with or are not completely confident about. eg: Apparently Strategies used for emphasising message 1. Choice of modal verb Employers must ensure that the views of the workforce are represented in the boardroom. 2. Using a maximiser-often an adverbial Clearly employers should ensure that the views of the workforce are represented in the boardroom. School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 197 3. Changing the structure What employers should ensure is that the views of the workforce are represented in the boardroom. 4. Repetition by rephrasing Employers should ensure that the views of the workforce are represented in the boardroom. In other words they should appoint worker directors. Connotations Words may carry additional meanings (connotations) apart from their literal meaning (denotation). Additional meanings could be diverse depending on the individual and context. For example, the word work may have connotations as diverse as rewarding, exciting, tiresome, depressing. It is important to be aware of connotations as a writer may choose words with particular connotations to reinforce their arguments. Task Write down all the connotations that the following words could have for you:-1. society 6. master (noun) 2. globalisation 7. confinement 3. drone 8. sacrifice (verb) 4. Old Testament 9. GM (genetically modified) 5. amateur 10. clone (Verb) Task Read the following passage and answer the following questions. Patriotism is a very complex feeling, built up out of primitive instincts and highly intellectual convictions. There is love of home and family and friends, making us peculiarly anxious to preserve our own country from invasion. There is the mild instinctive looking for compatriots as against foreigners. There is pride, which is bound up with the success of the community to which we feel that we belong. There is a belief, suggested by pride but reinforced by history, that one’s own nation represents a great tradition and stands for ideals that are important to the human race. But besides all these, there is another element, at once nobler and more open to attack, and element of worship, willing of sacrifice, of joyful merging of the individual life in the life of the nation. Thus religious element in patriotism is essential to the strength of the state since it enlists the best that is on most men on the side of national sacrifice. 1. A suitable title for the passage could be: a) Elements of patriotism b) Historical Development of a Nation c) Religion and Patriotism School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 198 2. The tone of the passage can best be described as a) Critical b) Descriptive c) Analytical 3. Which of the following can early be grouped under “intellectual convictions” the author mentions in the opening sentence? a) Love of family b) Love of compatriots c) The element of worship School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 199 Unit -10 READING FOR RESEARCH Often you can’t find all the information you need in your text books. You need to look for other sources. Sometimes you will need specific information, too detailed for a textbook. For research you need the most up-to-date information available. It is also important that you choose the best source for your research. Locating specific information Locating specific information quickly is an important skill when using reference sources. Remember that no reference source can contain all the information on a particular topic. Knowing when it is time to give up and try another source is important. Task Look at the following subjects and select the most appropriate bibliography for each from the list that follows: a) Women in children’s literature. b) Women and environmental issues. c) Women in business. d) Noted women physicists. e) Women writers of the 20th century. 1. Annotated Bibliography of Feminist Aesthetics in the Literary, Performing and Visual Arts, 1970-1990, by Linda krumholz and Estella Lauter (1992) 2. Brave, Active Resourceful Females in Picture Books, by Claudia Morrow (1992) 3. Contemporary Women Novelists: A Selected Annotated List, by Helene Androski (1996) 4. Ecofeminism: An Introductory Bibliography, by Julie Knutson (1995) 5. Feminist Perspective on the Ethic of Care, by Virginia Dudley (1994) 6. Gender and Creative Writing: A Bibliography, by Susan Hubbard and Gail Stygall (1997) 7. The Glass Ceiling: A Selective Bibliography, by Melba Jesudason, assisted by Janet Rother-Harris (1995) 8. The History of Women and Science, Health, and technology: A Bibliographic Guide to the Professions and the Disciplines, by Phyllis Holman Wesibard and Rima D. Apple (1993) 9. Information Technology and women’s Lives by Linda Shult (1996) 10. Selected Recent Books and Articles on the State of Welfare and the Single Mother: An Annotated Bibliography, by Elizabeth F. Dill (1998) 11. Women and World Literature: Bibliography of Anthologies of Women’s Literature in Translation, by Carolyn J. Kruse (1992) 12. Issues Related to Women in Management, by Marge Karsten (1993) School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 200 13. Women Mystery Writers, by Helen Androski (1995) Now check your answers with the key given: a) 2 d) 8 b) 4 e) 3 & 6 c) 12 & 7 Task What sort of information would you expect to find in these reference sources? 1. Dictionaries of acronyms and abbreviations. 2. Dictionary of national biography. 3. Directory of organisations. 4. Dictionary of quotations. 5. Encyclopaedias. 6. Gazeteers. 7. Database of patents. Now compare your answers with the key given: 1. The meaning of acronyms such as NATO and abbreviations such as temp. 2. Lives of a country’s famous people. 3. Information on organisations such as the FAO. 4. Origin of famous sayings. 5. Comprehensive information on all important topics. 6. Help on locating places and natural features throughout the world. 7. Information on inventions, processes, etc.-who devised them, when and details on what makes them unique. Reading for research For most research, you will need to use recent information from journal articles. The best way of searching journals is to use a database of abstracts and indexes. To find the information you want quickly, you need to develop an effective search strategy. This involves: 1. posing the search question. 2. identifying the main topics. 3. dividing how to search for the main topics. 4. formulating the search query. Research papers often have the following structure Title Authors and their affiliation Abstract School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 201 Introduction Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References Word study: choosing keywords While researching you have to get information to suit your needs. For this you have to choose the right keyword. This will help you in accessing information especially from an index. Sometimes you may have to use a broader, narrower or related keyword to get the results you want. For example: Keyword : computer crime Broader : information technology Narrower : viruses Related : computer security Task Classify the following keywords given under each topic into broader, narrower and related terms. 1. Sports exercises, physical activity, bowling, games, archery 2. Reading decoding, literacy, critical reading, language skills, reading aloud language processing 3. Engineering manufacturing, technology, civil engineering 4. Sanitation 5. Waste disposal, health, hygiene, public health, cleaning 6. Fish studies = ichthyology Fisheries, zoology, cod stocks Now check your answers with the key given. 1. Sports boarder : physical activity narrower : archery, bowling related : exercises, games School of Distance Education Communication Skills in English 202 2. Reading boarder : literacy, language skills narrower : critical reading, reading aloud related : decoding, language processing 3. Engineering broader : technology narrower : civil engineering related : manufacturing 4. Sanitation broader : public health narrower : waste disposal, cleaning related : health, hygiene 5. Fish Studies = ichthyology broader : zoology narrower : cod stocks related : fisheries
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