Etymology EtymologyThe Science of Word HistoriesEtymology is the study of the origin and the histories of words. Word Histories, both true and false, sometimes catch the public fancy and are often repeated. In classical times, Greeks and Romans showed a similar curiosity about the sources of the words they used. The Greeks called the derivation of a word its etymologia. WORD CONSTRUCTION STRATEGIES Much of our vocabulary originated from ancient Latin and Greek. Many English words were created by combining prefixes, roots, and suffixes drawn from two or more of these languages. Your ability to recognize and define some of these common derivatives will help you to unlock the meanings of many words. I. PREFIXESA prefix is one or more letters (of Latin, Greek, or English origin) that can be attached to the beginning of a word to give it meaning; for example:unicyclebicycletricycleReview the following lists of common prefixes, their meanings, and example words; then complete each exercise that follows. COMMON PREFIXES DEALING WITH NUMBERS PrefixMeaningOriginExampleuniOneLatinunique / one of a kindmono OneGreekmonogamy-having only one husband or wifebitwoLatinbilingual-speaking two languagestrithreeLatintriangle: a figure having three straight sides and three anglesquadfourLatinquadruped- a four-footed animalmilli/milleOne thousandLatinmillion - one thousand times one thousand millennium - one thousand yearssemihalf; partlyLatinsemi-circle - half a circle semi-skillled - partly skilledhemipartlyGreekhemisphere -half a sphere Exercise 1: 1 ......planean airplane with two sets of wings, one above the other2 .........sontogether as one3................urya period of 100 years4...............poda three-legged stand for a camera5.......consciouspartly conscious6..............raila railroad whose train runs on a single rail7..............secondone thousandth of a second8.............tonea single unvaried tone9.............focalseyeglasses having two portions, one for near and one for far vision10.............foliatehaving three leaves, leaflets, or leaf-like 11.........lateralparts involving or done by only one person or group12........spherehalf of the terrestrial globe or celestial sphere13........naryconsisting of, indicating, or involving two14........ranta quarter of a circle15........rilaterala four-sided figure COMMON PREFIXES DEALING WITH POSITION PrefixMeaningOriginExample Wordtransacross(Latin)transport - carry acrosscircumaround(Latin)circumnavigate - sailor fly aroundinterbetween(Latin)interrupt - break betweensubunder, below(Latin)subterranean - under the earthsurover(Latin)surpass - go beyond or overcontra/controagainst(Latin)controversy - an argument againstantiagainst(Greek)antithesis - a contrasting statementpre/antebefore(Latin)prearrange - arrange beforehand (Latin)antenuptial - before marriagepostafter(Latin)postwar - after the warproforward, in(Latin)produce - bring forward in favour of pro-American - in favour of AmericansBy referring to the list of common prefixes dealing with position, add the appropriate prefix to create the word that suits the given definition.1. ...............marine2. ..............vent3. ..............cede 4. .............vene5. .............script6. .......scholastic7. .............pathy8. .............locution9.............plus10............ject 11. ...........abortion12. ...........standard13. ..........operative14. ..........feit 15. ..........ition a warship designed to operate under the seago aroundgo beforeact againstan addition to a letter written after the writer's name (referred to as P.S.)between or among schoolsa feeling againsta roundabout way of speakingan amount over or above what is neededthrow or cast forwardin favor of abortionbelow standardoccurring after a surgical operationan excessive amount; overindulgencepassage from one position or state to another OTHER COMMON PREFIXES MeaningOriginExample wordin (Latin)inconsiderate - not considerateimnot or never(Latin)immature - not matureil (Latin)illegal - not legalir (Latin)irreligious - not religiousunnot, the opposite of(Old English)unaccustomed - not accustomedmultimany, much(Latin)multi-coloured --having many coloursmicrosmall(Greek)microfilmreagain or back(Latin)reject - throw back rejuvenate - make young againmiswrong(Old English)misdeal - deal incorrectlycon (Latin)concentric - having the same centrecomtogether with,(Latin)combine - join togethercolor jointly(Latin)collaborate - work togethercor (Latin)correlate - be jointly relatedpseudofalse, pretended pseudo-scientific - falsely presented as scientificretrobackward, back to(Latin)retroactive - applying back to a previous time Exercise 3By referring to the list just given, add the appropriate prefix to create the word that suits the given definition. 1. ....nationaldealing with or concerning many nations2. ....nyma fictitious or false name used by an author to conceal his or her identity3. ....spectiona looking back to; thinking about the past have the wrong idea about4. ....usualnot usual5. ....conceivehave the wrong idea about6. ....defatigablenever getting tired; tireless7. ....metrean instrument for measuring very small distances, angles objects, etc.8. ....relevantnot related to the subject; off topic9. ....curagree in opinion; work together10. ...silientspringing back; returning to the original form or position after being bent11. ....intellectualgiving the appearance of intelligence12. ....cosmthe world in miniature13. ....construeget the wrong meaning14. ....iteratesay again15. ....talentedhaving many skills EXERCISE 4-REVIEW By relying only on your knowledge of prefixes or by reference to the various lists previously given, choose the appropriate meaning for each of the following words. 1. subliminal a) an ointment used for superficial burns b) a happy state c) below the conscious state2. interim a) a storm without hail b) a time between c) a shout of warning to those ahead 3. postprandial a) an instrument for telling the time by the position of the sun b) after dinner c) a person or vehicle that carries mail4. quadraphonic a) reproduction of sound over four separate transmission channels b) not genuine or real c) an attractive subject in a photograph 5. unilingual a) remaining in a place b) joining together c) having knowledge of only one language 6. misnomer a) an error in naming b) a proper title of an important person c) a group of musical notes in the lower clef 7. impervious a) kingly or regal h) not able to be influenced or affected c) rational and informed 8. collusion a) anything thin and slight such as a spider’s web h) a conspiracy; an acting together for some wrong purpose c) a glue-like liquid that dries very rapidly and leaves a tough waterproof transparent flu 9. undaunted a) frightened b) small and active c) not afraid; not discouraged 10. microfiche a) an instrument that measures distance b) a very small flat sheet of film that contains a very tiny copy of printed or other graphic matter c) a special cooker for seafood 11. bicuspid a) a tooth having two points b) past or gone by c) guardianship or care 12. centenarian a) a mythical creature having the head, trunk, and arms of a human and the body and legs of a horse b) a person who has reached the age of 100 c) a member of a business and professional club13. contravene a) an artery in the leg b) a minor offence c) do or act against 14. retrogress a) forward action b) go backward into a worse condition c) a meeting for Members of Parliament 15. inane a) not sensible b) with consideration c) like achild Introduction to GrammarEnglish grammar deals with the proper usage and structure of the language. Learning grammar is essential to mastering a language. Hence, the grammar presented here is to enhance literary skills of reading and writing of the learners.Each part is clearly presented and briefly discussed in a way that facilitates quick comprehension, followed by exercises. Questions in these exercises are carefully formulated to ensure a reasonable comprehension.Constant revision will be carried out. More topics relating to English grammar and exercises will be continuously added.NOUNS Kinds of Nouns Singular and Plural Nouns Countable and Uncountable NounsNouns are naming words for people, animals, places, things, and qualities. They can be recognised by the articles - the, a, an - that we place in front of them. Nouns can be divided into proper nouns and common nouns. The names of particular people, animals, places and things are called proper nouns. We begin a proper noun with a capital letter. Nouns that do not refer to particular persons, animals, places and things are called common nouns. The first letter of a common noun is not capitalized unless it is the first word in a sentence. There are other kinds of nouns. A word that stands for a group of things is called a collective noun. Nouns can be singular or plural. When you refer to one person, animal, place, or thing, you use a singular noun. When you talk about two or more people, animals, places, or things, you want to use plural nouns.There are countable and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns are things that can be counted like book, car and house. Uncountable nouns cannot be counted such as milk, water, and flour. Other nouns are names we use to refer to quality, idea, condition, etc. that are not concrete objects, and they are known as abstract noun.1. Kinds of NounsThere are four kinds of nouns:Common NounsProper NounsAbstract NounsCollective Noun Common NounsCommon nouns are names of people (man, aunt); things (book, car); animals (monkey, armadillo); and places (church, beach). Proper NounsProper nouns are names of people (George Bush, Obama); things (Financial Times, Eiffel Tower); animals (King Kong, Lassie); and places (London, Central Park). A proper noun begins with a capital letter. Proper nouns also refer to times or to dates in the calender: Saturday, April. We can use plurals for nouns in exceptional cases: There are three Johns in my class. We can also use 'the, an, a' for a proper noun in special circumstances: It is no longer the London I used to know. Abstract NounsAn abstract noun is a quality or something that we can only think of rather than as something that we can see or touch, e.g. beauty, friendship. We can form abstract nouns from common nouns (child – childhood); from verbs (know – knowledge); and from adjectives (happy – happiness).(LIST 15 contains abstract nouns formed from common nouns, verbs and adjectives.) Collective NounsA collective noun is a name we use for a number of people, animals or things which we group together and speak of as a whole. For example: a bunch of bananas, a litter of puppies.A list of collective nouns can be found on LIST 5.2. Singular and Plural NounsA noun that represents one person, animal, thing or place is called a singular noun. A noun that represents more than one person, animal, thing or place is called a plural noun. EXAMPLE: girl – girls; goat – goats; glass – glasses; garden – gardens Singular and Plural NounsMost nouns are either singular or plural. Plural nouns are easily recognised by their ending with an '-s'. But many plural nouns do not follow this same ending. The lists below show what different endings or suffixes are added to the words to make them plural nouns. The following nouns are always plural and take a plural verb.Police – Police are charging him with the murder of the princess. People – People in general are not very approachable. Football team – Liverpool are a very successful football team. (BUT:Liverpool is a great city.) Jeans*, knickers*, panties*, pants*, pyjamas*, shorts*, tights*, trousers*, and underpants* – E.g. These trousers are not mine.Clogs*, sandals*, slippers*, and sneakers*. Glasses* (= spectacles), binoculars*My glasses are used only for reading. Pincers*, pliers*, scissors*, shears*, tongs* –Pliers are a handy tool.My garden shears trim the hedge very well. Clothes –My clothes need to be washed but I don't have the time. Earnings –Earnings in the agricultural sector have increased by 5% in the fourth quarter. Cattle – Cattle are reared for their meat or milk.* "a pair of" can be used with these plural nouns.+ Peoples when used in the plural (i.e. with '–s') refers to peoples from more than one race or nation. EXAMPLE: the peoples of Asia. Nouns which are plural in form but take a singular verbThe following plural nouns are used with singular verbs as they are treated as singular:Athletics, economics, gymnastics, linguistics, mathematics, mechanics, numismatics, physics, politics and pyrotechnics – Economics was my favourite subject at school.News – The good news is that we've all been invited.Mumps, measles – An infectious illness, mumps was common among children.Measurements and amounts that are considered as a single unit:One hundred years is a century.Ten kilometres is a long distance.Twenty dollars is not enough to buy a good shirt.Seven days in prison is all he got for shoplifting. A noun can be used as singular or pluralThe following collective nouns can be singular or plural. It depends on how they are regarded. Viewed as a single unit, it takes a singular verb; viewed as a group of separate members or parts, it is treated as a plural noun and used with a plural verb.Our team competes in a local tournament.Our team have just won the quarterfinal.My family is a large one.My family are always arguing about how to share the bills.The new government has gained more support since taking office.The Government are determined to keep inflation in check.The explorers stumble across a species of plant unknown to science.The coastal waters of the island are rich in different fish species.Data indicates that most of the offenders come from broken home.We will not draw any conclusion until we have looked at all the data.Statistics is included in this year's Mathematics syllabus.The statistics tell us the current trend is towards more consumers' spending.The full orchestra includes a fair number of female instrumentalists.The orchestra do not agree to the venue for their next performance.The enemy is calling for a ceasefire.Security is very tight as the enemy are everywhere. Two subjects expressed as a single unit and take a singular verb.Time and tide waits for no man.Bread and jam is what he eats most in the morning. LIST 16 shows how plural nouns are formed.3. Countable and Uncountable NounsCountable nouns are nouns that can be counted (e.g. oranges). Uncountable nouns are those that cannot be counted (e.g. smoke). So how do we know whether or not a noun is countable or uncountable? The noun is countable:if we can use a/an before it.. Example: I own a car. / I play with anostrich.if we can use the word 'many' (and not 'much') to describe it. Example:She has many friends. (It's wrong to say: She has much friends.)if we can express its quantity by using a number before it. Example: I have five apples.if it takes on singular as well as plural formsThe noun is uncountable:if a/an is not normally used in front of it. Example: He is eating some rice. (NOT: He is eating a rice.) Rice is treated as not countable, so 'some' (which can be used for both countable and uncountable nouns) is used with it.if the word 'much' can be correctly used with it. Example: How much rice have you eaten? (NOT: How many rice have you eaten?)if it is not possible to be counted. However, we can make it countable by having a quantity for it. Example: I have just bought two cartons orlitres/liters of milk. (NOT: I have just bought two milk.)if it takes only a singular form.Some nouns can be countable or uncountable. It depends on how they are used.EXAMPLE: I boil an egg. (Countable noun) / I like egg. (Uncountable noun, as it refers to egg in general.)Countable and Uncountable Nouns are used with the following:Countable NounUncountable Nouna, an, a few, several, many,a little, much, some, plenty of,some, plenty of, a lot of,a lot of, a large amount of,a large number ofa great deal ofVerbsVERBSTransitive and Intransitive VerbsLinking VerbsAuxiliary VerbsThe Finite Verb and The InfinitiveAction Verb/State VerbRegular and Irregular Verbs A verb is a word or more than one word that is used to express an action or a state of being. Every sentence cannot be complete without a verb, thus making the verb the most important word as far as sentence construction is concerned. In a sentence, a verb has a subject who does the action and an object who receives the action. A verb shows what action has taken place whether the subject performs the action, called active voice (Example: Somebody stole my wallet) or receives the action called passive voice (Example: My wallet was stolen.). Verbs express tense, that is the time the action happens, and also the continuance or completion of the action at the time of speaking. The verb tenses are past, present, and future. These tenses have continuous and perfect forms.1. Transitive and Intransitive VerbsA transitive verb needs an object to complete the meaning of the sentence. An intransitive verb does not require an object to make its meaning clear. The Transitive verbA transitive verb must have an object. Without an object, it does not convey a clear meaning.Example: He bought.The question inevitably arises: "What did he buy?" No one knows the answer to this question as there is no direct object to receive the action of the verb 'bought'. The meaning becomes clear when an object is added as follows:Example: He bought a cake.The subject of the verb 'He' performs the action: bought. The object of the action verb 'bought' is a ' cake'A transitive verb may take an indirect object. An indirect object is something or someone for whom the action is carried out.Example: He bought her a cake.The indirect object is 'her' as it's for her that the cake was bought. Theindirect object usually precedes the direct object.The Intransitive verbAn intransitive verb does not require an object. Without an object, its meaning is not affected.Example: She swims.The intransitive verb 'swims' does not need an object to make the meaning clear.Example: The villagers caught a boar yesterday but it escaped this morning.The verb 'caught' is transitive as it has the direct object: boar; the other verb 'escaped' is intransitive since it is not followed by an object.2. Linking VerbsLinking verbs link a subject to a word or phrase that describes or identifies the subject. They help to complete the expression about the subject. Linking verbs do not take on a direct object but are followed by anadjective. Any verb that expresses an action is not a linking verb.The following are the characteristics of a linking verb:Linking verbs are not action words.He looked at me. (It tells us what he did = action verb)She looked as if she was going to cry. (It doesn't tell us what she did, only how she appeared to be = linking verb)Linking verbs tell us what state the subject is in, what the subject is, etc.He looked tired.She is a nurse.Linking verbs are followed by an adjective, but not a direct object.He feels fine. ('feels' is not an action verb because it's followed by an adjective.)He feels the fine sand of the beach. ('feels' is an action verb.)A pronoun following a linking verb should be in the subjective, not objective.It was he they were looking for. (he = subjective pronoun)NOT: It was him they were looking for. (him = objective pronoun)Linking verbs can be identified by replacing the verb with 'to be' and see if it makes sense. If it does, it is a linking verb. Otherwise, it isn't.Let's use the following two sentences and replace the verb 'feels' with 'is'.He feels fine. = He is fine. (It makes sense, so the verb is a linking verb.)He feels the fine sand of the beach. = He is the fine sand of the beach. (Not a linking verb.)Adverbs modify action words. Using adverbs instead of adjectives with linking verbs will result in incorrect sentences, as shown here:Example: Some common linking verbs: appear, become, feel, grow, look,seem, smell, sound, taste.Andy appears calm. (NOT: Andy appears calmly.)He became anxious about working for the first time. (NOT: He became anxiously about working for the first time.)She feels sad. (NOT: He feels sadly.)Cindy grew impatient with his strange behaviour. (NOT: Cindy grew impatiently with his strange behaviour.)Diane looked beautiful in her new dress. (NOT: Diane looked beautifully in her new dress.)Eddy seemed angry to me. (NOT: Eddy seemed angrily to me.)The pizza smelled delicious. (NOT: The pizza smelled deliciously.)The idea sounds bad. (NOT: The idea sounds badly.)The drink tastes sweet. (NOT: The drink tastes sweetly.)3. Auxiliary VerbsAuxiliary verbs are used to combine with other verbs to form tenses, moods, questions, negative and passive forms. The most common auxiliary verbs are: be (I am reading), have (They have arrived.), and do (We don’t want to go.)SingularPluralI am/have/do/are/have/doWeYou are/have/do/are/have/doYouHe is/has/does/are/have/doTheyShe is/has/does/are/have/doTheyIt is/has/does/are/have/doTheyIn most sentences, you will have noticed that each one has two verbs.EXAMPLE: Jill is riding an elephant.EXAMPLE: Jack has gone with Jill to the zoo.In the two examples, there are two verbs in each sentence – riding and goneare known as the MAIN VERBS, and they each has another verb before it. They are is and has, and these two verbs are known as AUXILIARY VERBS. Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs. The word auxiliary meansproviding help. They help the main verbs riding and gone by combining with them to show their tenses.In the first example, is riding in “Jill is riding an elephant” tells us that the action is still going on, that is Jill is still riding the elephant. Auxiliary verbs do not normally exist alone in a sentence without the main verb.CORRECT: I would like to be rich. / INCORRECT: I would to be rich. (Without main verb)CORRECT: He should try to do it. / INCORRECT: He should to do it. (Without main verb)CORRECT: You must be joking. / INCORRECT: You must joking. (Without main verb)However, auxiliary verbs without the main verbs are commonly used when the meaning is understood. This is often found in replies or responses.Will he help me? Yes, he will. / Can you do this? Yes, I can. / Does she know you? Yes, she does.Here, the auxiliary verbs (will, can, does) are used without the main verbs (help, do, know) The following are types of auxiliary verbs:Passive: This is used to show the passive form.EXAMPLE: The elephant was given a quick bath. Progressive: This shows the action is in progress.EXAMPLE: The old lady is smiling at the elephant. Perfective: This expresses an action completed in the past.EXAMPLE: The monkey has eaten a banana. Modal: Modals are used to express ability, permission or prediction.EXAMPLE: You can use the car if you want.EXAMPLE: She may feed the monkeys.EXAMPLE: He will be a zoo-keeper some day.EXAMPLE: We really should come here again. Question: This is used to form questions.EXAMPLE: Do you like those chimpanzees? Negative statement: This is used to form negative statements.EXAMPLE: I do not like those noisy monkeys. Auxiliary verbs are often used in contracted forms. For instance, haveis shortened to ‘ve; is/has to ‘s; and had/would/should/could to ‘d. In the latter case, care must be exercised to distinguish them correctly.I’m quite sure I’ve lost my way. (= I am / = I have)It’s the biggest dog in the neighbourhood. (=It is)She’s naturally curly hair. (= She has)They’d already gone home. (=They had)We’d like to go now. (= We would)He’d stop thinking every girl dislikes him. (= He should)I’d speak seven languages. (= I could) We can use auxiliary verb for emphasis.EXAMPLE: I do like you.4. The Finite Verb and the InfiniteThe Finite VerbFinite verbs are those with tenses, that is they have the past or the present form. The finite verb is the verb that changes with the person and numberof the subject. Verbs without tense are nonfinite. Note the following:PersonPresent Tense SingularPluralFirst PersonI playWe playSecond PersonYou playYou playThird PersonHe playsThey play She playsThey play It playsThey playThe verb "play" changes with the subject (person). When the subject is in the third person singular, that is he, she, or it, the verb changes into "plays". It does not change when the subject is in the first and second person, that is I or you and in the plural subject, that is, we, you, or they. The verb "play" is a finite verb.Example of finite verb:We go to the library.He goes to the library.They go to the library.She goes to the library.I go to the library.(The finite verb is 'go') The InfinitiveThe infinitive is a verb that comes after the word "to" Note the infinitive does not change with the subject or person.Example: to eat, to run, to see, to take:My fat sister likes to eat spaghetti.I have decided to run away from home.We love to see your face.She wants to take all my candy.Infinitives are also used without 'to'.Example:Let him eat the bigger piece.I think you had better go alone.We see each other only on weekends.Please take this along with you. Infinitives are used without 'to' after helping verbs called auxiliary verbs such as be, have, do, can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might and mustExample:He can drive me to the airport. (NOT: He can to drive me to the airport.)I am so hungry I could eat a whole chicken.She will keep asking silly questionsAnne phoned to say she would be late again. (NOT: Anne phoned to say shewould to be late again.)I shall never say yes to his request.We should eat our dinner earlier tonight.He may come over later this evening.You might have left your keys in the gift shop.We must visit him at the hospital. Where more than one infinitive is used in a sentence, consistency in using the infinitives is essential. The first infinitive is always used with 'to'. If thesecond infinitive is preceded by 'to', the following infinitives must likewise have 'to' before them, or if the second infinitive is used without 'to', the rest must be without 'to' as well. See the following examples.Correct: Each competitor has to paddle across the lake, cycle five kilometres, climb the steep hill and run down to the finishing line.Correct: Each competitor has to paddle across the lake, to cycle five kilometres, to climb the steep hill and to run down to the finishing line.Incorrect: Each competitor has to paddle across the lake, to cycle five kilometres, climb the steep hill and run down to the finishing line.5. Action Verb/State VerbA verb can be an action verb or a state verbAn action verb can be used for an action that has happened or that is still taking place at the time of speaking or that is done habitually.He cycled to the shopping mall.He is cycling to the shopping mall.He cycles to work.An action verb conveys the same meaning when used in the simple orcontinuous tense.John read the newspaper. / John was reading the newspaper.The Queen will meet the President. / The Queen will be meetingthe President.Some action verbs cannot be used in the continuous tense.My father owns that building. (NOT: My father is owning that building.)That book belongs to me. (NOT: That book is belonging to me.)A state verb, also known as 'non-action verbs', refers to the condition of someone or the state they are in, and is not normally used in thecontinuous tense.The two neighbours hate the sight of each other. (NOT: The two neighbours are hating the sight of each other.)She believes everything that is told to her. (NOT: She is believing everything that is told to her.)Some state verbs when used in the continuous tense refer to feelings that occur briefly.We're liking what we are doing.I'm regretting now what I did just now.We're wishing the rain stops suddenlyAs usual, he's being provocative.There are words which we can use for action as well as state.I see you're very happy with your new glasses. (state)The doctor is not seeing any more patients. (action)I have two dogs, one cat and a goldfish. (state)What are we having for dinner tonight? (action)She thinks you are getting the wrong idea about her. (state)We're thinking of quitting smoking. (action)She looks gorgeous in this new dress. (state)She is looking at a dress on sale. (action)6. Regular and Irregular VerbsThere are two groups of verbs, termed regular or irregular, and are identified by how their simple past tense and past participle are formed.Regular verbs – in this group of verbs, the simple past tense and past participle end in –d or –ed.EXAMPLE:simple present tense – touch; kill; pass; stop; rub. simple past tense – touched; killed; passed; stopped; rubbed. past participle – touched; killed; passed; stopped; rubbed.Irregular verbs – a verb that does not follow the usual pattern of grammar. If a verb is irregular, the simple past tense and past participledo not end in –d or –ed. They vary as follow:Where all three forms of an irregular verb are the same.EXAMPLE:simple present tense – cost; hurt; put; read; shut. simple past tense – cost; hurt; put; read; shut. past participle – cost; hurt; put; read; shutWhere only the simple past tense and past participle are the same.EXAMPLE:simple present tense – carry; die; fit; jump; try. simple past tense – carried; died; fitted; jumped; tried. past participle – carried; died; fitted; jumped; tried.Where all three forms are different.EXAMPLE:simple present tense – begin; choose; do; go; see simple past tense – began; chose; did; went; saw past participle – begun; chosen; done; gone; seenThere are verbs which can be regular or irregular as follow:simple present tense – burn; dream; spell.simple past tense – burned/burnt; dreamed/dreamt; spelled/spelt.past participle – burned/burnt; dreamed/dreamt; spelled/spelt.Adjectives Lesson 3 - AdjectivesADJECTIVESKinds of AdjectivesComparison of AdjectivesForming AdjectivesCorrect Usage of Adjectives Adjectives are words which tell us something about nouns, that is about a person, an animal, a thing or a place. They usually come before the nouns they describe. But sometimes they come after the nouns.His hands and legs are thin.Everyone knows a giraffe has a long neck.None of my tables is round.My old car didn't have air conditioning. The words 'thin', 'long', 'round' and 'old' tell us something about the nouns: hands and legs, giraffe, table and car. These words called adjectives tell us about their size, shape and condition. An adjective is therefore a word added to a noun to describe it so that we know more about the noun. Some words can be both adjectives and adverbs as follow: early, fast, andlate. It is important to distinguish how they are used.We arrived a little early for lunch. (Adjective)We arrived early so we still had time before lunch. (Adverb)You are a fast driver these days. (Adjective)You drive fast these days. (Adverb)I overslept and so I was late. (Adjective)I overslept and so I got up late. (Adverb) 1. Kinds of AdjectivesAn adjective that tells us about the quality of the noun. Known asDescriptive Adjective or Adjective of Quality, it tells us about the colour, shape, size or condition of a noun.Example: a white dog, the blue sky, a round table, a square box, a bighouse, a tall tree, a cold morning, an old lorry.An adjective that tells us about the quantity of the noun. This adjective is called an Adjective of Quantity. An adjective of quantity tells us the quantity or amount, and that is 'how many' or 'how much'.Example: I have eaten three apples. / I don't have much money. / The pen has not much ink left. / She has many friends. / The zoo has many animals. An adjective that tells us about the ownership of the noun. This adjective is called a Possessive Adjective. A possessive adjective shows ownership or possession. It tells us that something belongs to a person or thing.Example: That is your cat. / This is my dog. / Is that their house? / Those are our bicycles.An adjective which poses questions in an 'interrogative' manner. It is called an Interrogative Adjective. Like most adjectives, an interrogative adjective comes before a noun.Example: Which monkey bit you? / Which school do you go to? / What colour is your new car? / Whose cap is this?In the example, "which", "what" and "whose" come before the nouns "monkey", "school", "colour" and "cap" respectively. They tell about the nouns and so "which", "what" and "whose" are adjectives.An adjective which specifies a noun. Called a Demonstrative Adjective, it is one that points out a fact about a person or thing.Example: This puppy is mine. / This boy is a member of the club. / Thatpiglet is yours./ That woman is not my wife. / These spiders have long legs. /Those faces are beautiful.In the example, "this", "that", "these" and "those" come before the nouns "puppy", "boy", "piglet", "woman", "spiders" and "faces". They tell something about the nouns and so are adjectives.Adjectives which end in '-ing', e.g. an interesting film, an amazingplayer, an annoying habit,Adjectives which end in '-ed', e.g. the damaged goods, the escapedprisoners, improved version,2. Comparison of AdjectivesWe use the Positive degree to compare two equal nouns.Example: His head is as big as my head.We use the Comparative degree to compare two unequal nouns.Example: His head is bigger than my head.We use the Superlative degree to compare three or more Nouns.Example: His head is the biggest in the family.3. Forming AdjectivesThere are various ways to form adjectives from nouns and verbs as follow:Add '–al': music=musical; nation=national; person=personal.Add '–ful': care=careful; doubt=doubtful; peace=peaceful.Add '–ic': acrobat=acrobatic; artist=artistic; photograph=photographic.Add '–ive': attract*=attractive; effect=effective; act*=active; instruct*=instructive; progress=progressive.Add '–ous': mountain=mountainous; danger=dangerous.Add '–y': greed=greedy; oil=oilyChange 'y' to 'i' and add '–ful': beauty=beautiful; pity=pitiful.Change 'y' to 'i' and add '–ous': mystery=mysterious; glory=glorious.Drop 'e' and add 'y': anger=angry; ease=easy; ice=icy.Drop 'e' and add 'al': nature=natural; agriculture=agricultural.* Verb4. Correct Usage of Adjectives - 'SOME' and 'ANY'We use some in a positive statement and any in a negative statement or a question.Example: I have some money to buy a couple of lollipops. (Positive statement)Example: I haven't any money to buy her a birthday card. (Negative statement)Example: Do you need any help? (A question) We can use 'some' with countable nouns and uncountable nouns.Example: I have bought some apples for you. (Countable noun)Example: There is some tea in the pot. (Uncountable noun) We can use 'some' in a question if it is an invitation or a request.Example: Would you like to have some coffee? (invitation)Example: Will you please give me some medicine for my cough? (request) We can join 'some' and 'any' with 'one', 'body' or 'thing' to formcompound words.Example: There is someone asking for you.Example: The police are looking for somebody.Example: He is hiding something under his bed.Example: There wasn't anyone around when I arrived.Example: Has anybody seen a ghost?Example: It hasn't anything to do with you, so please stop asking.PRONOUNSPronounsPronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. We can use a pronoun instead of a noun. Pronouns are words like: he, you, ours, themselves, some, each... If we didn't have pronouns, we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. We would have to say things like:Do you like the president? I don't like the president. The president is too pompous.With pronouns, we can say:Do you like the president? I don't like him. He is too pompous.Personal PronounsI, me, you, he, him, she...Demonstrative Pronouns this, that, these, thosePossessive Pronouns mine, yours, his...Interrogative Pronounswho, what, which...Reflexive Pronounsmyself, yourself, himself...Reciprocal Pronounseach other, one anotherIndefinite Pronounsanother, much, nobody, few, such...Relative Pronounswho, whom, which...Pronoun Casesubjective, objective, possessiveThat's Not My Job!This is a story about four people named Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody.English PrepositionsA preposition is a word governing, and usually coming in front of, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element, as in:She left before breakfast.What did you come for?(For what did you come?)Short List of Common PrepositionsEnglish Prepositions ListThere are about 150 prepositions in English. Yet this is a very small number when you think of the thousands of other words (nouns, verbs etc). Prepositions are important words. We use individual prepositions more frequently than other individual words. In fact, the prepositions of, to and in are among the ten most frequent words in English. Here is a short list of 70 of the more common one-word prepositions. Many of these prepositions have more than one meaning. Please refer to a dictionary for precise meaning and usage.aboardaboutaboveacrossafteragainstalongamidamongantiaroundasatbeforebehindbelowbeneathbesidebesidesbetweenbeyondbutbyconcerningconsideringdespitedownduringexceptexceptingexcludingfollowingforfromininsideintolikeminusnearofoffonontooppositeoutsideoverpastperplusregardingroundsavesincethanthroughtotowardtowardsunderunderneathunlikeuntilupuponversusviawithwithinwithoutA Simple Rule for PrepositionsEnglish Preposition RuleThere is one very simple rule about prepositions. And, unlike most rules, this rule has no exceptions.RuleA preposition is followed by a "noun". It is never followed by a verb.By "noun" we include:noun (dog, money, love)proper noun (name) (Bangkok, Mary)pronoun (you, him, us)noun group (my first job)gerund (swimming)A preposition cannot be followed by a verb. If we want to follow a preposition by a verb, we must use the "-ing" form which is really a gerund or verb in noun form.Quick Quiz: In the following sentences, why is "to" followed by a verb? That should be impossible, according to the above rule:I would like to go now.She used to smoke.Here are some examples:Subject + verbpreposition"noun"The food isonthe table.She livesinJapan.Tara is lookingforyou.The letter isunderyour blue book.Pascal is usedtoEnglish people.She isn't usedtoworking.I atebeforecoming.ConjunctionsA conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence.Here are some example conjunctions:Coordinating ConjunctionsSubordinating Conjunctionsand, but, or, nor, for, yet, soalthough, because, since, unlessWe can consider conjunctions from three aspects.FormConjunctions have three basic forms:Single Wordfor example: and, but, because, althoughCompound (often ending with as or that)for example: provided that, as long as, in order thatCorrelative (surrounding an adverb or adjective)for example: so...thatFunctionConjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs":Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example:- Jack and Jill went up the hill.- The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example:- I went swimming although it was cold.PositionCoordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause.InterjectionsHi! That's an interjection. :-)Interjection is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah!They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.Interjections like er and um are also known as "hesitation devices". They are extremely common in English. People use them when they don't know what to say, or to indicate that they are thinking about what to say. You should learn to recognize them when you hear them and realize that they have no real meaning.The table below shows some interjections with examples.interjectionmeaningexampleahexpressing pleasure"Ah, that feels good."expressing realization"Ah, now I understand."expressing resignation"Ah well, it can't be heped."expressing surprise"Ah! I've won!"alasexpressing grief or pity"Alas, she's dead now."dearexpressing pity"Oh dear! Does it hurt?"expressing surprise"Dear me! That's a surprise!"ehasking for repetition"It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today."expressing enquiry"What do you think of that, eh?"expressing surprise"Eh! Really?"inviting agreement"Let's go, eh?"erexpressing hesitation"Lima is the capital of...er...Peru."hello, hulloexpressing greeting"Hello John. How are you today?"expressing surprise"Hello! My car's gone!"heycalling attention"Hey! look at that!"expressing surprise, joy etc"Hey! What a good idea!"hiexpressing greeting"Hi! What's new?"hmmexpressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement"Hmm. I'm not so sure."oh, oexpressing surprise"Oh! You're here!"expressing pain"Oh! I've got a toothache."expressing pleading"Oh, please say 'yes'!"ouchexpressing pain"Ouch! That hurts!"uhexpressing hesitation"Uh...I don't know the answer to that."uh-huhexpressing agreement"Shall we go?" "Uh-huh."um, ummexpressing hesitation"85 divided by 5 is...um...17."wellexpressing surprise"Well I never!"introducing a remark"Well, what did he say?"Introduction to Reading ComprehensionThere are a handful of reading comprehension question types that constitute the bulk of questions you will face in this section. The ability to recognize these question types quickly and understand the aim of the question and the common traits of correct and incorrect answers is extremely important. Depending upon how specific one is in classifying questions, there are about seven question types.Main IdeaSupporting IdeaInferenceTone & StylePassage StructureApplicationLogical ReasoningAlthough there is by no means a hard-and-fast rule about the difficulty of the questions that fall into each category, questions in the main idea category tend to be easier while questions in the inference and application categories tend to be more difficult. Questions about the author's tone tend to appear less frequently than other questions,Main Idea QuestionsMain IdeaMain idea questions ask you to identify the "primary purpose" or "main point" of the passage. In order to answer these questions correctly, you must be able to identify the thesis of the passage and those ideas that support this thesis. The test-writers attempt to confuse you with a few answer choices that are supporting ideas.Common Question StemsWhich of the following most accurately states the main idea of the passage?The primary purpose of the passage is toThe passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?The author of this passage is primarily concerned withThe main point made by the passage is thatHow to Identify Correct AnswerMain point questions ask you to identify the crux of the author's point. You must identify which ideas in the passage play a supporting role and which idea is being supported. In many ways, this is similar to identifying the premises and conclusion to a critical reasoning argument. The correct answer to a main point question is often a paraphrase of the conclusion or thesis statement of the passage. Common incorrect answer choices are those that feature supporting ideas. These answer choices are appealing to many test-takers because the material presented in them is true and based upon the passage.Supporting Idea QuestionsSupporting IdeaSupporting idea questions are often prefaced by "according to the passage" or "the passage states that". Most of the questions that fit into this category could be called "find the fact" as they rely on your ability to find a specific piece of information, often contained in two or three sentences.These questions tend to be more difficult than main idea questions because they require a more detailed recollection of the test. If necessary, you can return to the text and quickly re-read a few sentences.Unlike main idea questions which are more generic in their question stem, these questions tend to incorporate an idea specific to the passage in the question stem.Common Question StemsAccording to the passage, a questionable assumption about x is thatThe passage states that x occurs becauseAccording to the passage, which of the following is true of xThe passage mentions each of the following EXCEPTAccording to the passage, if x occurs thenHow to Identify Correct AnswerIn trying to identify the correct answer, it is extremely important that you stick quite close to the text. The words "according to the passage" should be taken seriously. Answers that seem logical but are not directly supported by the text should be avoided.Inference based QuestionsInferenceInference questions are often prefaced by "the passage implies" or "the author implies", where "suggests" is sometimes substituted.In some ways, inference and supporting idea questions are similar. They both require you to stick closely to the text and rely on specific facts. However, inference questions tend to go a tad further and ask you to make a very small logical conclusion that is strongly implied based upon information in the passage. Answer choices that require significant assumptions or inferences will NEVER be correct. In inference questions, the answer lies directly in the text and requires a very small logical step (e.g., if the text says that "all the cups in the room are red", an inference would be that "there are no green cups in the room").In other ways, inference and application questions are similar. They both require you to draw a conclusion, albeit a very small one, based upon what the passage states explicitly. However, theinference question type asks for an answer that is often a near paraphrase of a fact in the passage or a fact that the information in the passage rules out (e.g., if a species of an animal has existed for 1 million years, you can infer that the animal is not new to the earth). On the contrary, the application question type asks you to use the information in the passage as premises and draw a conclusion that is not directly addressed in the passage. In other words, the answer to inference questions is a conclusion made in the passage while the answer toapplication questions is a conclusion that is applied outside of the passage to an idea or action.Common Question StemsThe passage implies that which of the following was true of xIt can be inferred from the passage thatThe passage suggests which of the following about xThe author implies that x occurred becauseThe author implies that all of the following statements about x are true EXCEPTHow to Identify Correct AnswerThe correct answer to these questions is usually an obvious logical consequence of a sentence in the text. The logical consequence will be extremely clear. The difficulty in these questions resides in finding the specific sentence in the passage that provides the premise for the conclusion in the correct answer. Stay away from answer choices that do not directly and closely follow from a statement in the passage, even if this statement seems plausible based upon the general idea of the passage or commonly accepted knowledge.Tone and Style Tone & StyleTone questions ask you to identify the attitude or mood of a specific part of the passage or of the entire passage. A common characteristic of this question type is answer choices that are marked by one to three word phrases containing adjectives. Tone questions test your ability to recognize an attitude or disposition of the author, which is signaled by the use of a handful of trigger words. Never base your guess about the author's tone on a single word--this is not enough to define the tone of the entire passage.Tone questions tend to be among the more infrequent question types.Common Question StemsThe attitude of the author of the passage toward x is best described as one ofThe tone of the author is best described asPassage StructurePassage structure questions ask you to determine the relationship between different parts of a passage. The key to this question type is understanding the relationship between each idea and paragraph. You must be able to separate ideas that support a thesis from the thesis idea itself. These questions are referred to by some as logical structure questions.Common Question StemsOne function of the third paragraph of this passage is toThe author uses the adjective x in line y to emphasize thatWhich of the following best describes the relation of the first paragraph to the passage as a whole?The author refers to x in line y primarily toIn the context of the passage, the word x (line y) most closely corresponds to which of the following phrases?Application based QuestionsApplicationApplication questions ask you to take information and conclusions in the passage and extrapolate them to similar situations or ideas. The key to this question type is the ability to identify the crux of an argument and see how it relates to a similar situation.Common Question TasksMirroring: Select an action or idea not discussed in the text that most mirrors an action or idea discussed in the textPredicting: Make a prediction based upon the information in the passageCommon Question StemsThe author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following?Which of the following statements would provide the most logical continuation of the final paragraph?[an idea or action described in the passage] is most similar to which of the following?Reasoning based QuestionsLogical ReasoningLogical reasoning questions ask you to take information outside the passage and reason about how it will influence a point or sentence in the passage. The most common questions in this genre are those that ask which pieces of information will strengthen or weaken a point in the passage.In some ways, these questions are similar to application questions in that both require you to understand the thesis of the passage (if one exists) and the relationship between ideas in the passage. However, logical reasoning questions ask you to take outside information and apply it to the ideas in the passage (commonly to strengthen or weaken a point in the passage). However, application questions ask you to take the information in the passage and apply it to an argument or action outside the passage.In other ways, these questions are similar to passage structure questions in that both require you to understand the relationship between different parts of the passage and both require you to identify the thesis (if one exists). However, passage structure questions simply ask you to identify the roles different sentences play in the overall passage while logical reasoning questions ask you to take outside information and apply it to the ideas in the passage while maintaining an awareness of what these outside ideas will do to the structure and thesis of the passage.Common Question StemsWhich of the following, if true, would best support x [where x is an idea or argument described in the passage]The author's conclusion concerning x would be most seriously undermined ifWhich of the following, if true, would most weaken the explanation of x provided in the passageStrategies for Different types of RC For many years, teaching reading comprehension was based on a concept of reading as the application of a set of isolated skills such as identifying words, finding main ideas, identifying cause and effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, and sequencing. Teaching reading comprehension was viewed as a mastery of these skills. Comprehension instruction followed what the study called mentioning, practicing, and assessing procedure where teachers mentioned a specific skill that students were to apply, had students practice the skill by completing workbook pages, then assessed them to find out if they could use the skill correctly. Instruction did little to help students learn how or when to use the skills, nor was is ever established that this particular set of skills enabled comprehension.Research indicates that we build comprehension through the teaching of comprehension strategies and environments that support an understanding of text. It is important for educators and parents to teach children active strategies and skills to help them become active, purposeful readers. Teaching reading comprehension is an active process of constructing meaning, not skill application. The act of constructing meaning is:Interactive – It involves not just the reader, but the text and the context in which reading takes place.Strategic – Readers have purposes for their reading and use a variety of strategies as they construct meaning.Adaptable – Readers change the strategies they use as they read different kinds of text or as they read for different purposes.What Do Good Readers Do?Before reading, good readers tend to set goals for their reading.During reading, good readers read words accurately and quickly, while dealing with meanings of words.Good readers are selective as they read.Good readers use their background knowledge (schema) to create mental images, ask questions, and make inferences. Good readers monitor their comprehension as they read.How Do Poor Readers Differ From Good Readers?Poor readers do not have sufficient awareness to develop, select, and apply strategies that can enhance their comprehension.Poor readers rarely prepare before reading.During reading, poor readers may have difficulty decoding, reading too slowly, and lack fluency.Poor readers often lack sufficient background knowledge and have trouble making connections with text.Some poor readers are unaware of text organization.After reading, poor readers do not reflect on what they have just read.READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIESMaking ConnectionsCreating Mental Images (Visualizing)QuestioningInferringEvaluating (Determining Importance)SynthesizingSteve and I use the lessons found in Comprehension Connections by Tanny McGregor, Reading with Meaning by Debbie Miller, and 7 Keys to Comprehension by Susan Zimmerman and Chryse Hutchins for teaching reading comprehension strategies.METACOGNITION & SCHEMA (BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE)Although "metacognition" and "schema" aren't comprehension strategies, they are very important for teaching reading comprehension strategies. John Flavell used the term “metacognition” in the 70’s and believed we were capable of monitoring our own thoughts. Simply put, metacognition means to think about your thinking. In her book, Comprehension Connections, Tanny McGregor uses a mathematical equation to teach this concept to her students that I’ve also used in my classroom: Text + Thinking = Real ReadingWhen you read text and think at the same time you are “real reading”…or being metacognitive! In 7 Keys to Comprehension, Zimmerman & Hutchins define schema (background knowledge) as the meaning you get from a piece of literature that is intertwined with the meaning you bring to it. A layering occurs, a weaving of past and present, an amalgam of old and new ideas and experiences. When you read, sometimes you activate your schema or you build upon it. A previous student of mine described schema simply as “everything that is stuck in your brain”…I like that definition!As Tanny mentions in her book, it’s hard teaching reading comprehension strategies without teaching your children about metacognition and schema. Look for the activities that Steve and I use coming soon on the Comprehension Activities Page!MAKING CONNECTIONSChildren make personal connections with the text by using their schema. There are three main types of connections we can make during reading:Text-to-Self: Refers to connections made between the text and the reader's personal experience.Text-to-Text: Refers to connections made between a text being read to a text that was previously read.Text-to-World: Refers to connections made between a text being read and something that occurs in the world.CREATING MENTAL IMAGES (VISUALIZING)This strategy involves the ability of readers to make mental images of a text as a way to understand processes or events they encounter during reading. This ability can be an indication that a reader understands the text. Some research suggests that readers who visualize as they read are better able to recall what they have read than those who do not visualize.QUESTIONINGThis strategy involves readers asking themselves questions throughout the reading of text. The ability of readers to ask themselves relevant questions as they read is especially valuable in helping them to integrate information, identify main ideas, and summarize information. Asking the right questions allows good readers to focus on the most important information in a text.INFERRINGAuthors do not always provide complete descriptions of, or explicit information about a topic, setting, character, or event. However, they often provide clues that readers can use to “read between the lines”—by making inferences that combine information in the text with their schema.EVALUATING (DETERMINING IMPORTANCE)Determining importance has to do with knowing why you’re reading and then making decisions about what information or ideas are most critical to understanding the overall meaning of the piece.SYNTHESIZINGSynthesizing is the process of ordering, recalling, retelling, and recreating into a coherent whole the information with which our minds are bombarded everyday. Synthesizing is closely linked to evaluating. Basically, as we identify what’s important, we interweave our thoughts to form a comprehensive perspective to make the whole greater than just the sum of the parts.How to read faster?How much more could you get done if you completed all of your required reading in 1/3 or 1/5 the time?Increasing reading speed is a process of controlling fine motor movement—period.This post is a condensed overview of principles I taught to undergraduates at Princeton University in 1998 at a seminar called the “PX Project”. The below was written several years ago, so it’s worded like Ivy-Leaguer pompous-ass prose, but the results are substantial. In fact, while on an airplane in China two weeks ago, I helped Glenn McElhose increase his reading speed 34% in less than 5 minutes.I have never seen the method fail. Here’s how it works…The PX ProjectThe PX Project, a single 3-hour cognitive experiment, produced an average increase in reading speed of 386%.It was tested with speakers of five languages, and even dyslexics were conditioned to read technical material at more than 3,000 words-per-minute (wpm), or 10 pages per minute. One page every 6 seconds. By comparison, the average reading speed in the US is 200-300 wpm (1/2 to 1 page per minute), with the top 1% of the population reading over 400 wpm…If you understand several basic principles of the human visual system, you can eliminate inefficiencies and increase speed while improving retention.To perform the exercises in this post and see the results, you will need: a book of 200+ pages that can lay flat when open, a pen, and a timer (a stop watch with alarm or kitchen timer is ideal). You should complete the 20 minutes of exercises in one session.First, several definitions and distinctions specific to the reading process:A) Synopsis: You must minimize the number and duration of fixations per line to increase speed.You do not read in a straight line, but rather in a sequence of saccadic movements (jumps). Each of these saccades ends with a fixation, or a temporary snapshot of the text within you focus area (approx. the size of a quarter at 8? from reading surface). Each fixation will last ¼ to ½ seconds in the untrained subject. To demonstrate this, close one eye, place a fingertip on top of that eyelid, and then slowly scan a straight horizontal line with your other eye-you will feel distinct and separate movements and periods of fixation.B) Synopsis: You must eliminate regression and back-skipping to increase speed.The untrained subject engages in regression (conscious rereading) and back-skipping (subconscious rereading via misplacement of fixation) for up to 30% of total reading time.C) Synopsis: You must use conditioning drills to increase horizontal peripheral vision span and the number of words registered per fixation.Untrained subjects use central focus but not horizontal peripheral vision span during reading, foregoing up to 50% of their words per fixation (the number of words that can be perceived and “read” in each fixation).The ProtocolYou will 1) learn technique, 2) learn to apply techniques with speed through conditioning, then 3) learn to test yourself with reading for comprehension.These are separate, and your adaptation to the sequencing depends on keeping them separate. Do not worry about comprehension if you are learning to apply a motor skill with speed, for example. The adaptive sequence is: technique ‘ technique with speed ‘ comprehensive reading testing.As a general rule, you will need to practice technique at 3x the speed of your ultimate target reading speed. Thus, if you currently read at 300 wpm and your target reading speed is 900 wpm, you will need to practice technique at 1,800 words-per-minute, or 6 pages per minute (10 seconds per page).We will cover two main techniques in this introduction:1) Trackers and Pacers (to address A and B above)2) Perceptual Expansion (to address C)First – Determining BaselineTo determine your current reading speed, take your practice book (which should lay flat when open on a table) and count the number of words in 5 lines. Divide this number of words by 5, and you have your average number of words-per-line.Example: 62 words/5 lines = 12.4, which you round to 12 words-per-lineNext, count the number of text lines on 5 pages and divide by 5 to arrive at the average number of lines per page. Multiply this by average number of words-per-line, and you have your average number of words per page.Example: 154 lines/5 pages = 30.8, rounded to 31 lines per page x 12 words-per-line = 372 words per pageMark your first line and read with a timer for 1 minute exactly-do not read faster than normal, and read for comprehension. After exactly one minute, multiply the number of lines by your average words-per-line to determine your current words-per-minute (wpm) rate.Second – Trackers and PacersRegression, back-skipping, and the duration of fixations can be minimized by using a tracker and pacer. To illustrate the importance of a tracker-did you use a pen or finger when counting the number of words or lines in above baseline calculations? If you did, it was for the purpose of tracking-using a visual aid to guide fixation efficiency and accuracy. Nowhere is this more relevant than in conditioning reading speed by eliminating such inefficiencies.For the purposes of this article, we will use a pen. Holding the pen in your dominant hand, you will underline each line (with the cap on), keeping your eye fixation above the tip of the pen. This will not only serve as a tracker, but it will also serve as a pacer for maintaining consistent speed and decreasing fixation duration. You may hold it as you would when writing, but it is recommended that you hold it under your hand, flat against the page.1) Technique (2 minutes):Practice using the pen as a tracker and pacer. Underline each line, focusing above the tip of the pen. DO NOT CONCERN YOURSELF WITH COMPREHENSION. Keep each line to a maximum of 1 second, and increase the speed with each subsequent page. Read, but under no circumstances should you take longer than 1 second per line.2) Speed (3 minutes):Repeat the technique, keeping each line to no more than ½ second (2 lines for a single “one-one-thousand”). Some will comprehend nothing, which is to be expected. Maintain speed and technique-you are conditioning your perceptual reflexes, and this is a speed exercise designed to facilitate adaptations in your system. Do not decrease speed. ½ second per line for 3 minutes; focus above the pen and concentrate on technique with speed. Focus on the exercise, and do not daydream.Third – Perceptual ExpansionIf you focus on the center of your computer screen (focus relating to the focal area of the fovea in within the eye), you can still perceive and register the sides of the screen. Training peripheral vision to register more effectively can increase reading speed over 300%. Untrained readers use up to ½ of their peripheral field on margins by moving from 1st word to last, spending 25-50% of their time “reading” margins with no content.To illustrate, let us take the hypothetical one line: “Once upon a time, students enjoyed reading four hours a day.” If you were able to begin your reading at “time” and finish the line at “four”, you would eliminate 6 of 11 words, more than doubling your reading speed. This concept is easy to implement and combine with the tracking and pacing you’ve already practiced.1) Technique (1 minute):Use the pen to track and pace at a consistent speed of one line per second. Begin 1 word in from the first word of each line, and end 1 word in from the last word.DO NOT CONCERN YOURSELF WITH COMPREHENSION. Keep each line to a maximum of 1 second, and increase the speed with each subsequent page. Read, but under no circumstances should you take longer than 1 second per line.2) Technique (1 minute):Use the pen to track and pace at a consistent speed of one line per second. Begin 2 words in from the first word of each line, and end 2 words in from the last word.3) Speed (3 minutes):Begin at least 3 words in from the first word of each line, and end 3 words in from the last word. Repeat the technique, keeping each line to no more than ½ second (2 lines for a single “one-one-thousand”).Some will comprehend nothing, which is to be expected. Maintain speed and technique-you are conditioning your perceptual reflexes, and this is a speed exercise designed to facilitate adaptations in your system. Do not decrease speed. ½ second per line for 3 minutes; focus above the pen and concentrate on technique with speed. Focus on the exercise, and do not daydream.Fourth – Calculate New WPM Reading SpeedMark your first line and read with a timer for 1 minute exactly- Read at your fastest comprehension rate. Multiply the number of lines by your previously determined average words-per-line to get determine your new words-per-minute (wpm) rate.Congratulations on completing your cursory overview of some of the techniques that can be used to accelerate human cognition (defined as the processing and use of information).Final recommendations: If used for study, it is recommended that you not read 3 assignments in the time it would take you to read one, but rather, read the same assignment 3 times for exposure and recall improvement, depending on relevancy to testing.