INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

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PowerPoint Presentation : INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BOD Y

PowerPoint Presentation : ANATOMY- the branch of science that deals with the structure of body parts, their forms, and how they are organized. PHYSIOLOGY- deals on how the systems of the body work , and the ways in which their integrated cooperation maintains life and health of an individual. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY- study of disorders of functioning , and a knowledge of normal physiology makes such disorder easier to understand.

SUBDIVISIONS OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY : SUBDIVISIONS OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Gross anatomy-study of large, easily observable structures. Microscopic anatomy- study of very small structures with the use of a microscope or a magnifying instrument. Developmental anatomy- Study of structural changes from conception to birth. Neurophysiology-study of the working of nervous system. Pathological anatomy (Pathology)-deals with the cause and nature of disease and the changes in structure and function that results from disease process.

PowerPoint Presentation : 7. Cellular Physiology- Study of interactions of cell parts and the specific functions of the organelles of the cell in general. 8. Developmental Physiology- Study of functional changes that occur as an organism develops. 9. Pathological Physiology- Study of functional changes that occur as the organs age or become disease. 6. Cardiac physiology- study of the functions of the heart.

LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION : LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION

PowerPoint Presentation : 1) Chemical Atoms Molecule. Macromolecules Organelles

PowerPoint Presentation : TWO MAJOR CATEGORIES OF CHEMICAL LEVEL: INORGANIC CHEMICALS 2) Organic chemicals

PowerPoint Presentation : 2) Cellular level- consists of cells ;this is the structural and functional unit of the body. 3) Tissue level- which are formed by tissues, group of similarly specialized cells and their intercellular material. 4) Organ level- consists of organs, structure of definite form and function and which are composed of two or more different tissues. 5) System level- formed by systems, associations of organs and has a common function--- ORGANISM .

SYSTEMS OF THE BODY : SYSTEMS OF THE BODY

PowerPoint Presentation : INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM- Consists of the skin and the hair covering. Protects the deeper tissues from injury. Minor excretory organ. Regulates body temperature.

PowerPoint Presentation : 2) Skeletal system Bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints. Supports the body and serves as a framework for the attachment of the skeletal muscles.

PowerPoint Presentation : 3) Muscular system This is for the function of moveme nt.

PowerPoint Presentation : 4) Nervous system Brain, spinal cord, nerves and sensory receptors. Functions for irritability and conductivity.

PowerPoint Presentation : 5) Endocrine system Endocrine glands that secrete hormones, which control bodily activities. Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries and testes.

PowerPoint Presentation : 6) Cardiovascular system Heart, blood vessels, and blood. The blood transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones and other substances to and from tissue cells where exchange are made.

PowerPoint Presentation : 7) Lymphatic system Compliments the cardiovascular system Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs such.

PowerPoint Presentation : 8) Respiratory system Consists of the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

PowerPoint Presentation : 9) Digestive system Digestive tract and the digestive gland. The digestive tract: mouth (oral cavity), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, rectum and anus. Digestive glands: salivary glands, liver and pancreas. Breakdown foods.

PowerPoint Presentation : 10) Urinary system Excretory system: kidney, ureters, bladder and urethra The main function of this system is to eliminate nitrogenous waste products .

PowerPoint Presentation : 11) Reproductive system Functions for the perpetuation or multiplication of species. Male reproductive system: testes, scrotum,penis, accessory glands and the duct system. Female reproductive system: ovaries, which produce egg (ova) Female duct system: uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina.

HOMEOSTASIS : HOMEOSTASIS It refers to the balance of internal environment. Every organ/ system plays a role in maintaining the constancy of the internal environment of the body

PowerPoint Presentation : Homeostatic imbalance- means the body organs become less efficient and internal condition become less and less stable. Feedback- occurs whenever an adjustment that a person makes in the present affects the future state of the body. Ex. Weather is hot--------sweat glands is activated--------perspire (FEEDBACK) Weather is cold--------muscles contracts and relax--------shiver--------action gives off heat.

PowerPoint Presentation : Two types of feedback: 1) Negative feedback- mechanism is a feedback system that produces a response that is opposite to the initiating stimulus. (Body response reverses the stimulus). Ex. If blood pressure is high, the (-) feedback is to decrease the BP. If blood pressure is low, (-) feedback is to raise the BP. 2) Positive feedback mechanism- operates where the initial stimulus is reinforced. Ex. Blood glucose level is decreased-------- (+) feedback is to lower it further.

DIRECTIONAL TERMS : DIRECTIONAL TERMS Superior (cephalic or cranial) - toward the head of the upper part of a structure: generally refers to structure in the trunk. Examples: The kidneys are superior to the urinary bladder. The heart is superior to the liver The nose is superior to the lips The chin is superior to the neck The stomach is superior to the intestines The esophagus is superior to the stomach

PowerPoint Presentation : 2) Inferior (caudal) - away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure; generally refers to the structure in the trunk. Example: The neck is inferior to the head. The liver is inferior to the lungs The diaphragm is inferior to the heart 3) Anterior (ventral)- nearer to or at the front or belly surface of the body .In the prone position the body lies anterior side down,in the supine position the body lies anterior side up. Example : The lips are anterior to the front teeth. The chest is on the anterior side of the body 4)Posterior (dorsal) - nearer or at the back or backbone surface of the body, or the opposite of anterior. Example: The pharynx is posterior to the oral cavity. The lumbar area is posterior to the umbilical area The occipital area is on the posterior side of the body

PowerPoint Presentation : 5 ) Medial- nearer the midline of the body or a structure. Example: The nose is medial to the eyes. The heart is medial to the lungs The genital area is medial to the inguinal area. 6 ) Lateral- farther from the midline of the body or a structure. Example: The ears are on the lateral side of the body/The ears lare ateral to the head The shoulders are lateral to the neck. 7 ) Intermediate- between two structures. Example: The digit two are intermediate to the digit 1 and digit 3. The elbow is intermediate to the brachial and antebrachial. The cervical area is intermediate to the head and trunk. 8 ) Ipsilateral- on the same side of the body. Example: The right eye is ipsilateral to the right ear. The right shoulder is ipsilateral to the right hand.

PowerPoint Presentation : 9) Contra lateral- on the opposite side of the body. Example: The right ear is contra lateral to the left ear. The right eye is contralateral to the left eye. The right lung is contralateral to the left lung. 10) Proximal- nearer the attachment of an extremity to the trunk; farther from the point of origin. Example: The elbow is proximal to the wrist. The brachial is proximal to the antebrachial. 11) Distal- farther from the attachment of an extremity to the trunk; farther from the point of origin. Example: The digitals are distal to the wrist. The antebrachial is distal brachial. 12)Superficial (external) - toward or on the surface of the body. Example: The epidermis is the superficial layer of the skin.

PowerPoint Presentation : 13) Deep (internal) - away from the surface of the body. Example: The dermis is the deep layer of the skin. 14) Peripheral – extending from the main part (describes the location of certain blood vessels and nerves). Example : Nerves in the arm are part of the peripheral nervous system. 15) Parietal- pertaining to the wall of a cavity. Example: The parietal pleura lines the chest cavity. 16) Visceral- pertaining to organs within a cavity. Example: The visceral pleura covers the lungs.

PLANES OF THE BODY : PLANES OF THE BODY

PowerPoint Presentation : Commonly used planes are: 1 ) Sagittal- Refers to the lengthwise plane that divides the body into right and left portions. a) Midsagittal (median) - A vertical plane that passes through the midline of the body and divides the body or an organ into equal right or left sides. b) Parasagittal- vertical plane that does not pass through the midline of the body and divides the body or an organ into unequal rights and left sides. 2) Frontal (coronal) - A vertical plane at a right angle to a midsagittal plane that divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior portions. 3) Horizontal (transverse) - A plane that is parallel to the ground (at a right angle to midsagittal, parasagittal, and frontal planes) and divides the body or an organ into superior and inferior portions.

PowerPoint Presentation : 5) Cross section – a plane perpendicular to the long axis of an organ. Ex. A cross section of the small intestine( tube) would look like a circle with the cavity of the intestine at the center. 6) Longitudinal section- a plane along the long axis of an organ.

PowerPoint Presentation : MIDSAGITTAL PLANE PARASAGITTAL PLANE TRANSVERSE (horizontal) PLANE FRONTAL (coronal) PLANE

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BODY CAVITIES : BODY CAVITIES One way of organizing the principal body cavities are as follows: **Membrane- a thin, soft pliable sheet of tissue that lines a tube or cavity. Dorsal body cavity a. Cranial cavity b. Spinal cavity

PowerPoint Presentation : 2) Ventral body cavity a. Thoracic cavity b. Abdominal cavity 3) Pelvic cavity * Female- Uterus *Male- Prostrate gland. 2 kinds of peritneum: 1) Parietal peritoneum 2) Visceral peritoneum

PowerPoint Presentation : Mediastinum- the space is between the pleurae of the lungs extending from the sternum to the back bone. MEDIASTINUM

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ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS : ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS 1)Subcostal line- an upper horizontal line that passes just below the bottom of the rib cage through the pylorus (lower portion) of the stomach. 2) Transtubercular line- a lower horizontal line that joins the iliac crests (top surfaces of the hip bones)

PowerPoint Presentation : 3) Right midclavicular line- drawn through the midpoint of the right clavicle slightly medial to the right nipple. 4) Left midclavicular line- drawn through the midpoint of the left clavicle slightly medial to left nipple.

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NINE REGIONS OF THE ABDOMEN: : NINE REGIONS OF THE ABDOMEN: 1. Right Hypochondriac : to the right of the epigastric region. 2. Epigastric : directly above the umbilical region. 3. Left Hypochondriac : to the left of the epigastric region 4. Right Lumbar : to the right of the umbilical region . 5. Umbilical : which is centrally located .

PowerPoint Presentation : 6. Left Lumbar : to the left of umbilical region. 7. Right Iliac(Inguinal) : to the right of the hypogastric (pubic) region. 8. Hypogastric (Pubic) : directly below the umbilical region. 9. Left Iliac(Inguinal) : to the left of the hypogastric (pubic region).

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ABDOMINOPELVIC QUADRANTS : ABDOMINOPELVIC QUADRANTS The two lines divide the abdominopelvic cavity into: 1) Right upper quadrant 2) Left upper quadrant 3) Right lower quadrant 4) Left lower quadrant.

PowerPoint Presentation : Quadrant names are used in locating the site of an: a. abdominopelvic tumor b. abnormalities located on the abdomen. c. Pain like RLQ- Suspect of appendicitis. RUQ- F Suspect for gallstone. * Gallstone- are cholesterol that forms within the gallbladder or bile duct.

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REGIONAL TERMS : REGIONAL TERMS

ANTERIOR BODY LANDMARKS (Descriptive terms for body parts and areas) : ANTERIOR BODY LANDMARKS (Descriptive terms for body parts and areas) Abdominal Antecubital Antebrachial Axillary Brachial Buccal Carpal Cervical Cranial Digital Femoral Frontal Inguinal

PowerPoint Presentation : 14. Mammary 15. Nasal 16. Orbital 17. Parietal 18. Oral 19. Patellar 20. Pectoral (Thoracic) 21. Pedal 22. Perineal 23. Plantar 24. Peroneal 25. Pubic 26. Sternal 27. Tarsal 28. Temporal 29. Umbilical 30. Volar (Palmar)

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POSTERIOR BODY LANDMARKS : POSTERIOR BODY LANDMARKS Cephalic Crural Deltoid Gluteal Lumbar Occipital Popliteal Sacral Scapular Sural Vertebral

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Descriptive terms used for the organs : Descriptive terms used for the organs Cardio Cutaneous Gastric Hepa Pulmonary Renal Thorax Neuro Hema Chole

Important prefixes and suffixes : Important prefixes and suffixes Prefixes Anti (against) Bi (two) Brady (slow) Cirrh (yellow) Contra (against, opposite) Crypt (hidden, concealed)

PowerPoint Presentation : Crypt (hidden, concealed) Cyano (blue) Dys (painful, difficult) Ecto (exo- outside)

PowerPoint Presentation : Hemi (half) Hyper (over, above, excessive) Hypo (under, beneath, deficient) Macro (large, great) Micro (small)

PowerPoint Presentation : Neo (new) Oligo (small, few) Tachy (rapid)

PowerPoint Presentation : Suffixes Centesis (puncture, usually for drainage) ectomize, ectomy (excision/removal of) It is (inflammation) megally (enlarged) Oma (tumor) ostomy – create an opening

PowerPoint Presentation : Ostomy (create an opening) Colostomy- Surgically established fistula between the colon and the surface of the abdomen. *Fistula- an opening on the anterior and posterior part of the abdomen for important purposes.

PowerPoint Presentation : THANK YOU

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