i Lane's English as a Second Language b y Richard R. Lane, Ph.D. Illustrations b y Leon Samoilovich Book 4ii Copyright © 1977; revised 1988, 2000, 2009 by Richard R. Lane All rights reserved. No part of this book may be changed without written permission from the publisher. The world’s most efficacious ESL series is given freely to all students and teachers of English by-Lane Press P.O. Box 17822 Stanford, CA 94305 USAiii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Foreword Lesson 1 -Romeo and Juliet 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Possessive Pronouns while, able, un-, a + time and quantity Direct and Indirect Speech get + verb Positive and Negative Sentences to send, to seem A Real Caribbean Adventure An Invitation to a Party Lesson 2 -Romeo and Juliet 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 like, mixed, fixed, ever Adverbs -ly Progressive Tenses so, such to let, to keep Crime Fighters Business Letters Lesson 3 -Romeo and Juliet 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 going to, let's, well, self Passive Verb Forms to hear, to find The American Civil War Newspaper Advertisements Lesson 4 -Romeo and Juliet 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 instead of, despite, used to, the same Simple Tenses Perfect Tenses to show, to hit The Sun and Its Planets My Friend Lesson 5 -Romeo and Juliet 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Uses of the Infinitive Conditional Tenses who/whom, which Exclamations to leave, to throw Daydreams The Job Interviewiv Intentionally left blankv FOREWORD The English language is now closer to being the world's second language than any other since the dominance of Latin in Western civilization. Today, English is the official or first language of 23 nations with a combined population of about 500,000,000. In addition, it is a co-official or widely used second language in another 25 nations with more than 900,000,000. The best estimates are that 50,000,000 primary school students and 75,000,000 secondary school students are currently studying English as a second language. To this can be added millions more who are studying English at the adult and college/university levels. China alone is said to have more people (500,000,000) studying English than the combined populations of the UK (61,000,000). the USA (305,000,000), and Canada (33,000,000) among whom 75%-80% claim English as their mother tongue. As a student of English, you have a lot of company. You are part of a truly global enterprise. The fact that English is a key to many doors—technology, science, business, politics, culture—accounts in large measure for its present attractiveness. To any list of causes that might be offered for this widespread use, we should keep in mind that in sharp contrast to those who have made a near fetish out of their languages, native speakers of English have not fixed it within any standard, except intelligibility. The absence of any high authority to decide what is and what is not "English" has given the language a relatively unfettered line of development which is probably more dynamic today than ever before. English has never echoed to any call for "purity." Because it is not afraid of being “corrupted” and has such a high tolerance for new words and expressions, regardless of their origins, English is able to adapt to local conditions with ease. There have been many well-intentioned efforts directed at the needs of English learners. The traditional approaches were entirely grammar based. These were later supplemented by frequency word counts. Then came the communicative approach, which spawned audio-lingual methods seeking to teach the living language. A more recent development along this line has been Survival English. Looking at these approaches in terms of progress in the language against time and effort expended, the criteria of efficacy, we see that each is found seriously wanting. The grammatical approach to English was nothing more than an extension of the traditional teaching of Greek and Latin. Students had a very difficult time going from their passive knowledge to an active use of the language. Desiring to eliminate such useless sentences as "Lightning has struck my carriage," textbook writers turned to word counts only to discover that students needed a relatively large vocabulary before much of consequence could be said. Though the word count approach strengthened reading and writing abilities, it did little to get students to speak. Thus the door was opened for the communicative approach which demanded students be taught the spoken language in daily situations. But, if we were to teach what students are likely to hear, we would begin with a number of "four-letter" words and then graduate to "I ain't gonna" and "He done it." Since this is unacceptable to most people, teachers and material developers have concentrated on getting and giving information in a number of different situations: the post office, the bus stop, the doctor's office, job interview, etc. Unfortunately, natural conversations in these various situations require a rather extensive vocabulary and command of sophisticated grammatical structures as well as a plethora of idioms. Much of this material seems designed to keep the teacher's interest, rather than approach the problem of language acquisition from the student's perspective. The communicative approach can not be faulted for its goal. The problem lies with its lack of any apparent criteria for introducing vocabulary and structures. Beginning students do not need ten ways to say "Hello." In my own search for an alternative to these approaches to English, I have been attracted by various ideas of simplification, particularly those of C. K. Ogden, the developer of BASIC English. I see simplification as principally a controlled and ordered approach to the language. There is no doubt in my mind that more than 80% of the English language conforms to certain rules and patterns and if students can begin to see this underlying structure or logic, they can experience the joy of communication and gather the momentum to carry them through the rough, illogical parts. Lane's English as a Second Language is different because it offers the learner a step-by-step, cumulative approach that unlocks the logic of English. It consciously excludes idiomatic word usage until the learner is prepared to deal with it. By eliminating the capricious and/or arbitrary elements of English, the Lane approach presents the learner with a system, a reasonable, logical linguistic system that can be explained, and therefore understood and mastered. This approach is specifically designed for the learner who wants to know why and the teacher who sees English as more than an inexhaustible jumble of words and expressions best acquired with mother's milk.vi The total vocabulary of Lane's English as a Second Language is about 1200 words. By limiting the vocabulary, one of the major obstacles to learning English—its non-phonetic spelling—is skirted. With approximately 200 words to be learned in each book, students need not be burdened with spelling rules and their numerous exceptions. More than half of the words are only one syllable long, so they are easily mastered by speakers of languages that are not cognate to English. The 1200 words were selected on the basis of usefulness, not frequency. The choice was made in accordance with the linguistic tendency toward general and away from specific uses. This allows the vocabulary to be manipulated at various levels of sophistication. In the presentation of this vocabulary, the approach is first to establish the primary meaning of each word and then to expand its usage in a systematic manner. With this expanded usage the 1200 words actually give a learner a level of expressability many times greater. This may be seen graphically as follows (in regard to body parts): 1. BASIC MEANING: This is a hand. 2. Compound words: This is a shoulder bone. 3. Expanded usage: I am the head of my family. 4. Metaphoric: She has a big heart. 5. Set phrases. We came face-to-face with a problem. 6. Idioms (a): The walls have ears. 7. Idioms (b): He put his foot in his mouth. 8. Sayings: His eyes were bigger than his stomach. One of the primary advantages of this system is the development of a mind-set that causes learners to form their thoughts directly in English, rather than to think in their native languages and merely plug in English words. This is accomplished by concentrating on 12 verbs and 31 prepositions, which in combination give about 4,000 verb ideas. For instance, we are quite comfortable saying: I put my hand in my pocket; I put my money in the bank; I put $1000 in a company; I put my heart in my work; I put a new sink in the kitchen; I put my ideas in English. The typical student, however, is more likely to express these same ideas with the discrete verbs: insert, deposit, invest, concentrate, install and translate. The economy of time and effort in learning put in vs. six different verbs is obvious. What is not so obvious is the methodology that will enable the learner to manipulate verbs and prepositions like a native-speaker. This is achieved through the logical, controlled, sequential presentation of material. The approach of this text takes phrasal or two-word verbs out of the idiomatic category by showing an inner logic to their use. When the learner once grasps this inner-logic, he has a hard time going back to his native language to find equivalents and soon gives up the attempt. He thus makes the quantum leap to thinking in English. There is no attempt to limit students to the vocabulary of this series. In fact, I assume that learners will develop their own vocabularies according to individual needs and interests. I want to point out, however, that the 1200 words of the system represent a common core that all learners need to know and control. This stress on commonality is a conscious effort to counter the pernicious efforts of those pendants who for their own reasons want to emphasize and exaggerate the differences between American and British English. Imparting this common core is the first duty of all teachers. A very important and unique feature of this system is that it gives learners a complete system of communication. It is not an exaggeration to say that almost any thought or action can find expression within its 1200 words. The required specificity for even very technical or specialized fields may be had with the addition of only 60 to 100 words from a particular field. For students who wish to go on to university level studies, this series provides an excellent basis to study for entrance examinations, especially the TOEFL. The efficacy of this approach to English is beyond doubt. It offers students, regardless of their objectives, an extremely high rate of progress in relation to the time and effort they put into their studies. Because time is our most precious commodity, I offer this series to students and teachers around the world. Richard Lane1 Romeo and Juliet Part 12 LESSON 1 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. letter _______________ sword _______________ stamp _______________ sail _______________ envelope _______________ boat _______________ __________ captain Only the captain can give that kind of order. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ dream My dream is to see Paris, the City of Light, with you. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ play I think that Romeo and Juliet is Shakespeare's best play. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ act In the first act of the play, the actors knew their lines very well. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ stage All the actors and actresses should be on the stage now. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ adventure To go up the Nile River was the greatest adventure of my life. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ smile Her smile went from ear to ear. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ laugh He has a strange laugh. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ death Who said, "Death is only a part of life"? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ hate Why did hate take the place of love in her heart? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ club How can I become a member of your English language club? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ voice She must have a very strong voice for this part in the play. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ scene He comes on stage in the second scene of act one. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ talent She has a lot of talent as a doctor. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ attempt He made no attempt to get away from the police. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ violence For me, there is too much violence on television. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ tear I saw a tear or two go down her cheek. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ chance You may not get this kind of chance again. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ supply Our supply of fresh vegetables is very low. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ demand His demand was clear, "Your money or your life!" ___________________________________________________________________ __________ reaction What was her reaction when she saw him? ___________________________________________________________________3 __________ servant The servant had almost as much gold on his uniform as a general. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ invitation Where is my invitation to your party on Saturday? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ prince When the prince took his glass, the princess did the same. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ difference What is the difference between these two boats? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ sound I like the sound of water because it is so restful. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ team Do you know where our basketball team will go next? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ detail Put every detail in your report and have it ready for me by Friday. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ event It wasn't a simple party; it was an event. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ bill I wasn't happy when I got this month's telephone bill. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ cause What was the cause of his death? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ personal He never says anything about his personal problems. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ dear He put her dear John letter back in the envelope. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ guilty The facts said that he was guilty. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ excited I was excited when the princess said she would like to see me. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ professional She does very professional work. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ deep How deep is the water here? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ true I don't know if his story is true or not. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ jealous He gets very jealous if he sees his wife with another man. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ able Without question, there are very able people at every university. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ either...or... They will be here on either Tuesday or Wednesday. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ neither...nor... Neither John nor Mary had any idea of the danger they were in. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ else/more What else can I get for you? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ yet/already They are not ready yet. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ anymore/still He is too old to do that kind of work anymore. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ ever/never Did you ever in your life see a stamp that beautiful? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ while What did you see and where did you go while you were in Rome? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ to send I like to send letters to my friends. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ to seem You seem very happy and healthy today. ___________________________________________________________________4 POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS my our mine ours your your yours yours his their his theirs her hers its its Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns 1. That is my boat. That boat is mine 2. That is my letter. That letter is mine. 3. This is your invitation. This invitation is yours. 4. This is his sword. This sword is his. 5. This is her voice. This voice is hers. 6. Those are its sails. Those sails are its. 7. Those are our stamps. Those stamps are ours. 8. These are your envelopes. These envelopes are yours. 9. These are their demands. These demands are theirs. 10. Are these my bills? Are these bills mine? 11. Are those your supplies? Are those supplies yours? 12. Is this their team? Is this team theirs? while Andrew: What will you do, while I go to the store? Elizabeth: While you go to the store, I'll get the kitchen clean. Andrew: While I'm at the store, do you want me to go to the post office also? Elizabeth: That's a good idea. Yes, please get some stamps, while you're there. Ashley: What did you do while I was away? Katherine: While you were away, I did the dishes. Ashley: Great! While I get dinner ready, you can take a look at your favorite TV program. Katherine: I have ten minutes, so while there's still time, I'll give you a hand with the potatoes. Mr. Washington: While you were in England, did you have a chance to go to Stratford-on-Avon? Mrs. Lincoln: Stratford-on-Avon? What's that? I don't have any idea what it is. Mr. Washington: It's William Shakespeare's hometown. Stratford is a town on the Avon River. Mrs. Lincoln: Aah! No, I'm sad to say I didn't have a chance to go there while I was in England. able 1. He is an able student, but poor. 2. The prince was an able swordsman. 3. She will be an able teacher, a true professional. 4. He is able to say the sentence without a mistake. (He can say the sentence without a mistake.) 5. Only Cinderella was able to put the glass shoe on. (Only Cinderella could put the glass shoe on.) 6. You will be able to see without your glasses after this operation. 7. I like fast, danceable music. 8. The captain's car was still drivable, even after the terrible accident. 9. I don't know if the boat is in sailable condition. 10. I don't say this because I'm jealous, but his first attempt to become an actor was laughable.5 un-gives the idea of not. necessary unnecessary Their trip to New York was quite unnecessary. lucky unlucky He was unlucky to be in very deep water. healthy unhealthy Too much wine and/or too much meat may be unhealthy. happy unhappy I can not say that his death was an unhappy event for us. natural unnatural His laugh was unnatural and I became afraid for my life. sure unsure She was unsure about what to do next, so she did nothing. able unable Without my glasses, I am unable to see the prince on the stage. safe unsafe I'm sorry to say but it's unsafe to be on the streets after dark. clear unclear It is unclear to me why his heart is so full of hate. real unreal We all knew that his invitation was unreal. It was only an act. broken unbroken It was clear from the x-ray that John's leg was unbroken. afraid unafraid As soon as I saw her smile, I was unafraid. clean unclean Pork is unclean for both Jews and Moslems. true untrue His adventure story from start to end was untrue. professional unprofessional His reaction was quite unprofessional. common uncommon He made an uncommon argument in support of democracy. worried unworried There was an unworried look on her face. married unmarried He is rich and unmarried. Why? control uncontrollable When her children get tired, they become quite uncontrollable. stop unstoppable The army took the city with an unstoppable attack. think unthinkable For me, what he did was quite undoable, even unthinkable! a + (time or quantity) a + (time or quantity) has the meaning of every. 1. This car can go at least 100 miles an hour. 2. He gets very excited if he does not take his medicine three times a day. 3. Their new baby wants milk two or three times a night. 4. The other girls were jealous because Mary has two music lessons a week. 5. They have to go for military training one weekend a month. 6. Do you know that most people don't go to a doctor more than four times a year? 7. Gold is $375 an ounce (28.3125 grams). 8. Apples are $.50 a pound (453 grams). 9. Silk is about $4 a foot (30 centimeters). 10. This factory-new rug is less than $10 a yard (91 centimeters). 11. Because the supply is great, vegetable oil is only $1.99 a quart (.9463 liters). 12. Because the demand is great, fresh milk is more than $2.50 a gallon (3.7852 liters). Natalie: How many classes a week do you have? Alexandra: I have six classes a week. Natalie: How many miles an hour will your car go? Alexandra: It will go at least 100 miles (160 kms.) an hour. Richard: How much is this rice a 100 pound bag? Nathaniel: It is $29.00 a bag. Richard: How much are these black berries a basket? Nathaniel: They are $.99 a basket. Mrs. Clinton: How much does a factory worker get a month? Mr. Bush: A factory worker may get as high as $1800 a month. Mrs. Clinton: How much is a room at a good hotel a night? Mr. Bush: You should be able to get a nice room in a good hotel for about $90.00 a night.6 DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH Present He says, "I am a member of the club." He says that he is a member of the club. He says, "She had a lot of talent." He says that she had a lot of talent. He says, "You will get an invitation to my party." He says that I will get an invitation to his party. Past Helen said, "Tokyo is the capital of Japan." Helen said that Tokyo is the capital of Japan. Helen said, "I had tears in my eyes." Helen said that she had tears in her eyes. Helen said, "You will get another chance." Helen said that I will get another chance. Future He will say, "You have to give me more details." He will say that we have to give him more details. He will say, "You were not guilty." He will say that we were not guilty. He will say, "I will not be jealous." He will say that he will not be jealous. If there is no important or logical reason to keep these Past, Present, or Future forms, English speakers very often put all the verbs in the Past for indirect speech. George said, "I have personal business to do." George said that he had personal business to do. George said, "You are my princess." George said that I was his princess. George said, "My dream is to go to Europe." George said that his dream was to go to Europe. George said, "We have to go to her new play." George said that we had to go to her new play. George said, "There is too much violence on TV." George said that there was too much violence on TV. George said, "I know you are my one, true friend." George said that he knew I was his one, true friend. To put sentences with can, will, and may into indirect speech, we make use of their past tense forms: could, would, and might. CAN (able) COULD I said, "I can be at the club on Monday at 9." I said that I could be at the club on Monday at 9. I said, "I can not see because of the thick fog." I said that I could not see because of the thick fog. You said, "I can give you a ride to the airport." You said that you could give me a ride to the airport. He said, "My sailors can put that sail up." He said that his sailors could put that sail up. She said, "My dear husband can do it better." She said that her dear husband could do it better. WILL (100%) WOULD I said, "I will make another attempt tomorrow." I said that I would make another attempt tomorrow. I said, "I will give you all the details later." I said that I would give you all the details later. You said, "I will think about your invitation." You said that you would think about my invitation. He said, "My sister will come to our play." He said that his sister would come to our play. She said, "My dear husband will be back soon." She said that her dear husband would be back soon. MAY (80%) MIGHT I said, "I may be on stage on Friday." I said that I might be on stage on Friday. I said, "I may not have a strong enough voice." I said that I might not have a strong enough voice. You said, "There may be a serious reaction." You said that there might be a serious reaction. He said, "We may never know the cause of his death." He said we might never know the cause of his death. She said, "My dear husband may like to see the bill." She said her dear husband might like to see the bill.7get + verb When we put get with a verb, it gives the idea of opportunity or chance. 1. He always gets to be the captain of our basketball team. 2. She always gets to have things her way. 3. Why do they always get to say the new words first? The rest of us also want a chance. 4. Why do you always get to make the first choice? 5. I got to go on the biggest ship in the world. It was the chance of a lifetime. 6. I got to know him when we were both members of the swim team. 7. I didn't get to see her latest film. I don't know if I'll have another chance. 8. We didn't get to do the scene again because there wasn't enough time. 9. They will get to come with us next time. 10. They are excited because they will get to put their new clothes on for the party tomorrow. 11. Will we get to take a little rest before we go up the mountain? 12. Will we get to give our side of the story before the captain makes a decision? not only..., but also... Alexandra: Is Andrew able to go to the harbor with us? Nicholas: He is not only able, but also ready to go with us. Alexandra: Is that your political party's program? Nicholas: This is not only our political program, but also our economic one. both...and... Edward: What kind of weather did you have last winter? David: Last winter was terrible, both cold and wet. Edward: Where were the letter and envelope? David: Both the letter and the envelope were in the servant's right hand. either...or... 1. Either John or Peter has the letter. 2. Either the boys or the girls have the stamps. 3. Either the nurses or the doctor has the envelope. 4. Either the doctor or the nurses have the invitations. Ashley: Would you like either fish or chicken for dinner? William: If it's fresh, I would like fish. Ashley: Would you like either beer or wine with your meal? William: If I have a choice, I would like a nice white wine, but not too dry and not too sweet. neither...nor... 1. Neither Henry nor George knows who made the first attempt. 2. Neither those farmers nor these truck drivers know where the supplies are. 3. Neither the cows nor the horse likes this sound. 4. Neither the horse nor the cows like this noise. Mr. Kennedy: Does she have either great talent or good looks? Mrs. Nixon: No, I am sorry to say the poor woman has neither talent nor looks. Mr. Kennedy: Then, does her husband have either money or contacts? Mrs. Nixon: No, he has neither. But for them life is an adventure! What will be, will be!8 POSITIVE(+), NEGATIVE(-), AND QUESTIONS(?) English often makes a change in its positive and negative sentences and/or questions. some(+) /any(-,?) Martha: Would you like any tea? Ruth: Yes, please. I would like some tea. Martha: Do you want any lemon with your tea? Ruth: No, thank you. I don't want any lemon. Natalie: Would you like any more details? Ashley: Yes, please give me some more details. Natalie: Do you see any difference? Ashley: No, I do not see any difference. any may also give the idea of unlimited or unrestricted . 1. Any kind of ice cream is better than no ice cream. 2. Take anything you want and go. Please go and don't come back! I never want to see you again! 3. Anything you can do, I can do better. And you know that's true. 4. Does anyone have change for a dollar? 5. It does not make any difference to me where you go or what you do! It is all the same to me. 6. Please give me anything sweet. My blood sugar level is too low. This is not an act. 7. She is so in love with the prince, she will be happy to go anywhere with him! 8. You can give me a call anytime, day or night. 9. She got everything. He doesn't have anything more to give. 10. I would like to see you again, any time, any place, under any conditions. still(+,-,?) /anymore(-,?) These words show continuation. If still has the meaning of no change , it may be in all kinds of sentences. Henry: Are Christine and Eugene still married? Arthur: Yes, as far as I know, they are still together. Henry: Does she still have the same job? Arthur: No, she's now the personal secretary of our company's CEO (chief executive officer). Anthony: Was Philip still excited when he went to bed? Susan: Yes, he was too excited to go to sleep until after midnight. Anthony: Do you still think that he's guilty? Susan: It's too early to say. I still don't know if he's guilty or not guilty. 1. Are they still sick? No, they aren't sick anymore. 2. Were you still a student? No, I wasn't a student anymore. 3. Will he still be in London next May? No, he won't be there anymore. 4. Should he still take the medicine three times a day? No, he shouldn't take it anymore. 5. Is he still able to do heavy work? No, he can't do heavy work anymore. 6. Do they have their sailboat anymore? Yes, they still have their sailboat. 7. Do you see one another anymore? Yes, we still see one another now and then. 8. Does she have those strange dreams anymore? Yes, she still has those strange dreams. 9. Is the law in force anymore? Yes, it is still in force. Be careful! 10. Are there tears in her eyes anymore? Yes, there are still tears in her eyes.9 already(+) /yet(-,?) These words give the idea of a point of time. Elizabeth: Did the postman come yet? Andrew: Yes, he already came. He was here about 10 minutes ago. Elizabeth: Did you get all the letters yet? Andrew: No, I didn't get them yet. They are still in the box. Nathaniel: Did we get this month's telephone bill yet? Katherine: Yes, we already got it. It came last Wednesday. Nathaniel: Did you see today's newspaper yet? Katherine: No, I didn't see it yet. Martha: Do you know all the words for our English test yet? Theodore: Yes, I already know them, so I'm all ready for the test. Martha: Do you have all the necessary details for your report yet? Theodore: No, I don't have all the details yet. more(+) /else(-,?) There is something more for you in my bag. There is not anything else for you in my bag. Is there anything else for me in your bag? I have something more of interest for him. I don't have anything else of interest for him. Do you have anything else of interest for me? else is not only the negative and question form of more, it may also give the idea of different or other . 1. What else do you want? I want something else. I don't want anything else. 2. Who else did she give it to? She gave it to someone else. She didn't give it to anyone else. 3. Where else did he go? He went somewhere else. He didn't go anywhere else. 4. When else could you come? 5. Why else would they say that? 6. How else might he become rich? 7. There was no one else to see and nothing else to do, so we went home. 8. No where else in the world are the women as beautiful as on the beaches of Brazil. never(+) /ever(-,?) John: Did you ever see any of your old girlfriends, after you got married? James: No, I never saw any of them again. John: Do you ever want to see them? James: No, I don't ever want to see them again. I'm in love with my wife and only my wife. Mr. Carter: Will we ever go to Rio de Janeiro again? Diana: Why? Is this an invitation? Mr. Carter: No, no. Please don't get me wrong. It's not my .... Diana: Oh, now I see. You never wanted to take me in the first place! Am I right? Mrs. Reagan: What did you think when you got married? Charles: I thought it was for ever and ever! Mrs. Reagan: Do you think you'll ever get married again? Charles: No, never, not ever again!10 PRESENT to send (+) to send (-) I send we send I do not send we do not send you send you send you do not send you do not send he sends they send he does not send they do not send she sends she does not send it sends it does not send I send letters to my friends. I do not send letters to my friends. She sends postcards to her parents. She does not send postcards to her parents. He sends the children to the park. He does not sent the children to the park. They send money to their daughter. They do not send money to their daughter. to send (+?) to send (-?) do I send? do we send? don't I send? don't we send? do you send? do you send? don't you send? don't you send? does he send? do they send? doesn't he send? don't they send? does she send? doesn't she send? does it send? doesn't it send? Do you send the bills out? Don't you send the bills out? Does he send his payment in? Doesn't he send his payment in? Does it send pictures round the world? Doesn't it send pictures round the world? Do they send boats up the river? Don't they send boats up the river? to seem (+) to seem (-) I seem we seem I do not seem we do not seem you seem you seem you do not seem you do not seem he seems they seem he does not seem they do not seem she seems she does not seem it seems it does not seem You seem jealous. You do not seem jealous. He seems professional. He does not seem professional. It seems too deep to me. It does not seem too deep to me. They seem very excited. They do not seem very excited. to seem (+?) to seem (-?) do I seem? do we seem? don't I seem? don't we seem? do you seem? do you seem? don't you seem? don't you seem? does he seem? do they seem? doesn't he seem? don't they seem? does she seem? doesn't she seem? does it seem? doesn't it seem? Do I seem normal? Don't I seem normal? Does he seem guilty to you? Doesn't he seem guilty to you? Do they seem to like us? Don't they seem to like us? Does it seem to make a difference? Doesn't it seem to make a difference?11 ROMEO AND JULIET Part 1 People round the world know my cousin. She is an actress, a real star of film, stage and even television. She gets postcards and letters from filmgoers in many far-away places. I know because she always gives the most beautiful stamps to my son for his stamp book. I do not want to give my cousin's real name, so I'll give her the name "Elizabeth." You know that most actors and actresses have stage names. Often their real names are deep, dark secrets. I don't know why but most of them do it that way. Maybe, they do not want people to know about their past or where they are from. My cousin's deepest secrets are safe with me. You know there are some things in her past that are nobody's business; for example, how old she is, what the real color of her hair is, or how many times she was married. All the secrets of her life off-stage and away from the public eye are safe with me. I gave her my word a long time ago that I would not say anything to anyone about her private life. Elizabeth says that she likes the theater most of all because she can see the people, her public. They are right there before her eyes and she before theirs. What a wonderful feeling! She seems to become stronger from their laughs and tears and from the fact that no director can say "Stop! Do it again! And put some feeling into your lines this time!" In the theater, everyone must know his or her lines by heart and get them right the first time. I am sure that every actor and actress gets excited when the curtain goes up for the first scene of act one. Everyone knows it is "Now or never!" There is no second chance. Everyone has to know not only what to say, but also how to say it. Everything has to be perfect the first time. My cousin is, without question, a great actress. As a professional actress, she gets to g o many places and she gets to do many interesting things. She is a woman of many talents. She can give a range of feelings to her parts. She can go from tears to smiles and laughs, and do everything in between. One minute, she can be a little, soft, heartbroken thing with a tear on her cheek and the next minute she can be an angry, jealous wife with an unreal smile on her lips, a knife in her hand, and nothing but hate in her heart. For an actress with my cousin's level of professional talent, these changes are second nature. One minute up, the next minute down! She makes it all seem so easy and so real. But, I know better. It is an art to be successful on the theater stage, and my cousin is a true artist.12 Elizabeth always puts her heart into her work. I know that she gives a lot of time and attention to her lines. When she says them, the sounds are round and full. Her words are clear even to people at the back of the theater. There are often smiles on people's lips or tears in their eyes at the end of her plays. It is not easy to be an actor or actress. The demands of the job take a lot out of a person. She is often quite tired at the end of the day. Right now, her professional life is more important than her personal one. It is sad but true. What else can I say? When my cousin was young, she took different kinds of lessons: music lessons, voice lessons, dance lessons and so on. Her parents thought their daughter had real talent, so money was never a question for them. Her parents wanted to give their dearest daughter, their only child, the best and brightest future they could. Their dream was for their daughter to become a world class actress. It is true that they put a lot of pressure on Elizabeth, but, at the same time, it is also true that anything she wanted she got. Again, I don't know if that is always good for a child. Maybe, yes, maybe, no. Who am I to say? When Elizabeth was only 14 and was in high school, she liked very much to take part in the after-school theater club. The group of young actors and actresses was very serious and their teacher was able to get the best out of them. Thanks to her high school theater teacher, Elizabeth still likes very much the 37 plays of William Shakespeare (1564-1616), who, as all the world knows, was one of the greatest, if not the greatest, English writer ever. I am sure that theater groups round the world put on his plays more than those of any other writer in any other language. Why do so many different peoples still like to see his plays after more than four hundred years? Elizabeth thinks it is because the subjects of his plays are the same everyday problems the rest of us have. And we want to see what Shakespeare's answers were. In her second year in high school, Elizabeth's theater club put on Shakespeare's play, Romeo and Juliet. Elizabeth's dream came true when she got the lead. It was a very important event in her life. In fact, it was no surprise to any of her friends when she got to be Juliet. We all knew that she could do it.13 As you know, Romeo and Juliet is one of Shakespeare's best plays and, without question, his greatest love story. It is the story of two young lovers and the problems they come up against because their two families do not get along . Most of the events in Romeo and Juliet take place in the Italian city of Verona. It seems that two of the city's richest families, the Capulets and the Montagues, have only one thing in common, their hate for one another. The fight between these two families goes back many, many years. When the curtain goes up for the first scene of act one, the servants of the two families are in the middle of a street fight. There is a lot of noise. Even the heads of the two families together with their wives go out into the street with their swords and take part in the action. This is, in fact, the fourth street fight between these two families. The Prince of Verona is tired of all the violence and makes a serious attempt to put a stop to this old fight between the two families. He says, "Our streets must be safe. We can not have this level of violence in our city. From now on , I will put to death anyone who takes part in a street fight. You can be sure that these are not empty words. I will do what I say. I will put any guilty person, man or woman, to death!" When the fight is over , the head of the House of Montague sees that his favorite son, Romeo, did not take part in the action, so he sends Romeo's cousin, Benvolio, for him. Romeo's mother and father are very worried about their dear son, because for the last few days he always seems so sad. He no longer seems to have any interest in life. In answer to all their questions, he always says, "What's the difference? It's all the same to me. What will be, will be!" They are afraid that Romeo may be sick. But the problem is, in fact, much worse than they think. Romeo is in love. He is in love with Rosaline who is, in his words, "the dearest, sweetest, most beautiful and wonderful girl in all the world. She is the girl of my dreams. What can I do? She is everything to me." But, what should be one of the happiest times in life is one of the worst for Romeo. Poor, unlucky Romeo is heartbroken because Rosaline is not in love with him. She gave him the cold shoulder! She says that she has no interest at all in him and will not get married to Romeo ever! Poor Romeo is not able to get these terrible words out of his head.14 PAST to send (+) to send (-) I sent we sent I did not send we did not send you sent you sent you did not send you did not send he sent they sent he did not send they did not send she sent she did not send it sent it did not send I sent an invitation to the ship's captain. I did not send an invitation to the ship's captain. He sent her a bill for $50.00.He did not send her a bill for $50.00. She sent him a love letter. She did not send him a love letter. They sent for the team's doctor. They did not send for the team's doctor. to send (+?) to send (-?) did I send? did we send? didn't I send? didn't we send? did you send? did you send? didn't you send? didn't you send? did he send? did they send? didn't he send? didn't they send? did she send? didn't she send? did it send? didn't it send? Did you send the money in a brown envelope? Didn't you send the money in a brown envelope? Did he send another demand for payment? Didn't he send another demand for payment? Did it send a wave of pain through his body? Didn't it send a wave of pain through his body? Did they send us a supply of chocolate? Didn't they send us a supply of chocolate? to seem (+) to seem (-) I seemed we seemed I did not seem we did not seem you seemed you seemed you did not seem you did not seem he seemed they seemed he did not seem they did not seem she seemed she did not seem it seemed it did not seem You seemed to think it was okay yesterday. You did not seem to think it was okay yesterday. He seemed able to do the work. He did not seem able to do the work. She seemed to know all the details. She did not seem to know all the details. They seemed to have very strong voices. They did not seem to have very strong voices. to seem (+?) to seem (-?) did I seem? did we seem? didn't I seem? didn't we seem? did you seem? did you seem? didn't you seem? didn't you seem? did he seem? did they seem? didn't he seem? didn't they seem? did she seem? didn't she seem? did it seem? didn't it seem? Did she seem to be afraid? Didn't she seem to be afraid? Did he seem to be worried? Didn't he seem to be worried? Did it seem to be deep enough? Didn't it seem to be deep enough? Did they seem to be warm enough? Didn't they seem to be warm enough?15 A REAL CARIBBEAN ADVENTURE Two years ago, I had to do a ten-page paper for my history class. It was a very interesting class about European powers in the New World. I did my study on the difference between British and Spanish interests in the New World. As you know, I do not like to do what everyone else does, so I did my report on one of the strangest wars in all history , "The War of Jenkins' Ear" (1739-42). The war took place more than 250 years ago in one of the most beautiful places in all the world , the Caribbean Sea. It was between two of the most powerful countries on earth, Great Britain and Spain. The English name of the war, "The War of Jenkins' Ear," came from an unlucky English seaman, Mr. Robert Jenkins, who was in the wrong place, at the wrong time. He was unlucky because the Spanish took his ear off with a sword and sent him, together with his ear, back to the English. In his pocket, there was a letter from the Spanish that said the British king had no business in the Caribbean Sea and should get out while he was still able. The fact that the Spanish took off poor Mr. Jerkins' ear with a sword was a sign of the level of violence they seemed ready for. The British reaction was as you might think: If Spain wants war, she can have it! But, in fact, it was the British who wanted war and so they made use of the loss of Jenkins' ear as a reason for it. Because they were ready for war, the British were able to send many battleships into the area in a very short time. I am sorry to say there was a terrible loss of life on both sides. What was of interest to me were not the terrible events of the war, nor the economic, political or military causes of the war, nor even poor Mr. Jenkins. My interest was in something quite different and much more important, at least more important to me. It all came about one day while I was in our university library, at work on my paper. I came across a very old book, part of which was a report by the captain of an English warship. In his report, the captain gave all the details about his battle with a Spanish warship that took place on April 12, 1741. He said that after a short and bloody battle he and his able seamen sent the enemy warship to the bottom of the sea, his men took quite a few Spanish seamen out of the water. One of those seamen, who knew a little English, said that the ship was on its way from Mexico to Spain. The Spanish captain, who went down with his ship, as all good captains should do, had orders to make a stop in Cuba and then go on to Spain. The seaman also said there were quite a few boxes of gold on board the ship. In fact, he said that there might be as much as 2,500 lbs. of gold on board. At today's prices, that is about $16,000,000! The English captain said that he and his men made many attempts to get the gold, but the water was too deep. And so, in the end , they had to give up their attempts and go back to England with empty hands. Together with this report, there was not one, not two, but three maps that gave every detail of the area. Now you see how meaningful the discovery of this report was to me.16 I have quite a few friends from round the world, international friends, who like to do new things, who like to have high adventures . We always say, "The stranger, the better!" I thought why not put our heads together and make a high-tech (high technology) attempt to get that gold, if it is still there. If it is there, great, we'll be rich! And, if it is not, so what? This kind of chance does not come along everyday. I sent my international friends a letter by computer and in a few hours I got answers from six of them who were free and excited about my idea for a Caribbean adventure. Some of them even said it was the chance of a lifetime or a dream come true. We all took flights from the four corners of the world to San Juan, Puerto Rico. Ali came from Egypt, Henry came from France, Paul came from Russia, Li came from China, Richard came from Mexico and Peter came from Brazil. We all got to know one another when we were students at the University of Chicago. Peter and I had a room together in the International House, which is a living place for foreign students. The university liked to have an American and a foreign student living together. That way, both got to know about one another's country and maybe even become life-long friends. That's the way it was with Peter and me. Peter and I had a lot in common. We both liked European football very much. Peter was a much better player than I. But, as you know, for Brazilians, football is their national sport. They are all wild about it. Brazil got the World Cup four times: 1958, 1962, 1970 and 1994. That is more than any other nation, so far . There is one other thing you should know about Brazilians. They know how to have fun. They know how to put on a party. They are professional party givers! I never had so much fun as when I was a student. Thanks to Peter, we had the best parties at the International House. They were real events, open to everyone and anyone. Every one of my friends, who took part in this Caribbean adventure, Ali, Henry, Paul, Li, Richard and Peter is a very special person. We all have a lot of experience and know-how. I'm sure that if we put our heads together, we can do anything. We are all in good physical condition. We are all very good swimmers. We all like the outdoor life and the ocean has a special meaning for us. Though English is our common language, everyone knows a little Spanish and with Richard's help we were able to get along very well in Puerto Rico, where most know both English and Spanish. From San Juan's International Airport, after we got our bags, we took a taxi to one of the city's first class hotels. It was an ocean-front hotel right on the beach where many children were at play. We already had reservations, so our check-in went fast. We gave the hotel manager all the necessary information and our credit cards. The hotel manager, for his part, was nice enough to give us all rooms on the same floor. This made it very easy for us to get together for our talks. I must say that one of the first things we did was to send picture postcards home to make our families and friends even more jealous than they already were. After our check-in, though we were a little tired from our flight, we had a shower and then went down to the hotel dining room for lunch. That was when I gave the team a general picture of the adventure that was before us. After lunch, we went up to my room, which was on the tenth floor, where I put all the details before them. Everyone seemed to think that the work before us was quite doable. A few questions came up, but, in general, we were in complete agreement.17 We made a division of our work, so everyone knew what he had to do. I was responsible for the boat, so I took a look at the yellow pages of the telephone book under the word "Boats." I made a few telephone calls and, at last, made a decision about our boat. It was a 40 foot sailboat, less than 5 years old. It had very good, professional equipment for undersea work, air pumps and so on. At a meeting with the owner/captain, it seemed to me that he had the kind of experience and know-how that were necessary for our adventure to be successful. We soon came to an agreement. Early the next morning, as soon as we were through with our hotel check-out, we all went down to the harbor and got on the boat, Sea Bird. It was only a little after sunup, so there was still some fog. When we were all ready, the sailors put up the sails and away we went. We went out of the harbor and into the deep water of the open sea. Soon the sun came through the fog and it became a picture perfect day. It seemed to me that we were in a different world with only the sounds of the wind in the sails and the waves against the sides of our Sea Bird. It is this kind of experience that makes people think about a sailboat trip round the world. Life could not be better. About an hour before sundown we got to the place where there was an X on those old English maps. It was too late to do anything. We had a ten-hour wait. The ship's cook made us a delicious seafood dinner. Because we were all excited, it was difficult to go to sleep. Even after the lights were out, there was not much talk. Everyone seemed to be in his own, private, dream world. Then, all too soon, it was morning, time to put our plan into action! First, we sent our underwater camera down into the water to take a look for that Spanish ship. I am sorry to say this first attempt was not too successful. The pictures were not clear enough. There was nothing else for us to do, but go down. We made two teams out of our group. The A Team, Peter, Paul and Henry, went down first. They put on their underwater suits and then their "lungs" so everyone had his own, independent air supply. This was their life support system, made necessary by the fact that they had to go very deep, down to the bottom of the sea, and be there for at least 30 minutes. They all had radios so they were able to have direct contact with one another and with those of us still on board the boat. They took their time and only when they were quite sure everything was ready and everyone was safe, did the three adventurers go over the side of the boat and down, down, down to an underwater world. This was very serious business, anything but child's play. Henry in a very excited voice said to me on his radio, "George, it's a very different world down here. I can't put into words the wonderful things I see." Peter said almost the same thing. Paul said, "You will have to come down here and see it all with your own eyes." When our three friends came back up, our B Team, Ali, Li, Richard and I put our wetsuits on and got ready to go over the side. When we went down, it was true. We seemed to be in a different world. There were thousands and thousands of fish everywhere -all sizes and all colors -big ones and little ones, beautiful ones and not so beautiful ones, but there was no Spanish ship and no Mexican gold. But, as they say, "That's life!"18 FUTURE to send (+) to send (-) I will send we will send I will not send we will not send you will send you will send you will not send you will not send he will send they will send he will not send they will not send she will send she will not send it will send it will not send I will send her an invitation. I will not send her an invitation. We will send them a list of our supplies. We will not send them a list of our supplies. He will send you a copy of my play. He will not send you a copy of my play. She will send it in a pink envelope. She will not send it in a pink envelope. to send (+?) to send (-?) will I send? will we send? won't I send? won't we send? will you send? will you send? won't you send? won't you send? will he send? will they send? won't he send? won't they send? will she send? won't she send? will it send? won't it send? Will you send me your team's picture? Won't you send me your team's picture? Will he send us a copy of his new book? Won't he send us a copy of his new book? Will she send him a letter? Won't she send him a letter? Will they send her an airline ticket? Won't they send her an airline ticket? to seem (+) to seem (-) I will seem we will seem I will not seem we will not seem you will seem you will seem you will not seem you will not seem he will seem they will seem he will not seem they will not seem she will seem she will not seem it will seem it will not seem He will seem to be jealous. He will not seem to be jealous. It will seem to be true. It will not seem to be true. She will seem to like the sound. She will not seem to like the sound. They will seem to know something. They will not seem to know anything. to seem (+?) to seem (-?) will I seem? will we seem? won't I seem? won't we seem? will you seem? will you seem? won't you seem? won't you seem? will he seem? will they seem? won't he seem? won't they seem? will she seem? won't she seem? will it seem? won't it seem? Will I seem younger? Won't I seem younger? Will he seem normal? Won't he seem normal? Will it seem faster? Won't it seem faster? Will they seem quiet? Won't they seem quiet?19 John Adams 453 S. Republic Street Austin, TX 78821 Mr. and Mrs. Charles Taylor 9418 E. Court Street San Francisco, CA 94134 INVITATION TO A PARTY An envelope came this morning. I didn't get to take a look at it until after lunch, but when I did, I had a strange feeling. On the outside, everything seemed quite normal. The stamp was in the right place and so was the sender's name and address. When I took a closer look at the sender's address, I saw right away that the letter was from a dear, old friend of mine, John Adams. John and I go back many years. We went to high school together and then we went to the University of California at Los Angeles together. He was my best friend. Every day, after school, John's mother always had something ready for us -a bowl of hot soup in the winter or a glass of cold milk in the summer. She was always very good to me. I was almost a member of their family. I even went out with his sister, Christine, for a while, before I went away to the university. We went on a date or two. John and I were members of the same student-professional club and football team. We both liked basketball a lot, but John was a much better player than I. We were both very tall, but John was much faster than I. In fact, John became our team captain in our last year at UCLA. After university, we went our separate ways. I went into the army and became a captain. When I got out, I went into business and put together my own company.20 INVITATION We would like the pleasure of your company For: A Birthday Party When : April 10, 20__, at 7 o'clock Where: Austin Country Club 1200 N. Broadway Austin, Texas 78835 (512) 444-4444 RSVP: (512) 234-5678 Inside the envelope, there was an invitation. It was an invitation to his mother's birthday party. The chief problem for me when I get a birthday invitation is what should I take? What kind of gift should I get for the person? I want to get Mrs. Adam's something very nice. But I don't even know her favorite color. I might get her a nice dress, but I don't even know her size. I might get her a gold bracelet, but she never liked earrings and bracelets and so on. I might get her some flowers, but that isn't special enough. I know, I'll get her a computer. But that's no good either, because I don't know if she likes computers, or even if she knows how to make use of them. Maybe, I'll get her theater tickets. No, that's no good; theater tickets are too common. I have to get her something special. But, what? I know what I'll do! I'll give the problem to my wife, Diana. No, I can't do that either because she'll get angry and say, "Charles, don't do this to me. This woman is your friend, not mine. I don't even know her. You must make the decision." It'll be better if I don't say anything yet. You know, I think that it is much easier to make business decisions than these personal ones. I know, I'll get some help from my secretary, Miss Grant. No, on second thought, I can't do that. Miss Grant doesn't have very good taste, I'm sorry to say. No, I have to take control, make the decision and be responsible. Hmmmm. What to do? What to do? What to do? Uhuh! I have it! I know what to do. When I go to the store, one of the saleswomen may be able to give me some help. They are professionals. They are always full of good ideas.21 453 South Republic Street Austin, TX 78821 March 21, 20__ Dear Charles, I know this will seem to be voice out of your wild past. I don't even know if you'll get this letter and invitation because I have only your old address. I am hopeful that this will get to you. On Friday evening, April 10, at 7:00, we will have a party for my mother. It will be her 65th birthday, an important event for us all. Our little get-together will be at the Austin Country Club. I know that you are a busy man and there are many demands on your time. I know also it is a long way for you to come, but if you and your beautiful wife, Diana, have the time, please do. All my family will be very happy to have you with us. My mother, who sends her love, says that she wants to see you both very much. And also Christine will be here, so you'll get to see her. I don't know if you know that she is the manager of the Paris office of our family company, Technology International. I'm sure that she'll give you all the details. She'll get you up-to-date with all the latest news in her life-professional and personal! Don't be worried about a hotel. Our home is your home. We have an empty bedroom and you know that we will be very happy to have you with us while you are here. There will be many people at the party. I'm sure that you know most of them. A few may be strangers, so you will get to make some new friends. There will be lots of food, drinks, fun and music. Please do come. See you soon. Your friend, John Together with the invitation card, but on a separate piece of paper, John sent a short, but warm letter. John knew when he sent that invitation what my reaction would be. He knew that I could not say No. I'm afraid that Mrs. Adams would be heartbroken if I did. Also, I do want to see Christine again. I am hopeful that my wife, Diana, will not get jealous or angry about my meeting one of my old girlfriends. There is no reason for that. I am in love with Diana, but it is true that Christine is never far from my thoughts. I even had a dream about her a short while ago. But, please don't say anything to Diana about that. Okay? I could get into real hot wate r about this. Why is life so difficult! Now, I'm not quite sure what I should say to my wife. More problems! Help! Help! Help! What should I do? I was so happy and my life was so simple before our postman came with that little envelope! What am I to do? What are we to do?22 Please put your answers on the line. That bill is mine. Are these things __________________? Those letters are _______________. Are those envelopes _______________? This stamp is __________________. Is that boat _______________________? These supplies are _____________. That sail is ____________________. 1. When will you be back? 2. ____________ were you in China? 3. ____________ you are in New York, be sure to see the United Nations Building. 4. ____________ he was in the hospital, she had to do all the housework. 5. They went to three plays ___________ they were in London. 6. __________ you have nothing special to do, you can give me a hand with these curtains. 7. He said, "I don't want any more ice cream." He said that he didn'' t want any more….. 8. They said, "We want to know the cause of war." They said that ________________________. 9. She said, "He sees there is a difference." She said that _________________________. 10. I said, "I will have all the details tomorrow." I said that ____________________________. 11. We said, "You can be the captain." We said that __________________________. 12. You said, "They may go to the play." You said that _________________________. 13. She has some letters. She doesn't have any letters. 14. The army has some supplies. The army doesn't have ___________ supplies. 15. The boat has some new sails. The boat doesn't have ___________ new sails. 16. He knows something about sound. He doesn't know ____________ about sound. 17. Are they still angry with us? No, they aren't angry with us anymore. 18. Are you still jealous? No, I'm not jealous _____________________. 19. Is he still able to come? No, he's not able to come ________________. 20. Is she still an actress? No, she isn't an actress __________________. 21. Did the telephone bill come yet? Yes, it came already. 22. Did you see the address on the invitation yet? Yes, I saw it __________________________. 23. Did she send the letter yet? Yes, she sent it _______________________. 24. Did he get the answer yet? Yes, he got it _________________________. 25. I have something else for you. I don't have anything else for you. 26. She wants to give him something else. She doesn't want to give him anything ______. 27. They went somewhere else. They didn't go anywhere ________________. 28. Do you want to see someone else? Do you want to see anyone ______________. 29. Did he put it somewhere else? Did he put it anywhere __________________. 30. Did you ever go to Paris? No, I never went to Paris. 31. Did she ___________ come to your house? No, she never came to my house. 32. Did he ___________ have a dream about her? No, he never had a dream about her. 33. Were they __________ members of our team? No, they were never members of our team. 34. Was it _____________ this deep before? No, it was never this deep before.23 Romeo and Juliet Part 224 LESSON 2 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. kiss _______________ jump _______________ point • _______________ mask _______________ __________ cough He is sick and has a terrible cough. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ material What kind of material is this? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ progress He made a lot of progress in mathematics. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ gang How did the gang get into the bank? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ lie His story was a lie from start to end. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ killer Do you know if the police got the killer? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ crime Are you sure that he is guilty of that crime? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ handle When was the door handle broken? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ breath Take a deep breath of fresh air. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ prison Will he be in prison for the rest of his life? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ communication A husband and wife should have very good communication. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ range The eye can see a wide range of colors. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ mind Grandfather is healthy in both body and mind. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ mystery It is a complete mystery to me where he went and why? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ doubt I have no doubt that you have a bright future. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ edge Why doesn't this sword have a good edge? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ product Where is this product for sale? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ unit An hour is a unit of time. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ guest Please be my guest for dinner tonight. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ host The host and hostess said good-bye to their guests. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ movement The movement of the earth is from west to east. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ blow The news of his death was a terrible blow to us all. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ offer I could not say "No" to his offer. ___________________________________________________________________25 __________ impression What kind of impression did she make on you? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ desire I have no desire to see those people again. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ invention The world was never the same after the invention of the telephone. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ case The case is now in the hands of the police. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ fate I do not want to know my fate. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ amount Do you know the amount of time and money this will take? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ mood He is in a bad mood before his first cup of coffee. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ age What is the age of this wine? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ shadow The light made a strange shadow on the wall. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ waste It was a complete waste of my time and money. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ fat How much fat is in this meat? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ kind The kind old woman gave some bread to the birds. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ cruel That was a cruel thing to say to her. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ social Gangs are one of the greatest social problems of our time. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ exact Who has the exact time? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ possible If it is possible, please be on time tomorrow. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ fixed They have very fixed ideas about the processes of democracy. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ mixed Who wants a mixed salad for lunch? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ forward The army went forward into battle. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ backward I took a step backward when I saw the gun in his hand. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ crazy He must be crazy to put those ideas on paper. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ sharp Children should not have sharp knives. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ sincere I want to know your sincere opinion. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ like She has eyes like a cat. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ such At such an age, he should know what to do and what not to do. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ to keep Please keep this money in a safe place. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ to let She lets the children do what they want. ___________________________________________________________________26 like 1. His nose is like a banana. 2. San Francisco is not like New York. 3. Her face was like a mask. 4. These products are not like one another. 5. He has a military-like walk. 6. They have a prison-like apartment. mixed 1. We had a mixed salad for lunch. 2. She has mixed feelings about him. 3. Their guests were a very mixed group of people. 4. His words seemed to have mixed meanings. 5. The communication was mixed when they sent it. 6. These materials should not be mixed. There could be an explosion. fixed 1. She has very fixed ideas. 2. All the products in the store have fixed prices. 3. Like people, animals see only a fixed range of colors. 4. The lamp is fixed on the wall. 5. With his eyes fixed on us, he said one lie after another. 6. She was in such a happy mood, a smile seemed fixed on her face. enough enough may come before nouns . I have enough material. She didn't give him enough kisses. There are already enough doubts. Do you think we made enough progress? enough may come after adjectives . The words were not sincere enough. The cow was fat enough for market. He is crazy enough to do such crimes. The case against the killer was strong enough. ...ever ...ever in such words as: whoever, whatever, whenever, wherever makes the idea unlimited . Whoever Whoever wants more meat, please take it. Whoever took my book, please be kind enough to put it back now. Whatever Whatever I have is yours. Whatever she does is never good enough for him. Whenever Whenever possible next week, please give me a call. Whenever he says her name his face gets red. Wherever Wherever there are people, there are secret desires. Wherever you see an "X," put your name. However However they want to do it is okay with me. However he got away is a mystery to me. Don't ever put your nose in my business. I do whatever I want, whenever I want, with whomever I want.27 ADVERBS We can often make many adjectives into adverbs if we put "ly" at the end. sudden suddenly Suddenly, all voice communication with the space station went dead. private privately Privately, I was worried that her cough would get worse. public publicly Publicly, he said that he had no doubts about our progress. political politically Politically, the news was a blow to his election hopes. economic economically Economically, I couldn't say no to his offer. physical physically Physically, it is possible that she did it. military militarily Militarily, their movement forward was crazy. normal normally Normally, a man at rest takes eight deep breaths a minute. basic basically Basically, there was little or no waste from our new process. natural naturally Naturally, I wanted to make a good first impression on everyone. clear clearly Clearly, he was both a killer and a liar. perfect perfectly It is perfectly possible for John to make that high jump. simple simply He was simply crazy about her. direct directly The fat man was directly responsible for the car accident. special specially She was specially happy about our new products for dry skin. great greatly We were greatly worried about the crime wave in our city. necessary necessarily They were unnecessarily cruel to the animals. terrible terribly She gave a terribly worried about the fate of her son. real really Both the edge and the point of his sword are really sharp. friend friendly I don't know why she was so unfriendly. beautiful beautifully He did the work beautifully. general generally I go to bed about 11 o'clock generally. social socially She knows him only socially. free freely He freely gave us his opinion about a range of subjects. exact exactly The nurse knew exactly what to do and how to do it. easy easily The doctor easily took our doubts away. deep deeply The gang leader was deeply sorry for his many crimes. open openly Our host was openly against the government's social policy. lucky luckily He was luckily the right age. Alexandra: How does she do her work? Katherine: She does her work very carefully. Alexandra: How did she do her mathematics homework yesterday? Katherine: She did it very carelessly. Natalie: How did he get down from the tree? Elizabeth: He got down from the tree slowly. Natalie: How should he say the sentence? Elizabeth: He should say it sincerely, with a lot of feeling. Nathaniel: How sick was Edward? Ashley: He was seriously sick. And, that’s no lie. Nathaniel: Do you think I can do that? Ashley: If I can do it, you can surely do it. You're taller and stronger than I. David: Do you know the exact amount of fat in a pound of butter? Andrew: No, I don't know exactly how much fat there is. Possibly, your doctor knows. David: Do you know the exact number of guests who will be at our party? Andrew: No, I don't know exactly how many people there will be. Is that really important?28 TIME AND ACTION English has a special way of looking at time. Some actions can take place again and again (repeated) or they can be in progress at an exact point of time -past, present, or future. Repeated action Action in progress I go to school every day. I am going to school now. I went to school every day last year. I was going to school, when I saw the accident. I will go to school every day next week. I will be going to school at about 8:30 tomorrow. He has coffee every morning. He is having coffee now. He had coffee yesterday for breakfast. He was having coffee, when he got the news. He will have coffee without sugar tomorrow. He will be having coffee, if we get there at 8 o'clock. She makes delicious cakes. She is making a chocolate cake for his birthday. She made skirt for her daughter. She was making a skirt for her daughter. She will make a lot of money some day. She will be making a lot of money next year. They get tired easily. They are getting tired. They got too excited. They were getting too excited, so I put off the TV. They will get married, I'm sure. They will be getting married on Saturday at 2:30. You think about his invention. You are thinking about his invention. You thought about the mystery. You were thinking about the mystery, when I saw you. You should think about my offer. You should be thinking about your future, not mine. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE to say (+) to say (-) I am saying we are saying I am not saying we are not saying you are saying you are saying you are not saying you are not saying he is saying they are saying he is not saying they are not saying she is saying she is not saying it is saying it is not saying I am saying these points are important. I am not saying only these points are important. He is saying something to us. He isn't saying anything to us. She is saying her ABCs. She isn't saying her ABCs. They are saying their lines from scene one. They aren't saying their lines from scene one. to say (+?) to say (-?) am I saying? are we saying? am I not saying? aren't we saying? are you saying? are you saying? aren't you saying? aren't you saying? is he saying? are they saying? isn't he saying? aren't they saying? is she saying? isn't she saying? is it saying? isn't it saying? Are you saying this only to make me happy? Aren't you saying this only to make me happy? Is he saying the sentences to us? Isn't he saying the sentences to us? Is she saying the word right? Isn't she saying the word right? Are we saying good-bye forever? Aren't we saying good-bye forever?29 PAST PROGRESSIVE to do (+) to do (-) I was doing we were doing I was not doing we were not doing you were doing you were doing you were not doing you were not doing he was doing they were doing he was not doing they were not doing she was doing she was not doing it was doing it was not doing I was doing my work, when she came. I wasn't doing my work, when she came. He was doing the dishes, when I saw him. He wasn't doing the dishes, when I saw him. She was doing her hair, when the call came. She wasn't doing her hair, when the call came. We were doing the floors at about 8:30. We weren't doing the floors at about 8:30. to do (+?) to do (-?) was I doing? were we doing? wasn't I doing? weren't we doing? were you doing? were you doing? weren't you doing? weren't you doing? was he doing? were they doing? wasn't he doing? weren't they doing? was she doing? wasn't she doing? was it doing? wasn't it doing? Was I doing it fast enough? Wasn't I doing it fast enough? Was he doing it again? Wasn't he doing it again? Were you doing it everyday? Weren't you doing it everyday? Were they doing it when I came in? Weren't they doing it when I came in? FUTURE PROGRESSIVE to make (+) to make (-) I will be making we will be making I will not be making we will not be making you will be making you will be making you will not be making you will not be making he will be making they will be making he will not be making they will not be making she will be making she will not be making it will be making it will not be making I'll be making a lot of noise after lunch. I won't be making a lot of noise after lunch. He'll be making that argument in court. He won't be making that argument in court. We'll be making a new product next month. We won't be making a new product next month. She'll be making the decisions from now on. She won't be making the decisions from now on. to say (+?) to say (-?) will I be making? will we be making? won't I be making? won't we be making? will you be making? will you be making? won't you be making? won't you be making? will he be making? will they be making? won't he be making? won't they be making? will she be making? won't she be making? will it be making? won't it be making? Will we be making a visit to London? Won't be making a visit to London? Will you be making the reservations? Won't you be making the reservations? Will she be making the purchases? Won't she be making the purchases? Will he be making the payments? Won't he be making the payments?30 it seems to ... 1. It seems to me that he is sincerely sorry for what he said. 2. It seems to me that her mood is much better than yesterday. 3. It seemed to us that he was completely crazy to put his own life in real danger. 4. It will seem to others that I don't know what I am doing, but that's okay with me. 5. It may seem to many that she has a perfect family, but, in fact, she is quite unhappy. 6. Does it seem to you that there is some kind of problem with this case; that it is not quite right? so so may be used to intensify an adjective or an adverb. 1. It was so cold that I didn't want to go outside. 2. My tea is so hot that I can't take a drink right now. 3. He is so weak from loss of blood that he can't put his head up. 4. She was so beautiful that every young man in town wanted her to be his wife. 5. There are so many people that we can't get through the door. 6. He has so many friends who come for a visit that he will not have the report ready until May. 7. There were so few happy faces that I knew something was wrong, terribly wrong. 8. He has so few books about the German system of education that he will never be able to give a talk. 9. There is so much bad news these days that I don't even put the radio on. 10. She has so much work that I want you to give her a hand. 11. There was so little hot water that nobody could take a real bath. 12. He had so little money that he never had more than one hot meal a day. 13. She said "please" so sweetly that I couldn't say no to her invitation. 14. He put out his hand so friendly that I never thought he might have a gun in his pocket. 15. The car in front of us made a turn so suddenly that we almost had an accident. 16. You did that so easily that I thought maybe I could do it also. so may be used to show an outcome or result . 17. The sea was very rough so that none of the boats went out of the harbor. 18. The water was clear and warm so that we all went for a swim, even grandmother. 19. The newspaper put the story on the front page so that everyone in town knew about the crime. 20. The windows were closed and there was no fresh air in the room so that I went to sleep. such 1. It was such a terrible blow on the head, he could not get up. 2. You made such a lot of progress in our class, you can go on to the next one. 3. We didn't get a letter from you for such a long time that we thought you were dead. 4. It was such a new and complex idea that no one knew exactly what to say. 5. There was such a wide range of choices! 6. He is such a good host, but such a poor liar! 1. It was such difficult work that I didn't think anyone could do it. 2. I don't want such cruel people here ever again. Is that clear? 3. We can't go for a swim in such dirty water. Are you crazy! 4. She has such blue eyes and long hair! 5. You have such crazy ideas! 6. We are such good students, don't you think?31 PRESENT keep gives the idea that position or condition is difficult, unnatural, and/or takes energy. to keep (+) to keep (-) I keep we keep I do not keep we do not keep you keep you keep you do not keep you do not keep he keeps they keep he does not keep they do not keep she keeps she does not keep it keeps it does not keep I keep my arms up. I don't keep my arms up. He keeps his stomach in. He doesn't keep his stomach in. They keep their floors very clean. They don't keep their floors very clean. She keeps her mind fixed on the problem. She doesn't keep her mind fixed on the problem. to keep (+?) to keep (-?) do I keep? do we keep? don't I keep? don't we keep? do you keep? do you keep? don't you keep? don't you keep? does he keep? do they keep? doesn't he keep? don't they keep? does she keep? doesn't she keep? does it keep? doesn't it keep? Do I keep my finger on this button? Don't I keep my finger on this button? Does she keep her hair up? Doesn't she keep her hair up? Does he keep his mouth closed? Doesn't he keep his mouth closed? Do you keep the edge sharp? Don't you keep the edge sharp? let shows movement to a natural position or condition, so it is easy and takes no energy. to let (+) to let (-) I let we let I do not let we do not let you let you let you do not let you do not let he lets they let he does not let they do not let she lets she does not let it lets it does not let I let my arms down. I don't let my arms down. He let his stomach out. He doesn't let his stomach out. She lets the big dog into her apartment. She doesn't let the big dog into her apartment. They let the floors get dirty. They don't let the floors get dirty. to let (+?) to let (-?) do I let? do we let? don't I let? don't we let? do you let? do you let? don't you let? don't you let? does he let? do they let? doesn't he let? don't they let? does she let? doesn't she let? does it let? doesn't it let? Do I let my finger off the button? Don't I let my finger off the button? Does she let her hair down? Doesn't she let her hair down? Does he let his mouth open? Doesn't he let his eyes open? Do you let the milk get warm? Don't you let the milk get warm?32 to keep keep, when put with a PREPOSITION, gives the idea of being in that position for a long time. 1. Keep your chin up. 2. Keep your eyes down. 3. Keep your feet apart. 4. Keep your fingers together. 5. Keep your arms out. 6. He keeps his toes on the line. 7. He keeps his hands on the table. 8. He keeps his children out of danger. 9. He keeps the baby away from the fire. 10. He keeps his eye on different political movements. keep, when put with an ADJECTIVE, gives the idea of being in that condition for a long time. 1. Keep your feet warm. 2. Keep your back straight. 3. Keep your hands busy. 4. Keep your mouth closed. 5. Keep your eyes and ears open. 6. They must keep the army strong. 7. They must keep the different political groups happy. 8. They must keep the invention secret. 9. They must keep the important papers safe. 10. They must keep the material dry. keep, when put with a NOUN, gives the idea of having the thing for a long time. 1. Keep your own papers. 2. Keep your own ticket. 3. Keep your own money. 4. Keep your own plants. 5. Keep your own things. 6. She keeps ice cream in the ice box. 7. She keeps a mystery book on her night table. 8. She keeps her mind on the problem. 9. She keeps a horse at the farm. 10. She keeps a gun under her bed. to let let is very often put with a VERB to give the idea of permission. 1. If he wants it, let him take it! 2. If she gets here before the start of the test, let her come in. 3. If they think they can do better, let them do the work. 4. Let the doctor take a look at your injury. 5. Let the children make the jump. 6. Let the new government make the decision about the nuclear power station. 7. Let him be president and then we'll see what he can do. 8. Don't let her know my new address. 9. Don't let him come in until we are ready. 10. Don't let them get away. They are killers!33 ROMEO AND JULIET Part 2 In a change of scene, the street fight is over and we see the head of the House of Capulet has a completely different kind of problem. His problem is what to do with his fourteen-year old daughter, Juliet. In this scene, Juliet's father is with Paris, the prince's young cousin. Paris is saying that his one and only desire is to make Juliet his wife, as soon as possible. There is no doubt in his mind that Paris is making a sincere offer, but Juliet's father has deeply mixed feelings. On the one hand , he thinks she is too young to get married. And, on the other , he likes Paris and so says to him, "Paris, my boy, as you know, tonight we will be the hosts of a wonderful party, a very important social event for our city. There will be a lot of guests, food and drinks. I think you should go to Juliet tonight, have a talk with her and see if you can get her heart. You must make the attempt, you must take the first step. For my part , I can and will do nothing. I must keep out of this. I always let my daughter do whatever she wants." (Today, Juliet's father might say to Paris, "My boy, the ball is in your court. Now, it's up to you . See what you can do at our little get-together tonight. But, be careful because my daughter is very headstrong.) At this point in the play, Juliet's father sends one of his servants out with a list of invitations to tonight's party. But there is a problem in the fact that the servant never went to school. He has no education and so reading and writing are completely foreign to him. Then, quite by accident , the servant sees Romeo and his cousin, Benvolio, as they are coming down the street. When they get close enough, the servant takes a deep breath and says a white lie, "Please, kind sirs, will you give me some help? I do not have my glasses. What is the address of the next person on my list?" Because Romeo and Benvolio have no place special to go, Romeo says, "Okay, let me take a look at your list." Much to his surprise , Romeo sees that Rosaline's name is on it. Romeo and Benvolio now know that Rosaline, the love of Romeo's life, is about to get an invitation. So, the two young men say to one another, "Why don't we go to this party tonight, also?" "What a great idea! That is exactly what I am thinking." So, with a laugh and a jump, the two young gentlemen go off to get ready.34 In the next scene of the play, it is later that same afternoon. Lady Capulet, Juliet's mother, gets a terrible shock when her husband lets her know that Paris wants to become their soniinlaw. Naturally, Lady Capulet thinks about how young her daughter is and it seems to her that it is best to get Juliet's opinion. So, she sends for Juliet who comes, right away , with her dear, old nurse. Juliet's nurse, a kind, old country woman, a little on the fat side with gray hair which she keeps up, is a great talker. She is able to go on and on for hours about almost anything. She can be very funny, even when she does not know it. Right now , the old woman is on the question of Juliet's age and what Juliet did when she was only three years old. It takes some time, but slowly and surely, little by little Lady Capulet is able to get the old nurse back to the present. At last, Lady Capulet is able to put some questions to her daughter. "Juliet, my dear, what do you think of Paris? Is there anything about him that you like? Do you have any interest in him as a possible husband?" Juliet's answer is neither yes nor no, but only a maybe. In a soft voice, she says, "I really have mixed feelings about him. He has his good and bad points. I have some serious doubts about him as a husband, but, if you want, I will take another look at him at tonight's party. Then, possibly we can have a talk tomorrow, dear mother." Back on the street, Romeo takes a look at his watch and says to his two friends, "It's party time!" All three put on masks and go into the great house of their family's long-time enemy, the Capulets. But something is wrong. Romeo is no longer in a good mood. Romeo does not want to take part in the fun and dances with the other guests. He keeps to the shadows. He simply goes backward and forward along the edge of the room. He keeps his eyes on the floor most of the time. He seems to be sad, so very sad. His friends are naturally worried about his change of mood. They think that maybe it comes from the fact that Rosaline is not at the party yet. While his friends are making fun of him, there is a sudden change in his mood. His complete attention is now on a tall, thin girl with a little mask that she keeps over her eyes. We know that this is Juliet. She seems to take his breath away . It is almost a crime for anyone to be so beautiful. Suddenly, his lips become dry, his mouth is half open but no words come out, only strange sounds, like "Ooooh!" "Eeeee!" "Aaaah!" "Wow!"35 Clearly, Rosaline is no more. Now, there is only Juliet. ("The queen is dead. Long live the queen!") Romeo can think only of Juliet. He can not take his eyes off her, they are fixed on her every movement. If he is crazy, he is crazy because of love. It would not be a lie to say that this girl is everything. There is no doubt in his mind. He is a prisoner, a prisoner of love. She is bright like the sun, sweet like sugar, fresh like a spring day, beautiful like a flower. But who is she? Who is this mystery girl? Romeo wants to know her name. He wants to know how old she is. He wants to know where she is from. He wants to know everything about her, any information anyone can give him about this picture perfect girl. But fate can be cruel. Unluckily, Juliet's cousin, Tybalt, one of the leaders in the street fight that took place earlier, knows Romeo's voice and sends for his sword with the sharpest possible point. Romeo does not know it, but his secret is out of the bag . The young hothead Tybalt is all ready for another fight, but his uncle says no. This is neither the time nor the place for a fight. He does not want any problems at this evening's party. What would people say? When the music comes to an end, Romeo, who still does not know that he is in any danger, comes out of the shadows and makes his way through the many guests to Juliet. Then, with a little cough he gets her attention. She gives him a smile. Without any waste of time, Romeo comes directly to the point and says that what he wants more than anything else in the world is one little, sweet kiss from her fiery red lips. Juliet is in a party mood this evening and so with a smile on her lips she gives him what he wants, one little kiss on his cheek. Then she does what girls often do at such times, she goes to her mother. Clearly, Romeo made a good first impression on the young girl. Though he is making progress, poor Romeo still does not know who she is. He does not even know her name. Only Juliet's old nurse is ready and able to give him the information he wants. Without doubt, it is a great surprise for Romeo to know that this new love of his life is, in fact, the daughter of his father's greatest enemy. What a blow! What a shock! Is it possible? At the end of the party, Juliet is by the door with the rest of her family, who like all good hosts are saying good night to their guests. As Romeo is going out, the old nurse, in answer to Juliet's question, says, "His name is Romeo Montague." And so, Juliet also makes the discovery that she is in love with her family's enemy. Oh, how cruel fate is!36 PAST to keep (+) to keep (-) I kept we kept I did not keep we did not keep you kept you kept you did not keep you did not keep he kept they kept he did not keep they did not keep she kept she did not keep it kept it did not keep I kept out of the rays of the sun. I didn't keep out of the rays of the sun. You kept the amount of waste down. You didn't keep the amount of waste down. He kept his hand round the handle. He didn't keep his hand round the handle. We kept to the edge of the road. We didn't keep to the edge of the road. to keep (+?) to keep (-?) did I keep? did we keep? didn't I keep? didn't we keep? did you keep? did you keep? didn't you keep? didn't you keep? did he keep? did they keep? didn't he keep? didn't they keep? did she keep? didn't she keep? did it keep? didn't it keep? Did he keep the customers happy? Didn't he keep the customers happy? Did she keep her age secret? Didn't she keep her age secret? Did you keep your mind on the problem? Didn't you keep you mind on the problem? Did they keep the killer in prison? Didn't they keep the killer in prison? to let (+) to let (-) I let we let I did not let we did not let you let you let you did not let you did not let he let they let he did not let they did not let she let she did not let it let it did not let I let him make the jump. I didn't let him make the jump. He let us go forward. He didn't let us go forward. She let me have a kiss. She didn't let me have a kiss. They let the chemicals get mixed. They didn't let the chemical get mixed. to let (+?) to let (-?) did I let? did we let? didn't I let? didn't we let? did you let? did you let? didn't you let? didn't you let? did he let? did they let? didn't he let? didn't they let? did she let? didn't she let? did it let? didn't it let? Did you let them know about our invention? Didn't you let them know about our invention? Did they let the killer get away? Didn't they let the killer get away? Did she let her mask down? Didn't she let her mask down? Did he let his breath out? Didn't he let his breath out?37 CRIME FIGHTERS People round the world know the many stories about Sherlock Holmes' endless fight against crime. The writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle gave life to Sherlock Holmes in more than 50 books and short stories. Most often Holmes' adventures in London's underworld took place with his long-time friend, Dr. Watson. The name of one of these stories is The Adventure of the Empty House. The story took place late one foggy, moonless evening in London about 1895. Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson got into a taxi. Dr. Watson had his gun in his pocket and the feeling of high adventure in his heart. As always, he was excited and on the edge of his seat. Holmes, on the other hand, was cold and kept quiet. As the taxi was going down the street, now and then Watson could see Holmes' face when the street lights came through the windows. From the fact that Holmes did not say a word Watson knew that he was thinking deeply about a case or something very serious. No doubt, his mind was fixed on the danger, maybe even the deadly danger, that was coming closer, ever closer. No one ever knows exactly what is going on in another person’s mind. At first , Watson thought they were going to Holmes' apartment on Baker Street, but then, suddenly, the taxi came to a stop and the two men got out, still without a word. Holmes took a look up and down the street. As soon as he was sure that there was no one, he took his friend's arm and, keeping in the shadows as much as possible , went along a narrow, dirty street and through the back door of a house. There was no light in the house. It was completely dark, but Watson knew from the sounds of their steps that the house was empty. With Holmes' cold fingers still round his arm, they went up to the second floor and through two empty rooms. At last , they went into a third room. It was also empty, but a little light was coming through the window, so Watson could see shadows. Holmes, letting Watson’s arm go, said quietly, "Do you know where we are?"38 Keeping the same mood of mystery in his voice, Dr. Watson said, "Yes, Holmes, this is Baker Street. We seem to be in the old house directly across from your apartment. But, I don't have the least idea why we are here or what you want to do." "We're here," said Holmes, "because we can see everything from here. Come a little closer to the window and take a look across the street at my apartment window. What do you see, Watson?" When Watson went closer to the window, he had an even greater surprise, because there, directly across the street, in Holmes window, was Sherlock Holmes in a chair, reading a book, or so it seemed. Dr. Watson put out his hand to make sure the real Holmes was with him. "What a shock! I would say that is you at your reading table. It seems to me that you are doing some work on a case, or something like that ." "Yes, it is very much like me, don't you think? A friend of mine made that shadow cutout a few days ago. It took him two days. I think it is really quite good. In any case , good enough! "But why, Holmes? What's this all about? Why are you keeping me in the dark? Let me know what's going on. I'm part of this and I have a right to know. No lies, not even little white ones. I want to know every detail of this case." Holmes said in his deep, most sincere voice, “My dear Watson, don't get angry with me. There is no reason to be angry! I want some people to think that I am in my room, that I am doing my work, as always. I think, my friend, that we about to get a big fish, a really big fish." "Oh, I see now, Holmes. You think someone is after you." "I don't think it, I know it! Tonight, we have a chance to get him, a good chance to get the leader of one of the worst gangs in London." "How do you know that?" "Because I saw one of his men a few days ago. He was nothing but a brainless gunman. We can get him and the other members of the gang any time. I want the gang leader. I want the man who makes the decisions and gives the orders. I’m sure that he is responsible for much of our present crime wave here in London. I’m also sure that he is the same man who made an attempt on my own life in Switzerland last year. He’s one of the worst killers in London. He doesn't let anything or anyone get in his way. He’s the head of a gang of killers. That’s the man who’s after me tonight, and that’s the man who doesn’t know that we’re after him. 39 "Okay! Now, I know what we’re doing here. Everything is more or less clear to me." "This is very serious business. It’s really a question of life or death. I’m hopeful that the killer will be here in an hour or two. Watson. Are you with me all the way? It’s natural to be afraid, but you’re very important to the success of my plan. You do have your gun, don't you? Keep it ready!" Watson was very excited. His heart was going boom, boom, boom. Like a cat, he was ready for anything. Then, without another word between them, Holmes and Dr. Watson soundlessly took a few steps backward into the shadow of a dark corner. This was the start of a long wait. The minutes seemed to go by very slowly for Watson. He kept his eyes open, though it was getting very difficult. He was about to go to sleep on his feet when suddenly there was the sound of a door and then footsteps. Someone else was in the house and he was coming in their direction. Both Holmes and Watson were at full attention. The footsteps were getting louder and louder. Then there was a cough. Watson put his hand round the handle of his gun and took it out of his coat pocket. He knew that he was as ready as he would ever be. A minute later, a man came into the room and went directly to the open window. He took a long and careful look up and down the street to be sure that no one was there. Then from under his coat, he slowly took out a gun and got down on his knees. When he put the gun on the edge of the window, he had the crazy look of a killer in his eyes. Both Holmes and Watson knew the man was completely out of his mind when from deep inside him came a little laugh. It was clear that he man really thought this would be the best and maybe the easiest kill in his life. He seemed to take a long time to get ready, but, at last, he took a deep breath and then there was a little movement of his finger and the sound of broken glass. Suddenly, Holmes made a long jump and both men went down. Dr. Watson soon put a stop to the fight when he came down powerfully with the handle of his gun on the man's head. A minute later, when the fight was over , two policemen and a fat man with a round, moonliik face came into the room. "Is that you, Lestrade? It's high time you got here," said Holmes. "Yes, Holmes. It's good to see you again. You really got the big one this time. My sincere congratulations." Thank you, Lestrade, for your kind words. But, you know, my one and only desire is to see my would-be killer in prison for the rest of his life.40 FUTURE to keep (+) to keep (-) I will keep we will keep I will not keep we will not keep you will keep you will keep you will not keep you will not keep he will keep they will keep he will not keep they will not keep she will keep she will not keep it will keep it will not keep I will keep the amount of fat in my food down. I won't keep the amount of fat in my food down. She will keep her mind fixed on her progress. She won't keep her mind fixed on her progress. We will keep the reason for our trip secret. We won't keep the reason for our trip secret. They will keep the killer in prison forever. They won't keep the killer in prison forever. to keep (+?) to keep (-?) will I keep? will we keep? won't I keep? won't we keep? will you keep? will you keep? won't you keep? won't you keep? will he keep? will they keep? won't he keep? won't they keep? will she keep? won't she keep? will it keep? won't it keep? Will you keep us in mind for your next party? Won't you keep us in mind for your next party? Will he keep the noise down? Won't he keep the noise down? Will it keep the demand up? Won't it keep the demand up? Will they keep their sailboat at the harbor? Won't they keep their sailboat at the harbor? to let (+) to let (-) I will let we will let I will not let we will not let you will let you will let you will not let you will not let he will let they will let he will not let they will not let she will let she will not let it will let it will not let I will let you know about our plans. I won't let you know about our plans. He will let us keep the dog. He won't let us keep the dog. She will let you be a member of our team. She won't let you be a member of our team. We will let her go with us to the play. We won't let her go with us to the play. to let (+?) to let (-?) will I let? will we let? won't I let? won't we let? will you let? will you let? won't you let? won't you let? will he let? will they let? won't he let? won't they let? will she let? won't she let? will it let? won't it let? Will you let me keep this gold bracelet? Won't you let me keep this gold bracelet? Will he let us do it again? Won't he let us do it again? Will she let him see the letter? Won't she let him see the letter? Will they let her make another call? Wont they let her make another call? BUSINESS LETTERS 41 If what they say is true, that information is power, then I must be very powerful because I am in the information business. I am the owner of a store that has every possible kind of up-todaat communications equipment. Naturally, we have telephones, but we also have computers that are able to send both words and pictures between one another. We have a wide range of the latest communications equipment and all at very reasonable prices. We have communications systems for companies of all sizes, big, little and everything in between. Naturally, we have car telephones which are in great demand now, specially, among business people and sales representatives who like them because, wherever they are, they can keep in contact with their customers. Fast and easy communications are an important part of today's business world. International businessmen must know exactly what prices are doing in London, Tokyo and New York. They have to know if the prices are going up or down. They have to know what the market is doing, so that they can keep on top of it and make timely decisions. The demand for ever greater amounts of information and the desire for it right now have been the chief reasons for the growth of the communications industry in the last few years. I don't see any real limit to this industry in the next ten or twenty years. There is no doubt in my mind that this is where the action is and will be for years to come. And that's no lie! You can take my word for it. With the development of writing people were able to put their ideas and desires down on paper. Then, the desire to send those pieces of paper to other people made the post office possible. The desire for ever faster communication was surely one of the reasons for the success of telephones. What a great invention the telephone was. It gave us the chance to be in direct voice contact with people all round the world. After the telephone, came the radio and television which were great steps forward in communication. They made all people "neighbors." They let us know and even see what people are doing round the world in real time , that is, at the time the event is taking place. Building on this progress in technology, a number of companies are making ever newer equipment. For example, we now have machines that can send letters, pictures, business agreements and so on anywhere, that is, to any point on the face of the earth. There are special programs that let computers send information to any point on earth in only a few seconds. These companies are on the edge of computer and communications technology today. But what about tomorrow? No one knows for sure where we are going from here. To my mind, the field is limitless. A salesman for a new high tech company came into my store a few days ago. He made a good impression on me. He gave me his business card. John Arthur Sales Representative CLEVELAND COMPUTER COMPANY Programs, Sales and Service 2323 High Technology Drive Miami, FL 33159 PHONE: (305) 123-4567 FAX: (305) 123-4578 He wanted to let me know about his company's new product line. It seems that they have a new computer program that is very user friendly . It lets the user do many things easily. I thought that some of my customers might want to know about this new program, so I sent a letter to the developer's head office in Miami, Florida.42 Wilson's Communications Store 1845 E. Third Street New York, NY 10022 (212) 987-0102 July 28, 20__ Cleveland Computer Company 2323 High Technology Drive Miami, FL 33159 Dear Sirs: Yesterday, one of your salespeople, Mr. John Arthur, came by to give me some information about your new computer communications program, "Lightning." He made a good impression on me in the short talk that we had. Please send me the price list for all you products. We are New York's biggest outlet for computers, computer supplies and communications equipment, in general. We are the suppliers for many of the top companies in the New York area. Among our customers, we have many of the big name companies on Wall Street and the law offices on Fifth Avenue. Our turnover was more than $50,000,000 last year. We are able to have such a high turnover because we keep a wide range of computers and computer programs on our shelves. Normally, we can give our customers same-day or next-day service. Also we have a 24 hour customer support system that lets our customers give us a call whenever they have a problem. I want to know not only about "Lightning," but also your other products. One very important point for us will be your credit conditions. Normally, we get 90-days credit, without interest, from our suppliers. If you can do the same, I can give you an order for 250 units of "Lightning." I can send you a Purchase Order number as soon as I get your answer. We must have all the units on the shelves for our Fall Sale which will be from October 1 to 10. This will be an important event for us. Our store will be open twelve hours a day. It might be a good chance for our customers to get to know your product line. If you would like to send two or three of your best salespeople, I will make room for them. I do not want any waste of your time or mine, and I want to make a good impression on our customers, so please make sure that the people whom you send have exact, up-to-date information, know-how and hands-on experience with all your products. I think this can be profitable for both of us. Sincerely, Andrew Wilson Andrew Wilson President AW:nt43 Cleveland Computer Company 2323 High Technology Drive • Miami, FL 33159 • (305) 123-4567 August 3, 20__ Mr. Andrew Wilson President Wilson's Computer Store 1845 E. Third Street New York, NY 10022 Dear Mr. Wilson: In answer to your letter of July 28, I am sending you a copy of our latest price list. We have a supply of all the products on the list, so we can get your order back to you in only a few days. You will see on the list that we have a number of new computer programs, not only "Lightning." But, without doubt, it is our star product on the market today. As soon as we get your Purchase Order, we will send the 250 units. Because your business has such a good record, we are happy to give you our best credit conditions -90 days without interest. Thank you for your kind offer of space at your Fall Sale. Naturally, we will be send some of our top salespeople. You are right, no one gets a second chance to make a good first impression. We are putting together a sales plan with a number of points for you. I will be in contact with you as soon as it is ready, which should be before the end of this month. If you have any questions, please give me a call. Our normal business hours are 8 to 5, Monday through Friday. My direct line is (305) 123-4678. It will be a pleasure to do business with you. Sincerely, Edward Grant Edward Grant, General Sales Manager EG:dh44 Please put your answers on the line. 1. He said it (excited). ____________________ excitedly. 2. She did the work (professional). _____________________________ 3. They don't know (exact) what time he came back. _____________________________ 4. You seemed (true) sorry. _____________________________ 5. I (personal) sent an invitation to you. _____________________________ 6. We see one another only (social). _____________________________ 7. Would you (kind) give me those mixed vegetables. _____________________________ 8. (Possible), they don't know the details of this case. _____________________________ IN GENERAL NOW 1. He puts his shoes on every day. He is putting his shoes on. 2. She __________ her coat off and puts it away. She is taking her coat off and putting it away. 3. What ___________ you do on Saturdays. What are you doing? 1. They put out new products. They are putting out a new product. 2. They keep secrets from everyone. They ____________ their meeting a secret. 3. They have a party every weekend. They _______________ a party next door. 4. They are cruel to my cat. They _________________ cruel to my cat. 5. They send the information by computer. They ________________ the information. 6. They let the prisoners go. They were letting the prisoners go. 7. They ________________ good progress. They were making good progress. 8. They ___________ the products to market. They were taking the products to market. 9. They ___________________ long jumps. They were doing long jumps. 10. They ____________ about the mystery of life. They were thinking about the mystery of life. 11. They will come forward. They will be coming forward. 12. They will go backward. They will be ____________ backward. 13. They will say their lines like actors. They will be ________ their lines like actors. 14. They will give voice to their doubts. They will be ________ voice to their doubts. 15. They will get the offer tomorrow. They will be _________ the offer tomorrow. KEEP ≠ LET 1. Put your hands up and keep them up. 2. Put your hands on the table and ___________ them there. 3. Get your head down and __________ it down. 4. Get your hands off me and ___________ them off. 5. He got his room clean and ___________ it clean. 6. She got away from the edge of the stage and _________ away from it. 7. He made a lot of money and __________ it in a strong box under his bed. 8. They did exactly what they said they would do, so they ____________ their word. 9. You can let your hands down now. 10. They will __________ him out of prison on Friday. 11. I don't see why you won't ___________ him say what he wants. 12. Take a deep breath and ________ it out slowly. 13. Don't ____________ these two materials get mixed. There could be an explosion. 14. Don't __________ any doubts get in way. You have our complete support. 15. Don't __________ your desires have control of your life. You are a responsible person. 16. Don't ___________ your cough get worse. I want you to go to Argentina next week.45 Romeo and Juliet Part 346 LESSON 3 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. wheel _______________ cross _______________ tire _______________ paint _______________ engine _______________ key _______________ battery _______________ lock _______________ __________ threat He made a threat against my life. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ license If you want to be a doctor, you must have a license. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ rule The first rule is -be here on time! ___________________________________________________________________ __________ self Children have little or no self-control. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ advertisement I saw the advertisement in Saturday's newspaper. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ connection There should be a connection between his actions and his words. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ fear She has no fear of high places. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ theory Do you have a theory about these events? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ hose Where is the garden hose? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ wire Be careful! One wire is red and the other wire is black. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ rent Is this apartment still for rent? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ request My only request is that you be there on time. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ insurance What kind of insurance do you have? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ repair I gave it to him for repair. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ tool There is a special tool for that work. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ joke His joke was funnier than mine. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ message When did you get this message? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ need There is a great need for people with your kind of experience. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ comfort The mother gave her baby comfort. ___________________________________________________________________47 __________ distribution Who is responsible for the distribution of food? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ resistance Because he was sick, his resistance was low. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ structure Was there a change in the chemical structure? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ brake The brake on the left front wheel is bad. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ form She wants the information in a special form. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ rubber Natural rubber comes from trees. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ metal What kind of metal is this? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ gasoline Why is the price of gasoline so high? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ wedding Their wedding will be next Saturday. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ border They went through control at the border. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ transportation Buses are only one form of transportation. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ practice She has swim practice three times a week. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ security She wants security in her life. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ trouble He made a lot of trouble for his parents. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ receipt Please give me a receipt for my payment. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ dangerous It was very dangerous work. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ federal Only a few nations have a federal system of government. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ equal For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ conscious He made a conscious decision to get married. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ extra He keeps an extra key to his apartment under that flower pot. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ automatic The car has automatic locks. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ civil Will the case go to a military or civil court? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ foolish That was a foolish thing to say. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ flat Why isn't the bed flat? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ electric How many people have electric cars? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ used There is a used book store at the corner. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ to hear I want to hear his side of the story. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ to find She can not find her house key. ___________________________________________________________________48 going to... The Present Progressive form -going to...-has the meaning of will. 1. I am going to send a receipt for your rent money on Wednesday. 2. You are going to be sorry that you do not have an extra key. 3. He is going to be at his sister's wedding next weekend. 4. She knows that we are going to do some dangerous work on that high structure. 5. Are we going to get our business license soon? The Past Progressive form has the meaning of ready to.... 6. They were going to put new brakes on the car. 7. I was going to say a very funny joke. 8. He was going to make a cross by the wrong answer. 9. We were going to go across the border, but there was heavy security, wire fences and so on. 10. Were you going to keep their threat of resistance a deep, dark secret from me? 11. Who is going to come with some electric tools? 12. What are you going to do with all those boxes of paper, wood, metal and rubber? 13. When are we going to see their new television advertisement? 14. Where am I going to get another bicycle wheel at this time of night? 15. Why was he going to go in the water without his rubber boots? 15. How were you going to make the necessary repairs without your box of tools? let's let's (let us) shows the speaker wants to take part in the action also. Ashley: What are your plans for this evening? Nathaniel: Let's go the a film. It'll keep us out of trouble. What do you say? Ashley: A wonderful idea! I was going to say the same thing. Nathaniel: Great! Let's see that new cowboy film at the Midtown Theater. Elizabeth: Let's have dinner early tonight. Katherine: Why? What's up? Elizabeth: Nothing special. I simply want to keep the evening open. Katherine: Okay, let's do it! Andrew: I don't see any connection between his social theory and practice. Natalie: Then, let's make a conscious attempt to put the theory into practice. Andrew: Let's not go too far. You have to be reasonable about your rules and laws. Natalie: I don't see anything unreasonable about the idea of equal money for equal work. Richard: Let's say you're right. Let's say resistance is hopeless. So what? What do we do? Alexandra: Then, let's be extra careful. Let's think about what is in our own interest. Richard: Okay, let's get out of here as soon as possible. Let's not take any more chances. Alexandra: That's very dangerous talk. This is no joke There are security people everywhere. Mrs. Johnson: Spring is here! Let's do some work in the garden. Mr. Roosevelt: Let's do it tomorrow. Mrs. Johnson: Okay, then let's get this room clean. You do the windows and I'll do the floor. Mr. Roosevelt: Let's not and say we did.49 used 1. It was a used car but it had a new engine. 2. My used bicycle has a flat tire. 3. She put all her used clothes in a metal box. 4. What should I do with this used oil? 5. Though the equipment was used, I thought we should still get some insurance on it. 6. I'm sure that you can get a good, used wheel for less than $100. that with things who with people 1. The engine that is in this car is in need of serious repairs. 2. The little hose that goes from here to there is broken. 3. The driver's license that he has is no longer any good. 4. Where is the piece of rubber that I put here only a minute ago? 5. The tires that are on the captain's car are all flat. 6. The brakes that he put on my car last year are still like new. 7. The rules that she made for our group were very simple and straight forward. 8. Where are the keys that were in my coat pocket? 9. The engineer who made that structure had to have a lot of experience. 10. The ruler who sent the demand was foolish. 11. The painter who made that picture was a real joker. 12. Where is the trouble-maker who took the battery out of my car? 13. The sailors who did the best work got extra money. 14. The football players who made the most points will be on next year's team. 15. The servants who seemed like a fixed part of his life suddenly went home. 16. Where are all the people who said they would come to our help in time of need? well good is an adjective and well is an adverb. 1. These are my good glasses, so now I can see well. 2. That was a good question and you put it very well. 3. This is a beautiful dress and your mother made it very well. 4. Bananas do not keep well. 5. I have to know all these words very well because we have a test tomorrow. 6. He surely thinks well of your work. well ≠ sick 1. The medicine made me well. 2. Fresh fruits will keep you well. 3. I'm going home because I'm not well. 4. I think that Mary will be well enough to come back to swim practice next week. 5. He is quite well. It is the rest of the family who are sick. 6. It took me almost three weeks to get well again because my resistance was low. 1. Well, what a surprise to see you here! 2. Well, better late than never! 3. Well, something is better than nothing. 4. Well, am I my brother's keeper? Let him get his own insurance! 5. Well, well, well! What strange form of transportation do we have here? 6. Well, I don't see how a water well could become an oil well!50 SELF self is normally part of another word: This is a self-service store. They will do it because it is in their self-interest. Self-understanding is important for everyone. Self-love and self-hate are opposites. The child has almost no self-control. He is a self-made businessman. Many people now want self-government. self is used to make reflexive pronouns: myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself themselves herself itself A reflexive pronoun may be the object of a verb: 1. I see myself in the mirror. 2. You know yourself better than anyone else. 3. She likes herself a little too much. 4. Please, keep yourself out of trouble. 5. Can you put yourself in my shoes? 6. Why don't you take your coat off and make yourself comfortable. 7. She made herself and us crazy. 8. He gets himself in trouble all the time with his foolish jokes. 9. They put themselves in danger needlessly. 10. We gave ourselves a vacation in Italy. 11. I let myself get too tired. And that was foolish. 12. It keeps itself clean automatically. A reflexive pronoun may be used to make a noun or pronoun stronger, give emphasis. 1. I myself want nothing from him, now or ever! 2. I myself saw him take your garden hose. 3. I myself have no fear of the future. 4. We put on another coat of paint ourselves. 5. He took the wires off the battery and the battery out of the car himself. 6. She made the request herself, not her brother. A reflexive pronoun may be put with some propositions. 1. I went to their wedding by myself. 2. He doesn't want to be responsible for our comfort by himself. 3. I don't know how they did it, but the two children got across the border by themselves. 4. I'm going to get another lock and key for myself. 5. He makes trouble for himself as well as others. 6. They aren't going to keep anything for themselves. I'm sure they'll give it all away.51 PASSIVE VERB FORMS In an active sentence we know who the doer or actor is. When we do not know, or do not want to say who the actor is we can use the passive form, which always has some form of the verb to be . ACTIVE PASSIVE Simple 1. We see the president. The president is seen by us. 2. The president wants you in Washington. You are wanted in Washington by the president. 3. She knows the theory of civil law very well. The theory of civil law is known very well by her. 4. They made an equal distribution of profits. An equal distribution of profits was made. 5. He gave your message to Mr. Adams. Your message was given to Mr. Adams. 6. I let the air out of his tire. The air was let out of his tire. 7. She will take the letters to the post office. The letters will be taken to the post office. 8. He will put some gasoline in the car. Some gasoline will be put in the car. 9. Philip is going to do the dishes. The dishes are going to be done by Philip. 10. Millions are going to see the TV program. The TV program is going to be seen by millions. Progressive 11. She is making a cup of coffee for you. A cup of coffee is being made for you. 12. They are sending their reports to her. She is being sent their reports. 13. I am keeping him in the dark about our troubles. He is being kept in the dark about our troubles. 14. We are giving him a lot of practice. He is being given a lot of practice. 14. We all were having a good time. A good time was being had by all. 15. Mary was making a chocolate cake. A chocolate cake was being made by Mary. 17. What were the students doing? What was being done by the students? 18. What were people saying? What was being said by people? 19. They will be putting the electric lights up. (no future form) 20. They will be taking the electric lights down. (no future form) Most verbs have four forms, but not all of them can be used in the passive: see saw seeing seen give gave giving given make made making made know knew not used known want wanted not used wanted get got getting gotten put put putting put do did doing done take took taking taken keep kept keeping kept send sent sending sent let let letting let think thought thinking thought like liked not used liked say said saying said go went going gone come came coming came seem seemed seeming seemed have had having had am/is/are was/were being been52 PASSIVE FORMS Simple Present to give (+) to give (-) I am given we are given I am not given we are not given you are given you are given you are not given you are not given he is given they are given he is not given they are not given she is given she is not given it is given it is not given I am given some information. I am not given any information. His is given bread and water. He is not given bread and water. She is given a lot of comfort. She is not given a lot of comfort. We are given time to think. We are not given time to think. Simple Past to take (+) to take (-) I was taken we were taken I am not taken we were not taken you were taken you were taken you were not taken you were not taken he was taken they were taken he was not taken they were not taken she was taken she was not taken it was taken it was not taken I was taken to the theater by my parents. I was not taken to the theater by my parents. He was taken to the hospital by taxi. He was not taken to the hospital by taxi. She was taken away from me. She was not taken away from me. We were taken to federal court. We were not taken to federal court. Simple Future to see (+) to see (-) I will be seen we will not be seen I will not be seen we will not be seen you will be seen you will be seen you will not be seen you will not be seen he will be seen they will be seen he will not be seen they will not be seen she will be seen she will not be seen she will not be seen it will be seen it will not be seen it will not be seen You will be seen at 10:15. You will not be seen at 10:15. He will be seen by Dr. Clinton. He will not be seen by Dr. Clinton. She will be seen by millions. She will not be seen by millions. They will be seen at your request. They will not be seen at your request. You will be seen next week. You will not be seen next week. You can be seen right away. You can not be seen right away. You may be seen tomorrow. You may not be seen tomorrow. You should be seen with her again. You should not be seen with her again. You must be seen with a smile on your face. You must not be seen with a smile on your face. You have to be seen as an animal lover. You don't have to be seen as an animal lover.53 Present Progressive to keep (+) to keep (-) I am being kept we are being kept I am not being kept we are not being kept you are being kept you are being kept you are not being kept you are not being kept he is being kept they are being kept he is not being kept they are not being kept she is being kept she is not being kept it is being kept it is not being kept I am being kept here by the federal police. I am not being kept here by the federal police. He is being kept in the city hospital. He is not being kept in the city hospital. She is being kept away from her friends. She is not being kept away from her friends. They are being kept in a safe place. They are not being kept in a safe place. Past Progressive to send (+) to send (-) I was being sent we were being sent I am not being sent we were not being sent you were being sent you were being sent you were not being sent you were not being sent he was being sent they were being sent he was not being sent they were not being sent she was being sent she was not being sent it was being sent it was not being sent I was being sent to London. I was not being sent to London. He was being sent to an island in the Pacific. He was not being sent to an island in the Pacific. She was being sent flowers every day. She was not being sent flowers every day. You were being sent a cross of gold. You were not being sent a cross of gold. Nicholas: What do you think of my new suit? Alexandra: It seems to be good, strong material and the suit itself is well made. Nicholas: What did you think about his plan for a new transportation system? Alexandra: I thought it was very well done. Theodore: Do you think that the true story will ever be known? Richard: No! I'm sure the true story will never be know by us, the voters. Theodore: Do you think that his best film will ever by seen by the general public? Richard: Who knows? Maybe someday it will be seen. Helen: Do you know what is being kept in that big box with the heavy lock? Arthur: I think Uncle John keeps his secret papers and bags of money in it. Helen: Don't you think he is being a little foolish to keep it here without much security? Arthur: Keep you hands off it. I'm sure it's being used as a test of our self-control. Diana: Do you know what is being said about us in newspapers? Edward: No, what are they saying about us this time? Diana: I want to know what you are going to do about it? Edward: What is to be done? Don't get excited. They'll be after someone else tomorrow. Mrs. Taft: Do you know who is being sent to take your place? Mr. Monroe: Yes, Henry Adams is being sent to Hong Kong by the head office. Mrs. Taft: Do you know what was being put in the city water supply? Mr. Monroe: Possibly some chemical. What's wrong with it? Is there any smell or taste?54 PRESENT to hear (+) to hear (-) I hear we hear I do not hear we do not hear you hear you hear you do not hear you do not hear he hears they hear he does not hear they do not hear she hears she does not hear it hears it does not hear I hear the music. I don't hear the music. You hear the sound of birds. You don't hear the sound of birds. He hears her voice. He doesn't hear her voice. She hears his laugh. She doesn't hear his laugh. to hear (+?) to hear (-?) do I hear? do we hear? don't I hear? don't we hear? do you hear? do you hear? don't you hear? don't you hear? does he hear? do they hear? doesn't he hear? don't they hear? does she hear? doesn't she hear? does it hear? doesn't it hear? Do you hear the car's engine? Don't you hear the car's engine? Does he hear the car's brakes? Doesn't he hear the car's brakes? Does she hear the key in the lock? Doesn't she hear the key in the lock? Do they hear wind in the sails? Don't they hear the wind in the sails? to find (+) to find (-) I find we find I do not find we do not find you find you find you do not find you do not find he finds they find he does not find they do not find she finds she does not find it finds it does not find I find some resistance here. I don't find any resistance here. He finds security in his work. He doesn't find security in his work. She finds some comfort in his words. She doesn't find any comfort in his words. We find receipts for everyone, except you. We don't find receipts for everyone, except you. to find (+?) to find (-?) do I find? do we find? don't I find? don't we find? do you find? do you find? don't you find? don't you find? does he find? do they find? doesn't he find? don't they find? does she find? doesn't she find? does it find? doesn't it find? Do you find the trouble in the engine? Don't you find the trouble in the engine? Does he find the right words easily? Doesn't he find the right words easily? Does she find meaning in her life? Doesn't she find meaning in her life? Do they find that is the right size? Don't they find that is the right size?55 ROMEO AND JULIET Part 3 Romeo is still excited from the party and does not want to go home yet. His head is full of his new love, his true love, Juliet. As he goes along the street, he sees the high wall round her garden with its heavy metal door and strong lock. Poor Romeo does not have the key. He wants so much to see her. He is not conscious of anything but the pain in his heart. Resistance is not possible The answer is clear -up and over the garden wall. It may be foolish and even dangerous to be in the garden of the Capulets, but the threat of death is nothing next to the desire, no the need to see Juliet. In the garden, Romeo keeps in the shadow of the trees. Juliet is at her window. When suddenly Romeo sees her, the air becomes electric with love. For him, her beautiful face has no equal in all the world. She makes the night into day. It is as if the morning sun is high in the eastern sky. He says to himself in a half voice, "It is my lady. Oh, it is my love!" With her window open, Juliet says exactly what is in her heart, "Romeo, oh Romeo, where are you?" Suddenly, out of the dark night, she hears loudly and clearly, "I am down here in your garden, my love." With these words, Romeo takes two or three steps forward into the moonlight where he can be seen by Juliet. Then, for a while, in the special language of lovers all over the world, their words go, not from mouth to ear, but directly from heart to heart. The hate between their two families has no meaning for them. Though Juliet does say that she is fearful for Romeo. She has an uneasy feeling. But, as we know, for lovers nothing is quite real, neither life nor death. And that is as it should be. Romeo and Juliet are too young and too much in love to think about anything but the present. They want only to be together and the sooner the better. Then Romeo puts the question that we, the on-lookers, knew was coming: "Juliet, my dearest, will you be my wife?" And Juliet's answer comes right back , "There is nothing in the world that I want more than to be your wife. Already, I am part of you and you are all of me, my dearest." Then they make plans to get married the very next day. Romeo says that he will take care of the details and Juliet says that her servant, the old nurse, will come to him at 9 o'clock in the morning. When Romeo is about to go , Juliet says in her softest, sweetest voice, "Good night, my love. I will see you in my dreams."56 Then Romeo goes back up over the garden wall, but he does not go home. He goes to his old friend and Father of the Church, Father Laurence, for a talk. Though it is not yet light, he finds Father Laurence already at work in his vegetable garden. Romeo takes a seat on a flat stone and goes directly to the point saying that he has a new love, Juliet of the House of Capulet. "Father, we want to get married right away and we want you to do the wedding for us. Neither Juliet nor I want a civil wedding. My only request is that you keep our wedding plans to yourself. Please don't say a word to anyone. It is still a secret. " Romeo's sudden and complete change of heart, from Rosaline to Juliet, is quite a surprise for the good Father. But, there is no doubt in his mind that this time Romeo is very serious and quite conscious of what he is doing. The more the Father thinks about it, the more he likes the idea. If Romeo and Juliet get married, there may, at last, be peace between their families. Father Laurence says that he will do exactly what Romeo wants. In the next scene, it is morning, the sun is up and we see Romeo's two friends, Benvolio and Mercutio, who were with him at the party. They know nothing about the events that took place after the party. They go to Romeo's home, only to find he is not there. On the table, next to the telephone, they find an envelope with a message from Juliet's hothead cousin, Tybalt, in which he makes not a request for a meeting, but a demand for a fight, a fight with Romeo, a fight to the death! What a foolish idea! What a terrible idea! What a crazy idea! He must be out of his mind. Fear takes control of both of them. With worried looks on their faces, the two friends go out of the house and along the street. Coming into the public square, they find Romeo who is about to have a cup of coffee at a outdoor restaurant. It is soon clear to the two friends that Romeo is back to his old self. For him, life is wonderful, life is beautiful. He is as happy as can be! He has no idea of the trouble he is in. And they don't say a word.57 At this point in the play, Juliet's old nurse comes along the street, from the opposite direction. Mercutio makes fun of her. She does not like his jokes. She does not think he is funny at all and, in fact, becomes very angry. At last , Mercutio gets tired of his own jokes and he and Benvolio soon go on their way. Romeo then makes one attempt after another to get across to the old woman that she must take an important message to Juliet. But the old woman is too busy with her own troubles to give any attention to Romeo's problems. At last , he is able to get through to her and says that the wedding will take place that very afternoon and Juliet must be at Father Laurence's place at exactly 4 o'clock. Time is now the most important thing! There is a change of scene and now we see the wedding in progress , Father Laurence is putting the question to Romeo, "Do you take this woman, Juliet, to be your lawful wife for better or for worse until death?" Romeo says yes and puts a gold ring on her finger as a sign of his endless love. Then, the Father puts the same question to Juliet, "Do you take this man, Romeo, to be your lawful husband until death?" She also says yes and puts a gold ring on Romeo's finger. At last, the Father makes the sign of the cross and says, "You are now husband and wife. You may go, my children. Peace be with you now and forever." It is a hot afternoon, Benvolio and Mercutio, who do not know anything about the wedding of Romeo and Juliet, are taking a walk round the public square of Verona. Benvolio, a good person by nature, is worried about Tybalt's demand for a fight and the Prince's threat to put to death anyone who takes part in acts of violence. Benvolio wants to keep the peace and knows that in such hot weather people can unconsciously get angry quite easily. He wants Mercutio, who is himself something of a hothead, to go indoors before there is any trouble. But Mercutio will have none of it and says with a laugh "There is no cause for fear, my dear friend. I know how to keep control of myself. And in any case , my sword has two edges and a sharp point. Keep in mind that I am a very good swordsman. I can take care of myself very well."58 PAST to hear (+) to hear (-) I heard we heard I did not hear we did not hear you heard you heard you did not hear you did not hear he heard they heard he did not hear they did not hear she heard she did not hear it heard it did not hear I heard his threat to make trouble. I didn't hear his threat to make trouble. You heard the rules. You didn't hear the rules. We heard that there was a lot of resistance. We didn't hear that there was a lot of resistance. They heard message. They didn't hear the message. to hear (+?) to hear (-?) did I hear? did we hear? didn't I hear? didn't we hear? did you hear? did you hear? didn't you hear? didn't you hear? did he hear? did they hear? didn't he hear? didn't they hear? did she hear? didn't she hear? did it hear? didn't it hear? Did you hear this joke before? Didn't you hear this joke before? Did he hear my request? Didn't he hear my request? Did she hear about our need of money? Didn't she hear about our need of money? Did they hear about my new distribution plan? Didn't they hear about my new distribution plan? to find (+) to find (-) I found we found I did not find we did not find you found you found you did not find you did not find he found they found he did not find they did not find she found she did not find it found it did not find I found a hole in the hose. I didn't find a hole in the hose. We found the rent receipt. We didn't find the rent receipt. He found that the paint was wet. He didn't find that the paint was wet. She found that his jokes were tasteless. She didn't find that his jokes to be tasteless. to find (+?) to find (-?) did I find? did we find? didn't I find? didn't we find? did you find? did you find? didn't you find? didn't you find? did he find? did they find? didn't he find? didn't they find? did she find? didn't she find? did it find? didn't it find? Did I find the tool you wanted? Didn't I find the tool you wanted? Did you find a nice wedding gift for them? Didn't you find a nice wedding gift for them? Did he find the gold cross was too expensive? Didn't he find the gold cross was too expensive? Did they find that the work was dangerous? Didn't they find that the work was dangerous?59 THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR: Its cause and outcomes In order to find the basic cause of the American Civil War (1861-1865), we have to go back to the start of the country and the writing of the American Constitution. As we know, after the American Revolution (1776-1783), the newly independent states of the United States did not get along with one another. After four years of trouble, the new nation was at a crossroads. Most people were painfully conscious of the fact that the country was "united" in name only. Many leaders thought it was time for a new form of government. So, in May 1787, 55 representatives from 12 of the 13 states that made up the United States went to work on a new constitution. Basically, those men saw government as a tool. They were afraid of too much power in too few hands. Their ideas and their fears come from their own experience and that of others. The system for self-government that they put together was a conscious plan for the control and distribution of power. Until that point in history, first there was the fact of government and then great minds went to work on the development of a theory or theories for its support. America was the first country where the theory came before the fact of government. The general theory of American government was found in the writings of European thinkers, mostly English and French, in the late 1600s and early 1700s. The job of the Fathers of the US Constitution was to go from theory to practice. In their attempt to do so, that is, to put European theory into American practice, they made two important decisions. The first was to make a division of power among the three branches of the US government: the executive with a president as its head, the legislative with its law-makers in two separate houses of Congress and the judicial with its complex system of courts. Such a division of power was not a new idea. It was in agreement with the general understanding of what a republic should be. The Fathers of the American Constitution had the Greek and Roman republics, as living examples. Their second important decision was to make something completely new and very different. For the first time in history, they made a federal structure of power in which there is a division of power between the center and its parts or, in the American case , between the national and state governments. For the Fathers of the US Constitution, this was both necessary and difficult. It was necessary, because they wanted a stronger national government, one that could make decisions and then put them into force. What seemed easy and necessary in theory was difficult to do in practice. It was difficult because some powers had to be taken away from political units, that is the states, some of which had long histories. Virginia an Massachusetts, for example, were more than 150 years old at the writing of the Constitution. Naturally, the states did not want to hear about any loss of their power or rights. Clearly, they were against anything that was not in their selfinteerest Their resistance to change is why the Fathers of the US Constitution found it difficult to make a clear-cut division of power between the federal and state levels of government. 60 In their attempt to make a workable system, the writers of the US Constitution made a list of things over which the national government should have control. For example, they said the federal government is responsible for national security. They gave the national government the power to put taxes on both goods and people. The Constitution said that the nation's money and bank systems were under the control of the federal government. All business or trade that went across a state line also came under the laws of the national government. These were only a few of the powers that the US Constitution gave the federal government. The Constitution said that every state, big or little, had equal rights. The Fathers seemed to think, in a nation as big as the United States, where the North was different from the South and the East was different from the West, the national government should make only a few general rules or laws. State governments, on the other hand, with their closer connection to the everyday life of the people were made responsible for most of the peoples' needs. The US Constitution was not very clear about limits on state power and what a state could or could not do. Every state had control of all businesses inside its borders. It was responsible for the education and health of its people. Clearly, under the US Constitution, the states kept many of their rights. Their most important right was the right to make laws about everything that took place inside their borders. The problem was that in some cases the laws of the nation and the laws of a state were different. So, the question soon came up, whose law was in force , the state's or the nation's? Everyone knew that the real question was, which was stronger the state government or the federal government? In American history, this is the problem of "states rights," a problem from the nation's birth. There were terrible arguments and fights, both inside and outside Congress, about states rights for many years. It was like a poison in the nation's political system. Little by little, states rights became a North-South problem. The people of the North were for a stronger federal government. The people of the South were against the idea. Their basic argument was that the states made the national government and so the states were not under its control. In theory, the maker of something is always more powerful than the thing he makes. This question of states' rights came to a head when the government of South Carolina took up arms against the federal government in April 1861. 61 This was the start of the American Civil War. The Southern name for the war was the War Between the States. It was four years long. Abraham Lincoln was the President of the United States. At that time , there were 23 states in the North with about 22,000,000 people. In the South, there were 11 states with about 9,000,000 people, but 1/3 of these people were not free, because they were black. Together with this unequal distribution of people, the North had much more industry and a better system of transportation than the South. There were millions of men under arms on both sides who were ready to do battle for their ideas about where the center of power should be. There are no "good" wars, but a civil war has to be worst than others because it puts son against father and brother against brother. Soon the gray uniforms of the South and the blue uniforms of the North were both red with blood. The great armies and navies of the two sides had many terrible battles. The outcome of these land and sea battles was a great loss of life. At the end of the war in May 1865, the damage to farms, towns, and cities was in the hundreds of millions of dollars. The number of dead on the side of the North was more than 359,000 and, on the side of the South, it was more than 258,000. Though there was no exact information, it is safe to say that the number with injuries was four or five times greater. The Civil War had some very important political effects on the United States. We know that at its start the War was about the question of "states' rights." The success of the North seemed to put an end to the question of which was stronger the national or the state governments. It is also the reason Americans say, "The United States is...." not "The United States are...." They see themselves as one nation, not as 50 separate states. A second important outcome of the Civil War was that about 3,500,000 Blacks became free. On January l, 1863, President Lincoln said that all Blacks in the South were free! The North did not have control of the South at that time, but his words did give a new direction to the Civil War. One year and one month after the end of the war a change in the Constitution gave Blacks the same civil rights as Whites. The Civil War had a third long-time effect on the American political system. It made a very big division between the North and the South. Before the Civil War many of the nation's greatest Presidents were Southerners. But for more than 100 years after the Civil War there was no President from the South. Not until the election of 1976, when Jimmy Carter became President, did the United States have a President from the heart of the South.* Bill Clinton's election in 1992 was another sign of the change of mood among Americans about the South and its place in the nation's political system. Another sign of the times, is the fact that both houses of Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives, have Southern leaders. The South is stronger than ever. ______________________________ * President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) was also from the South, but he first came to the Office after the death of President John F. Kennedy in November 1963.62 FUTURE to hear (+) to hear (-) I will hear we will hear I will not hear we will not hear you will hear you will hear you will not hear you will not hear he will hear they will hear he will not hear they will not hear she will hear she will not hear it will hear it will not hear I will hear the lawyer's argument tomorrow. I won't hear the lawyer's argument tomorrow. He will hear about the new life forms. He won't hear about the new life forms. She will hear the wheels as they go round. She won't hear the wheels as they go round. You will hear a lot more from me. You won't hear anything more from me. to hear (+?) to hear (-?) will I hear? will we hear? won't I hear? won't we hear? will you hear? will you hear? won't you hear? won't you hear? will he hear? will they hear? won't he hear? won't they hear? will she hear? won't she hear? will it hear? won't it hear? Will I hear your side of the side? Won't I hear your side of the story? Will we hear the advertisement on radio? Won't we hear the advertisement on radio? Will it hear our foot steps? Won't it hear our foot steps? Will you hear what I have to say? Won't you hear what I have to say? to find (+) to find (-) I will find we will find I will not find we will not find you will find you will find you will not find you will not find he will find they will find he will not find they will not find she will find she will not find it will find it will not find We will find another way across the border. We won't find another way across the border. He will find the extra key in that envelope. He won't find the extra key in that envelope. She will find that the material is rubber. She won't find that the material is rubber. You will find that the brakes were off. You won't find that the brakes were off. to find (+?) to find (-?) will I find? will we find? won't I find? won't we find? will you find? will you find? won't you find? won't you find? will he find? will they find? won't he find? won't they find? will she find? won't she find? will it find? won't it find? Will you find my request among those papers? Won't you find my request among those papers? Will he find the right kind of battery? Won't he find the right kind of battery? Will she find there is a threat to our security? Won't she find there is a threat to our security? Will they find that they must have insurance? Won't they find that they must have insurance?63 NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENTS Not long ago two of my close friends, Edward and Alexandra, got married. He is a structural engineer and she is a criminal lawyer. After their wedding, they went to Hawaii for a week. They got back from their honeymoon on Saturday and already Alexandra is putting pressure on Edward to get a new apartment. Edward knows it is high time to do something for his new wife. They want a nice one bedroom apartment with a living room and bathroom. It's okay with them if the kitchen and dining room are together. They have no need for a separate dining room, because there are only the two of them. They can go as high as $1000 for monthly rent payments. Because they both have good jobs, money is not the most important thing for them. They want comfort, security, and a nice area where they can go for a walk in the evening without any fear. Right now they are living in Edward's old apartment, but Alexandra is not too happy with it because it's too little and she doesn't think the area is safe enough, specially at night. Two weeks ago someone got into her car and took her radio and some of her personal things. Luckily, she has insurance, but still she was very angry and now she is putting serious pressure on Edward to get another apartment. She takes a look at the advertisements in the newspaper every morning to see if there is anything better. As a rule , she finds something interesting two or three times a week. You yourself know that there are all kinds of advertisements in the newspaper There are advertisements for work, for new and used furniture, for new and used cars, and so on. There are houses and apartments for sale and for rent. At first, such advertisements may seem to be in a foreign language. Without practice, reading newspaper advertisements, it's difficult to get much out of them. The key to understanding newspaper advertisements is to know the short form of words. People who put advertisements in newspapers want to give as much information as possible in the littlest possible space, so they often use the short form of words. This example will give us some more practice: APARTMENT FOR RENT 1 BR apart., quiet bldg., gd. security, new AEK, w/w crpts. AC, color TV, 1 child OK, no amls., close to schl., mkts., & trans., w/e $900 mo. Call mgr. dys/eves. 245-8673 The meaning of this in normal English is: There is a one bedroom apartment for rent in a quiet building with good security (that is, there may be a doorman or automatic locks on all the doors). It has a new all electric kitchen and wallttowall carpets. It also has an air conditioner and a color television. It is okay if the renter has one child, but the owner does not want any animals -dogs, cats, and so on. Probably a bird or gold fish would be okay, but who knows? The apartment is close to a school, markets and public transportation. The water and electric bills are all part of the $900 a month price. You can give the manager a call days or evenings at 245-8673. See how easy it is! Here's another for more practice. HOUSE FOR SALE New hse., 2 car gar. 3 BR, 11/2 Ba., LR w/frplc., AEK, DR, FR, hdwd flrs., gard. w/frt. trees, $295K, 10% dn. Owner. Call: days 345-6000, eves. 254-8976 You will find reading advertisements quite easy if you keep in mind theses three little rules: 1) Take out letters, specially a-e-i-o-u; for example, house becomes hse. 2) Take off the end of words; for example, garage may be gar. 3) Put only the first letter of important words; for example, bedroom is BR. In order to be sure this advertisement is clear, let's go through it, point by point. There is a new house for sale. It has room enough in the garage for two cars. It has three bedrooms and 11/2 bathrooms (a half bathroom does not have a bathtub, only a sink, toilet, and shower). It has a living room with a fireplace and an all electric kitchen. The dining room is separate. There is a separate family room. It has hardwood floors and a garden with fruit trees. The price is $295,000. The owner wants a 10 percent down payment. A down payment is the first payment. If you have an interest in this house, give the owner a call days or evenings.64 In today's newspaper, I saw an ad (ad is the short form for advertisement.) for a used or secondhand car. It said, CAR FOR SALE 1995 Ford, 4 dr., gd. cond. in/out, gd. engine, nu tires, fully auto., w/fact. AC, PB, PW, 42K mi., $8k/BO. Call John, eves. 678-9132 Because I know how advertisements are put together, I knew right away the meaning of this ad: 1995 Ford, four doors, good condition both inside and outside, good engine, new tires, fully automatic, with factory air conditioner, power brakes, power windows, 42,000 miles, $8,000 or best offer. Give John a call, evenings 678-9132. I gave John a call and said, "I would like to know if your car is still for sale." John's answer was "Yes, my car is still for sale, but two other people also gave me calls and are going to take a look at it tomorrow. If you are serious, you should come as soon as possible." After a few more questions, everything seemed okay, so I thought to myself, "It's either now or never." Then I said to John, "I'm free right now. May I take a look at the car this evening?" John's answer was, "Sure, why not? My address is 3455 Mountain Road. The best way to get here is to go south on Highway 24 to Washington Street. When you get to Washington, make a right turn. Go along Washington until you see Garfield Drive. At the corner of Washington and Garfield there is a stop light and a gasoline station, make a left turn. That will put you on Garfield. At the first stop sign, make another left turn. That will put you on Mountain Road. You will find our house on the right side as you come up the road. If you have trouble, after you're in our area, give me a call and I'll come to get you." I gave a friend of mine a call and said that I was in need of his help. I wanted him to go with me because he knows more than I do about cars and does most of his own repairs. It's only for very big car problems that he goes to a professional repairman who has all the necessary tools. My friend and I found John's place a little before sundown, so there was still some daylight. When we went to the front door, we saw a car in the driveway. It was dark blue. The paint seemed in good condition. When John came to the door, I said who we were and that we wanted to see the car. As all three of us went to the car, John said, "As far as I know, this car is in very good condition. I take good care of the engine. As a rule , I take it in for an oil change every 3000 miles." We let him go on with his sales talk for a few minutes until, at last, I said, "I want to hear the engine." John took the car key out of his pocket, gave it to me and said, "You will find everything in order . I keep it that way." We went to the front of the car, where we took a look at its engine. I found it very clean. John said, "I take very good care of this car. As you can see for yourselves, I keep it in good condition. There is nothing wrong with this engine. It has a little more than 42, 000 miles. It should go for another 80,000, at least. You won't have any problems, if you keep the oil clean and take the car in for service every now and then. Right now, it doesn't take any oil between changes. The battery is only six months old. When I got the new one, I also put on new battery wires. They are these wires that go from the battery to the starter." As he was saying this, he took out a pencil and with its point showed us two wires, one black and one red, going from two connections on the top of the battery to a little electric starter on the side of the engine. Then John said, "As you see, all the hoses are also new. I put them on myself. In fact, I did almost all the repairs on this car. If you know how to do simple repairs, you can keep your repair bills down. That's the reason I always keep a tool box in the back of this car. Naturally, I think you should do the same."65 Because the question of repairs came up, I wanted to know what the car's most serious problem was. John said that the only real problem was a broken gas line (Gas is the short form for gasoline.). A broken gas line is serious because not only can the gas not get to the engine but there is also a great danger of fire. John said that he took care of the problem by himself . In answer to my question about how much gasoline the car took, John said that it got up to 25 miles a gallon of gasoline on the open road and in the city about 16. All this talk was getting on my nerves and also it was getting dark fast, so I said, "Enough! Let's go for a test drive! I want to see some action!" But when John put the top down, I saw the front lights of the car, the headlights, were not the same. So I put the question, "Why are these headlights different? Did you have an accident?" John said that it was sad, but true. The accident was not too serious. The only damage was a broken headlight on the right side. He also said that he got a flat tire when the glass from the broken headlight made a hole in the right front tire. Because he didn't want any more flats, he got four new tires. He also said that the tire on the extra wheel, under the back seat, was almost new. I gave the key to my friend because I wanted him to be the driver and, at last, we all got in the car. I must say that I found the inside was quite clean and the seats were in good condition. "It's clear to me that you keep everything very well," I said. My friend was in the driver's seat. I could see from the look in his eye that he wanted to go as soon as he put his hands on the driver's wheel. I was next to him and John was in the back seat all by himself . John put his arms on the back of the front seat and said to us, "As you can see, this car has a factory air conditioner. It is very good for the hot summer weather. The car has power windows and they all go up and down without any problem. The radio is very good. You can put it on and hear for yourselves. This car has power brakes. So, when we come to a stop light or stop sign, please put the brakes on carefully, or we may all go through the front window. The keyhole is on the right side. Just put the key in and give it a half turn to the right. This car is fully automatic so the only thing you have to do is put it on "D." As you probably know, in an American car, "D" is for "Drive." To be sure that nobody was in back of the car, the driver first took a look in the mirror and then made a half turn in his seat so he could see out the back window. When he was sure it was safe, we went backward, out into the street, then he put the car in drive and away we went ! At first, we couldn't go very fast because there were a lot of other cars, then we made a left turn and went across a bridge. Soon we were by ourselves on the open road. After we went about four miles, we came to a stop. My friend and I both got out. We took another look at the engine, now that it was hot. My friend said that it wasn't making any uncommon noises, or giving off any strange smells and in general the car seemed to be in good condition. Then we got back in, but this time I took the wheel. What a wonderful feeling it gave me. I was free, free as a bird to go wherever I wanted. My dream was about to come true. Two or three minutes later I said to John, "Okay, I'll take it if we can come to an agreement on the price. It seems a little high to me. Can you come down $500? John thought about my offer for a minute and then said, I'll come down $250, if you come up $250. How's that? I didn't say anything right away. After about half a minute, I said, "Why not? It's okay with me." When we got back to John's house, I gave him a check for $7750 and he gave me a receipt and kept a copy for his own records. As you can see, my dream come true. Now, for the first time in my life, I am a car owner! The first thing I will have to do is get car insurance. The second thing is get my driver's license!66 Please put your answers on the lines. 1. I found it a real shock the first time I heard __myself__ on radio. 2. Did you ever see _________________ on television? 3. He had to know it by heart, so he said the words over and over to _________________. 4. You ________________ know that he is guilty. 5. William thinks that he __________________ never makes a mistake. 1. I will hear their music on Friday. I am _going_ to hear their music on Friday 2. Will you find an extra key for me? Are you ___________ to find an extra key for me? 3. He will get the receipt for you. He is _____________ to get the receipt for you. 4. They will do the repairs themselves. They are _________ to do the repairs themselves. 5. Your message will give them much comfort. Your message is _________ to give them much comfort. 6. I want the two of us to be friends again. __Let's__ be friends again. 7. I want the two of us to go to their wedding. _____________ go to their wedding. 8. I want the two of us to get rubber boots. _____________ get rubber boots. 9. I want the two of us to find the connection. _____________ find the connection. 10. I want the two of us to do the work together. _____________ do the work together. 1. The message __that __ was on the table was the best possible news for me. 2. The fire insurance _______________ he got was not enough to take care of the damage. 3. The tools ____________ were by the car were taken while we were having lunch. 4. The rules ____________ you were given were the same ones everyone else got. 5. Where is the receipt ____________________ I gave you? 6. Were the rubber gloves _____________ I got for you the right size? 7. The boy __who__ made all the trouble for us is in the hands of the police. 8. The girl _____________ found that she could not hear well is in the front office. 9. The students ____________ are in need of transportation should put their names on this list. 10. The engineers _____________ made the request knew exactly what they were doing. 11. What is the telephone number of that painter ______________ did your apartment? 12. Were all those people ______________ came to our wedding really your aunts and uncles? given √ heard made thought known found done said wanted seen taken put let sent kept 1. The threat was __heard__ by everyone in the room. 2. Equal money should be ______________ for equal work. 3. The idea of a federal government was first __________ of by the Fathers of the US Constitution. 4. Those tires were _____________ in Brazil. 5. It was generally ___________ that he had strong connections to important business people. 6. The criminal is _____________ by the police for many serious crimes. 7. The parents never had any rest until the children were ___________ in bed. 8. The repairs were ____________ exactly as you wanted them. 9. The words must be _____________ with great feeling. 10. Did you hear that John was _____________ to federal prison for six years? 11. Did you know that Mary was _______________ not far from the scene of the crime? 12. Do you know that your uncle was ______________ to the hospital yesterday? 13. Do you think that we will be ________________ very soon? 14. I don't know why she is being _____________ away from me. 15. I didn't know when he was being _____________ free by the court.67 Romeo and Juliet Part 468 LESSON 4 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. package _______________ tomb ______________ planet _______________ circle _______________ __________ ability We had no doubts about his ability to do the work. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ insult What he said was an insult to us all. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ weight What is the weight of this package? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ effort He made a great effort to get up, but couldn't. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ cry The baby gave a cry when she got a shot from the doctor. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ position What is his position in the company? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ master Only a real master has that level of talent. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ situation Why is the economic situation of the nation is getting worse? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ content His paper got a poor grade because it was all form and no content. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ custom It is a custom in our family to have dinner at 6:00. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ quality Naturally, high quality things have a high price. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ cost The factory cost must be lower than the market price. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ personnel Most companies have a training program for new personnel. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ expansion The company made plans for its expansion into new areas. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ investigation The police investigation is far from over. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ culture Music in an important part of a people's culture. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ objective What do you think his real objective is? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ sense Dogs have a better sense of smell than people. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ environment Give us three reasons why a clean environment is important. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ addition With the addition of sugar, coffee becomes sweet. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ interview Where and when is your interview going to take place? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ bachelor When he was a bachelor, he was a real playboy. ___________________________________________________________________69 __________ experiment How much money and time will the experiment take? _________________________________________________________________ __________ attraction The attraction of one person for another may become love. _________________________________________________________________ __________ energy Light is only one form of energy. _________________________________________________________________ __________ department Her office is in our Department of Social Science? _________________________________________________________________ __________ source The window was the only source of light in the room. _________________________________________________________________ __________ desert He was two days in the desert without any water. _________________________________________________________________ __________ resume To whom did you send your resume? _________________________________________________________________ __________ application The company sent me an application. _________________________________________________________________ __________ clash Their clash of opinions was the cause of their fight. _________________________________________________________________ __________ increase There was a $10 increase in our rent. _________________________________________________________________ __________ recommendation I gave her a strong recommendation. _________________________________________________________________ __________ respect I have only deep respect for his great writings. _________________________________________________________________ __________ behavior We knew the news was bad because of his strange behavior. _________________________________________________________________ __________ expert She is an expert in the field of child behavior. _________________________________________________________________ __________ standard How do they keep their quality standard so high? _________________________________________________________________ __________ exchange Who took part in the round table exchange of opinions? _________________________________________________________________ __________ honest He is a very honest person so your money is safe with him. _________________________________________________________________ __________ practical Business people are normally very practical people. _________________________________________________________________ __________ local He is an expert on our local history. _________________________________________________________________ __________ enterprising She is really a very enterprising person. _________________________________________________________________ __________ disgusting I will not have anything to do with such disgusting people. _________________________________________________________________ __________ probable It is possible, but not probable that he is the killer. _________________________________________________________________ __________ instead of Instead of wine, please give me a glass of grape juice. _________________________________________________________________ __________ despite I said nothing, despite his insults. _________________________________________________________________ __________ used to We were not used to many of their local customs. _________________________________________________________________ __________ since She has been here since 8 o'clock this morning. _________________________________________________________________ __________ to show I want to show you the position of the planets. _________________________________________________________________ __________ to hit She hit him again and again. _________________________________________________________________70 instead of Andrew: Did John make a mistake on his job application? James: Yes, instead of his new telephone number, he put his old one. Andrew: Does Mary want the silver earrings in addition to the gold ones? James: No, she wants the gold earrings instead of the silver ones. Natalie: What was his mistake? Katherine :Instead of "personnel office," he put "personal office" on the package. Natalie: What should I do? Katherine: I think you should say "probable" instead of "possible." despite 1. Despite the hot weather, we went to the desert. 2. Despite their clash of ideas, they are close friends. 3. She gave him more money, despite her sixth sense that said no. 4. I did not go to the party, despite my great respect for his work. used to Elizabeth: Are you used to your new environment yet? Nathaniel: Yes, I am used to it already. Elizabeth: I can't say that I will ever get used to the local customs. Nathaniel: What's the problem? Every culture has both form and content. Ashley: I don't think Mary is used to an open exchange of opinions. George: You're wrong. She is a strong person. She can take it and give it. Ashley: How long did it take you to get used to your new position in the department? George: To be honest, I got used to it very fast. I knew everything in less than a week. same 1. They are the same age, but they don't have the same level of energy. 2. The two young bachelors went to the same place, at the same time to see the same girl. 3. We want to keep the same standard of quality in all our products. 4. Though these two products have the same quality, the costs to make them are different. Alexandra: Do you want tea or coffee? Nicholas: It's all the same to me. Whatever is easier. Alexandra: Would John like some cake or ice cream? Nicholas: I 'm sure it's all the same to him. He likes anything sweet. 1. I put in the same amount of effort, so I want the same kind of flowery recommendation as she (got). 2. It's not clear to me why you didn't have to do the same number of chemical experiments as we (did). 3. Like me, he is a very practical person, so it is no surprise that he had the same objective as I (had). 4. Give me the same as yesterday: a bowl of bean soup, a piece of fresh bread, and a glass of cold beer. Mr. Truman: Have a nice day. Mrs. Ford: Thank you and the same to you. Mr. Truman: Have a good trip. Mrs. Ford: Thanks and the same to you. 1. The English put milk and sugar in their tea and we do the same. 2. She let her children go to the park and I did the same. 3. If you take some more salad, he will do the same. 4. I'm going to give my parents a call and you should do the same.71 SIMPLE TENSES English verbs have two basic forms. Simple and Perfect Tenses. A. The Simple Present Tense shows that an action takes place often , always , or in general: I go to school every day. I do the dishes right after dinner every evening. I hear those kinds of insults all the time. I like my circle of friends because they are all very practical people. I know that I must give respect to get respect. B. The Simple Past Tense shows that an action took place: He took his family to a mountain lake, the source of our local river. He gave a cry when he got a shot from the nurse. He got a completely honest answer from me. He saw all the planets last night because there wasn't a cloud in the sky. He had an enterprising ability to make money and make it fast. C. The Simple Future Tense shows that an action will take place: She will get ready for the expansion of our investigation. She will take some weight off before the interview. She will put on that disgusting old hat. She will have a better sense of the situation than I. She will make a much greater effort to be here on time or she will be out of a job. PERFECT TENSES The second basic form, the Perfect Tense, gets its name from the fact that something is perfect only when it is complete. So, all the Perfect Tenses show that an action is complete. All the Perfect Tenses are made with the third principal part of verbs: the participle see saw seen give gave given make made made know knew known want wanted wanted get got gotten put put put do did done take took taken keep kept kept send sent sent let let let think thought thought hear heard heard find found found like liked liked say said said go went gone come came came seem seemed seemed have had had am/is/are was/were been72 PRESENT PERFECT The Present Perfect Tense shows that an action is perfect or complete now . to see (+) to see (-) I have seen we have seen I have not seen we have not seen you have seen you have seen you have not seen you have not seen he has seen they have seen he has not seen they have not seen she has seen she has not seen it has seen it has not seen I have seen that package before. I haven't that package before. You have seen his tomb already. You haven't seen his tomb yet. He has seen your application already. He hasn't seen your application yet. We have seen some increase in quality. We haven't seen any increase in quality. to see (+?) to see (-?) have I seen? have we seen? haven't I seen? haven't we seen? have you seen? have you seen? haven't you seen? haven't you seen? has he seen? have they seen? hasn't he seen? haven't they seen? has she seen? hasn't she seen? has it seen? hasn't it seen? Have I seen you somewhere before? Haven't I seen you somewhere before? Have you seen the attraction she has for him? Haven't you seen the attraction she has for him? Has she seen much of our environment? Hasn't she seen much of our environment? Have they seen my new resume? Haven't they seen my new resume? Both Simple Past and Present Perfect show that an action already came to an end. We make use of the Simple Past when we know the action will or may take place again. We make use of the Present Perfect to give the idea of no more , never again . For example: 1. I saw the master at work (and he was wonderful; I'll take you with me next time). I have seen the master at work (and I know that I will never be able to do what he does). 2. I had a talk with the experts (but I still have many questions; they didn't really give me the answer). I have had a talk with the experts (and I now I know exactly what to do). 3.I was in the desert (and it was very interesting; maybe I will go again soon). I have been in the desert (and what a terrible place it is; I never want to go again). 4. I thought about his behavior ( and I want to think about it some more; it was so strange). I have thought about his behavior (and I know what to do; I don't have to think anymore). 5. I took my medicine (and I will take some more in three hours). I have taken my medicine (and now I am completely well, so no more medicine). 6. I went to the Department of Health (and I'll go again if necessary). I have gone to the Department of Health (and I don't want to go again; it's useless). 7. I did my experiment (and I am ready to give you some help). I have done my experiment (and I'm out of here; I am going home). 8. I came for my money (if you don't have it, you can send it to me next week). I have come for my money (and I will not go until you give it to me).73 The PRESENT PERFECT TENSE has a second and more important use when we put it with time . This second use shows that an action started in the past, is going on (continues) at the present time, and will probably go on in the future also. N past X O future W for shows a period or length of time. 1. I have been in the United States for 8 months. 2. I have known him for more than 10 years. 3. I have gone to the same doctor for the last 5 years. 4. I have kept the contents of this box secret for 20 years. 5. I have seen the quality standards get lower and lower for the last six months. since shows a point of time. 6. She has been here since 9 o'clock. 7. She has sent me a letter every month since May 1995. 8. She has wanted to be an animal doctor since she was 15 years old. 9. She has said that she wanted to go to Paris since she was an art student. 10. She has done high quality work since she became a member of our team. 11. They have been quite enterprising until now. 12. They have seen eighteen months of economic expansion. 13. They have heard about the police investigation. 14. They have made a great effort to be here. 15. They have found a new source of energy. 16. We have always wanted to see the source of the Nile River. 17. We have always said that such experiments could go wrong. 18. We have always given to the best of our ability. 19. We have never been in that situation. 20. We have never gone to another planet and probably never will. Charles: How long have you been head of the personnel office? Alexandra: I've been in position for the last five months. Charles: How long have you been a department manager? Alexandra: I've been a department manager for about eight years. Susan: How long have you had this car? Anthony: I've had this car for less than three years. Susan: How long have you known Bill Clinton? Anthony: I've know him for six and a half years. Martha: How long has your friend done this kind of work? Ruth: He's done this kind of work since 1989. Martha: How long has he shown an interest in our company? Ruth: He's shown an interest in your company since August. Mr. Jefferson: How long have the children been in the water? Mrs. Jackson: They've been in the water since 2 o'clock. Mr. Jefferson: How long have you had your nose in that book? Mrs. Jackson: Be quiet! I haven't been able to do two pages of reading since you came home.74 PAST PERFECT We make use of the Past Perfect Tense to show that there were two events in the past, but one was complete before the other one took place. N (X) X OW to see (+) to see (-) I had seen we had seen I had not seen we had not seen you had seen you had seen you had not seen you had not seen he had seen they had seen he had not seen they had not seen she had seen she had not seen it had seen it had not seen I had seen her sense of good taste. I hadn't seen her sense of good taste. You had seen the clash of colors. You hadn't seen the clash of colors. He had seen the amount of energy. He hadn't seen the amount of energy. We had seen the attraction between them. We hadn't seen the attraction between them. to see (+?) to see (-?) had I seen? had we seen? hadn't I seen? hadn't we seen? had you seen? had you seen? hadn't you seen? hadn't you seen? had he seen? had they seen? hadn't he seen? hadn't they seen? had she seen? hadn't she seen? had it seen? hadn't it seen? Had I seen an increase in his ability? Hadn't I seen an increase in his ability? Had you seen the weight of the package? Hadn't you seen the weight of the package? Had she seen the quality of your work? Hadn't she seen the quality of your work? Had they seen my resume? Hadn't they seen my resume? Peter: Why didn't you see a doctor about your sudden weight loss? Paul: I had been to the doctor shortly before that and he said everything was okay. Peter: Why didn't you go to the job interview? Paul: I had been to those kinds of interviews before and nothing ever came out of them. Arthur: When did you make your recommendations? Henry: I had made my recommendations before the start of the investigation. Arthur: When did you see the contents of the package? Henry: I had seen the contents of the package before it was taken to the post office. Victoria: Did you know about their exchange of letters? Diana: No, I had not known about that before your telephone call. Victoria: Had you given that information to your department manager? Diana: Yes, I had given that information to my department manager two days before the meeting. John: When did you think the repairs were done? Philip: I thought the repairs had been done before the boat went out of the harbor. John: When did you think the message was sent to the captain? Philip: I thought the message had been sent to the captain shortly before his radio went dead.75 FUTURE PERFECT The Future Perfect Tense shows that there will be two events, but one will be complete before the other takes place. NO (X) X W to see (+) to see (-) I will have seen we will have seen I will have not seen we will have not seen you will have seen you will have seen you will have not seen you will have not seen he will have seen they will have seen he will have not seen they will have not seen she will have seen she will have not seen it will have seen it will have not seen I will have seen her material before you come. I won't have seen her material before you come. You will have seen the experts' report by then. You won't have seen the experts' report by then. He will have seen the rings round the planet. He won't have seen the rings round the planet. We will have seen some good plays by Friday. We won't have seen any good plays by Friday. to see (+?) to see (-?) will I have seen? will we have seen? won't I have seen? won't we have seen? will you have seen? will you have seen? won't you have seen? won't you have seen? will he have seen? will they have seen? won't he have seen? won't they have seen? will she have seen? won't she have seen? will it have seen? won't it have seen? Will they have seen this kind of dance before? Won't they have seen this kind of dance before? Will you have seen the details of his offer? Won't you have seen the details of his offer? Will he have seen my letter of recommendation? Won't he have seen my letter of recommendation? Will she have seen my request? Won't she have seen my request? Mary: Will they ever have seen desert flowers before they come here. Helen: No, I don't think most of them will ever have seen such beautiful desert flowers. Mary: Will the manager have seen my personnel report before our meeting tomorrow? Helen: Yes, I'm sure that he will have seen and gone through it point by point. William: Will he have been to the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier before he sees the President? Edward: Yes, he will have been there before he goes to the White House. William: Will he have been to the Library of Congress also? Edward: Yes, he will have been to many interesting places in Washington before their meeting. Richard: Do you think the prisoner exchange will have taken place before next weekend? David: If there are no more border clashes, I'm hopeful the exchange will have taken place. Richard: Do you think we will have gotten an answer to our peace offer by then. David: Who knows? To be honest, my sense is that it is possible, but not probable. Mrs. Adams: Will she have gotten her bachelor's degree before the start of her master's program? Mr. Madison: Yes, she will have gotten her bachelor of arts or BA, before then. Mrs. Adams: Will your brother have gotten his master's degree before the start of his job in Paris. Mr. Madison: Yes, that's his plan. As soon as he has his MA in hand, he will be off to Paris.76 PRESENT to show (+) to show (-) I show we show I do not show we do not show you show you show you do not show you do not show he shows they show he does not show they do not show she shows she does not show it shows it does not show I always show respect to others. I don't always show respect to others. You show high standards of work. You don't show high standards of work. He shows his musical abilities. He doesn't show his musical abilities. They show criminal behavior. They don't show criminal behavior. to show (+?) to show (-?) do I show? do we show? don't I show? don't we show? do you show? do you show? don't you show? don't you show? does he show? do they show? doesn't he show? don't they show? does she show? doesn't she show? does it show? doesn't it show? Do you show your practical side? Don't you show your practical side? Does he show his bachelor party pictures? Doesn't he show his bachelor party pictures? Does it show the real cost? Doesn't it show the real cost? Do they show the environmental standards? Don't they show the environmental standards? to hit (+) to hit (-) I hit we hit I do not hit we do not hit you hit you hit you do not hit you do not hit he hits they hit he does not hit they do not hit she hits she does not hit it hits it does not hit I always hit the ball out of the park. I don't always hit the ball out of the park. She hits her children often. She doesn't hit her children often. It hits the earth every minute of every day. It doesn't hit the earth every minute of every day. They generally hit our positions after dark. They don't generally hit our positions after dark. to hit (+?) to hit (-?) do I hit? do we hit? don't I hit? don't we hit? do you hit? do you hit? don't you hit? don't you hit? does he hit? do they hit? doesn't he hit? don't they hit? does she hit? doesn't she hit? does it hit? doesn't it hit? Do you hit yourself? Don't you hit yourself? Does he hit his head against the wall? Doesn't he hit his head against the wall? Does she hit her dog? Doesn't she hit her dog? Do they hit one another? Don't they hit one another?77 ROMEO AND JULIET Part 4 The young hothead, Tybalt, is coming down the street excitedly. He wants to know where Romeo is. Suddenly, Romeo, with his two enterprising friends, Mercutio and Benvolio, comes into the square from the opposite direction. When he sees them, Tybalt makes a run at the group. He clearly wants a fight. Romeo, on the other hand, makes an effort to show respect. His objective is to be friends because after all Tybalt is Juliet's first cousin. Though Tybalt makes fun of him, Romeo shows no reaction. Naturally, such behavior makes Tybalt even angrier. Romeo keeps complete control of himself, despite the most terrible, disgusting insults. It is as if he has heard them all before. The situation becomes too much for Mercutio who, at last, takes out his sword in defense of his friend, Romeo. There is an exchange of blows as they go round and round in a kind of slow circle of death. We hear the sound of metal on metal as the two hit one another's swords with one powerful blow after another. For his part, Romeo does not want to see blood and, in an attempt to put an end to this foolish fight, he takes a step forward so as to put himself between the two swordsmen. But then, as Mercutio lets his sword down, Tybalt makes a sudden jump forward and the sharp point of his sword goes under Romeo's arm and deep into Mercutio. It hits his heart. With an animal-like cry from deep inside, Romeo says, "What have you done? No, this can not be. This is not possible." Mercutio, who has gone down, says, "You're right! My injury could be worse. His sword could have gone deeper. It is neither as deep as a well, nor as wide as a church door, but it is enough." And so as death comes to Mercutio, he makes a last joke. Romeo, who is himself a master swordsman, becomes wild. He takes his own sword by the handle and says to Tybalt, "Now, you will have what you want, you disgusting insect!" Romeo shows his masterful ability with great energy. Their clash is soon over. Tybalt is half-dead on the street and blood slowly comes from the corner of his mouth. With both his eyes wide open, he says nothing before death takes him.78 With his eyes fixed on Tybalt's dead body, Rome sees what he has done. Not only has he taken the life of Juliet's cousin, he has made himself an outlaw. The Prince's death sentence is now over his head. As fast as he can, Benvolio takes Romeo away from the scene of the fight and then goes to the Prince to let him know about the new situation. The Prince says that, instead of death, Romeo must go away, out of the city, and never come back. Poor Juliet, who knows nothing of the terrible events that have taken place, wants it to get dark so her husband can come to her. But, as the day is coming to an end, instead of Romeo, her old nurse comes with the news of Tybalt's death. The news is a terrible blow to Juliet. We see her tears and hear her cries. At last, she thinks of her husband, of Romeo. Why isn't he here? Where is he? Where is her husband? She sends the old nurse for him. Romeo is by himself in Father Laurence's room. The terrible events of the day are going through his mind again and again. He can see no way out of his troubles. The nurse comes in and gives him the message that he will have one night with his wife before he must get out of the city forever. He goes to Juliet as fast as he can. All too soon, the young lovers hear the song of the morning bird. Juliet says no, it is not yet morning. It can not be. It is still the middle of the night. But Romeo knows better and says softly in her ear, "It is time for me to go, my dear." Juliet puts her arms round her husband so as to keep him with her. Something deep inside, maybe her sixth sense says that she will never see him again. "No, no, I will not let you go, my dearest," she says, "Fate is too cruel." There is a last exchange of kisses and deep looks into one anther's eyes. "Be true to me, my love," says Romeo. 79 As Romeo goes out, Juliet's mother, Lady Capulet, comes into the room with what she thinks is very good news. Everything has been made ready for Juliet's wedding to Paris. They will be married next Thursday! When she hears the news, Juliet seems to go crazy. Between cries she says, "No, a thousand times no. I will never get married to him. He is disgusting! " Her behavior is very strange. Juliet has always been a good daughter and has always done what her parents wanted. To her father her behavior, her cries make no sense at all . At last, he says that he has had enough. As long as Juliet is under his roof, she will do as he says! The wedding plans have been made and the wedding will take place. That's all! More words and tears are useless. Juliet goes to her mother and says, "Oh, sweet mother do not do this to me. I am not making a demand only a simple request. Please! Put off this wedding for a month, a week...." But Lady Capulet will not hear of it. The decision has been made. Talk is useless. When Juliet goes to her old nurse, the woman seems cold. She is a very practical woman and says, "Romeo is far away, Paris is a good second choice. Don't be foolish, my girl. He has many good qualities. He is young, he is strong, he has good connections, he has a lot of money, and his looks are not bad. Don't let the past get in the way of your future. Out of respect for your parents do as they say. You are in a much different position today from yesterday. I honestly don't see another way." Because there is no one else in the house she can go to, Juliet's last hope is Father Laurence. She says that if he will not do anything, she will do away with herself; she will take her own life. Clearly, the situation is serious, very serious. At last, Father Laurence comes up with a plan. It is not great, but it is better than Juliet's threat to take her own life. He says that he will give her a drink that will put her in a death-like sleep for 24 hours. After she has taken it, he will send a letter to Romeo with a message to come and take his wife. Because it is the custom in Verona to put the dead in a tomb without a cover, Juliet will be there for about a day until Romeo comes for her and they can then go to another city, Mantua, where they will be safe from Verona's law. 80 PAST to show (+) to show (-) I showed we showed I did not show we did not show you showed you showed you did not show you did not show he showed they showed he did not show they did not show she showed she did not show it showed it did not show I showed him what the costs had been. I didn't show him what the costs had been. She showed me the contents of the package. She didn't show me the contents of the package. We showed them how we had done the work. We didn't show them how we had done the work. He showed us the perfect circles he had made. He didn't show us the perfect circles he had made. to show (+?) to show (-?) did I show? did we show? didn't I show? didn't we show? did you show? did you show? didn't you show? didn't you show? did he show? did they show? didn't he show? didn't they show? did she show? didn't she show? did it show? didn't it show? Did you show him your resume? Didn't you show him your resume? Did she show you the letter she had gotten? Didn't she show you the letter she had gotten? Did he show any respect for our efforts? Didn't he show any respect for our efforts? Did I show you where my apartment is? Didn't I show you where my apartment is? to hit (+) to hit (-) I hit we hit I did not hit we did not hit you hit you hit you did not hit you did not hit he hit they hit he did not hit they did not hit she hit she did not hit it hit it did not hit I hit him as hard as I could. I didn't hit him as hard as I could. He hit the floor like a dead weight. He didn't hit the floor like a dead weight. She hit me on the cheek with her open hand. She didn't hit me on the cheek with her open hand. They hit the city with everything they had. They didn't hit the city with everything they had. to hit (+?) to hit (-?) did I hit? did we hit? didn't I hit? didn't we hit? did you hit? did you hit? didn't you hit? didn't you hit? did he hit? did they hit? didn't he hit? didn't they hit? did she hit? didn't she hit? did it hit? didn't it hit? Did he hit you? Didn't he hit you? Did you hit him back? Didn't you hit him back? Did she hit her hand against the door? Didn't she hit her hand against the door? Did it hit your car on the driver's side? Didn't it hit your car on the driver's side?81 THE SUN AND ITS PLANETS For hundreds, if not thousands of years most people thought that the Earth was flat and fixed in space. If you think about it for a minute, this was natural because people had no sense of the Earth's movement. The sky seemed to them like a high, light blue ceiling. It seemed that all the stars, that came out at night, were also fixed in their places. The only movement that most people saw was when the sun and moon came up in the east and went down in the west, so, naturally, they thought that both the sun and the moon went round the Earth. Thanks to Nicolaus Copernicus, we have known since 1543 that, in fact, the Earth has two chief movements. Every 24 hours, it makes a complete turn. This movement gives us day and night. The Earth goes from west to east, which is the reason we have the feeling that the sun "comes up" in the east, "goes across" the sky and "down" in the west. In addition, Copernicus showed that while the Earth is going round and round, it also goes forward in a great circle through space. This second movement takes the Earth completely round the sun in a year. It is what gives us: spring, summer, fall, and winter. The Earth goes round the sun and not out into space because the distance between the two is fixed by the attraction they have for one another. In fact, attraction is what keeps all the planets that go round the sun in their places. Our sun, which is really a weak star, has nine great planets which go round it. The names of these nine planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.82 Mercury is the closest to the sun and Pluto is the farthest away. Another name for Venus is the "evening star" because it seems to be the first star to come out in the evening. Mars, a waterless desert with high mountains and deep valleys, is the red planet. Until 1996, it was thought by many experts that Mars was a lifeless planet. In that year, experiments showed that there may have been simple life forms at one time on Mars. We won't know if there is still life on Mars without much more information. In 1997, the US put a television camera on Mars, so that we now have high quality pictures of the red planet, never before seen. I think that before too long we will send people there. With a team of experts on Mars, in a few hours, we would be able to know more about its development and present condition than if we put 10 or 12 television cameras or other machines up there. There is no question in my mind that we must send people to Mars and other planets. The sooner, the better. The biggest planet in our sun's system is Jupiter. It is more than 1,347 times bigger than the Earth. In fact, Jupiter is 2 times bigger than all the other planets put together. Saturn is probably the most beautiful because of its rings. Some experts, who have made a special study of Saturn's rings, think they are made of little pieces of ice and stone. Uranus also has rings, very thin ones. They are so thin and difficult to see that we did not even see them until 1979. The planet farthest from the sun, Neptune, takes almost 165 Earth-years to make its great circle through space and round the sun. The sun gives us both heat and light which are forms of energy. It takes about eight minutes and 20 seconds for the sun's light to get to our Earth. Quite a few people have high hopes that the energy from the sun, which hits the Earth round the clock and is completely free, will be the answer to our present energy problem. Experts say, in time , energy from the sun may take the place of oil and become the chief source of energy for our homes, cars, and industries. Studies have been going on for a long time about how to get and keep the sun's energy for later use. One possible answer to this problem is a special sun battery. In fact, we already have sun batteries, but the problem is the high cost to make them. At present, sun batteries are very expensive, too expensive for every day use. Sun batteries have been in use since 1958 as a power source for space equipment. Many of the cameras that even now are going round the Earth and taking pictures get their energy from sun batteries. Sun batteries have also been part of the many space packages that have gone from the Earth to some of the other planets. We have made some very big steps in our understanding of the sun's planets since the USSR put up the first space package in October 1957. We have seen the development of very complex equipment for use in space. We have gotten a lot of useful information back from the space packages that both the USA and the USSR sent into space. We have seen close-up pictures of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. 83 We have been happy to see women, as well as men, go into space. The first person to go into space was a Russian, Yuri Gagarin, on April 12, 1961. Two years later, the first woman, also a Russian, Valentina Tereshkova, went into space for almost 71 hours. The Russians have the world record for the longest space flight. Valery Polyakov was sent up to the Mir space station for 439 days. When he went up, the name of his country was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and when he came down it was simply Russia. Less than a month after Yuri Gagarin made history, the first American went into space. His name was Alan Shepard and the date was May 5, 1961. Since then, the American space effort has had many successes. Chief among them are six trips to the moon and back. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin become the first Earthlings to take a step on the moon. All in all, by 1997, about 350 men and women had gone into space. Since the end of the Cold War, Russia, the United States, Japan, China, India and many European nations have shown what they can do if they put their experience and know-how together. They are now hard at work on building the International Space Station. Despite economic troubles, some great men of science have said that this space adventure is a necessary first step. When it is complete, there will be a weightless environment in which experiments can be done. It will be interesting to know, for example, if chemicals have a different reaction in a weightless environment. No doubt, experiments will also be done on industrial processes. Maybe, some things could be made better, faster, with higher quality or at lower cost in space. Who knows? Some experts have come forward with the recommendation that we put colonies on the moon. No one can say what the outcome of one or more moon colonies would be, but I am sure of one thing. If every evening, we took a look up at the moon and knew that there were between 5,000 and 10,000 people there, students would take their studies more seriously, specially science and mathematics. Who knows, maybe, moon colonies could even make many of our differences here on Earth seem less important. We might even see that all of us Earthlings have a common future. We are not 100% sure yet how the sun and its planets came to be. There are still some serious arguments among experts about these questions and so they keep coming up with new theories. But the question of how the planets came to be is only one of many so far unanswerable questions that come to mind when we take a long look at a beautiful night sky. The first time you saw, really saw, a dark black sky with its thousands and thousands of stars, maybe you said to yourself: Who am I? How did I come to be? Why am I here? How did I get here? Did someone or something put me here? Is there a reason for me to be here and, specially, at this point in time? If you do not have answers to all these deep questions, it is no surprise, because it is quite natural for Man to have more questions than answers.84 FUTURE to show (+) to show (-) I will show we will show I will not show we will not show you will show you will show you will not show you will not show he will show they will show he will not show they will not show she will show she will not show it will show it will not show I will show you how to hit a ball. I won't show you how to hit a ball. He will show us how to do the investigation. He won't show us how to do the investigation. She will show him how to make the exchange. She won't show them how to make the exchange. We will show you what to say at an interview. We won't show you what to say at an interview. to show (+?) to show (-?) will I show? will we show? won't I show? won't we show? will you show? will you show? won't you show? won't you show? will he show? will they show? won't he show? won't they show? will she show? won't she show? will it show? won't it show? Will you show me where the package is? Won't you show me where the package is? Will he show us who did the experiment? Won't he show us who did the experiment? Will it show her when the gasoline is low? Won't it show her when the gasoline is low? Will they show him why he should be honest? Won't they show him why he should be honest? to hit (+) to hit (-) I will hit we will hit I will not hit we will not hit you will hit you will hit you will not hit you will not hit he will hit they will hit he will not hit they will not hit she will hit she will not hit it will hit it will not hit I will hit you if you do that again. I won't hit you if you do that again. She will hit the water like a stone. She won't hit the water like a stone. He will hit them with one of his disgusting jokes. He won't hit them with one of his disgusting jokes. It will hit the desert sometime tonight. It won't hit the desert anytime tonight. to hit (+?) to hit (-?) will I hit? will we hit? won't I hit? won't we hit? will you hit? will you hit? won't you hit? won't you hit? will he hit? will they hit? won't he hit? won't they hit? will she hit? won't she hit? will it hit? won't it hit? Will you hit him as hard as you can? Won't you hit him as hard as you can? Will she hit him with her shoe? Won't she hit him with her shoe? Will it hit the side of our boat? Won't it hit the side of our boat? Will they hit the enemy with their biggest guns? Won't they hit the enemy with their biggest guns?85 MY FRIEND My friend, Alexandra, is the head of the personnel department of the ABC Company. The company has seen a lot of growth since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) went into effect in January 1994. As you know, the chief objective of this agreement is to make Canada, the US, and Mexico into one big market with almost 400,000,000 people. The ABC Company is a high tech company in the telecommunications field. It is one of the industry's leaders. Its products -wireless telephones, two-way radio and TV systemsaar among the best in the world. It is an international company with branches throughout North America. It has two offices in Asia, Hong Kong and Tokyo, because it sees that part of the world as an almost limitless market for its products and services. Now, ABC has plans for expansion throughout Latin America. That is why it put an ad in our local newspaper for a sales manager with experience in Central and South America. It said: Wanted: Sales Manager for Latin America. Must have experience as leader of sales force. Must know Spanish. Must have been in Latin America. Must know Latin American business culture. Business or living experience in area desirable. Send your resume today: ABC Comp. 126 N. King's St. Boston, MA 01538 Alexandra says the company wants a selfstaarte who knows Latin America well. It wants an enterprising person who has energy and drive; someone ready to put his or her best effort into the job. When I said that I might send in my resume. Alexandra gave me some recommendations about writing a resume. She said, "Keep in mind that your resume will never get you a job. Its one and only objective is to get you an interview. A resume should be seen as an advertisement. It normally gets between 20 and 30 seconds of a reader's time." Alexandra said resumes should be clear, clean, and direct. Today, a resume must be done on a computer. That way it is easy to make changes and keep it up-to-date. Naturally, the English must be perfect. Mistakes make very bad impressions. And, as you know, you will never have a second chance to make that first impression. A resume is often the first contact you have with a company. You should not make one general resume and think it will be good for all situations. A special, separate resume should be made for every job offer. Two things are important to keep in mind when you put together your resume: its form and content. It must be simple in form and exact in content. The form shows your ability to make a powerful self-advertisement and that you know American business standards. The content shows the kind and level of experience you have had. Most resumes should be only one page. They should not give a complete work history, but only a list of experience or abilities that are necessary for the position you want. Keep in mind that for most companies, experience is more important than education. They want to know what you have done and what you can do, specially what you can do for them. In most companies, the need is for team work. In the telecommunications field both know-how and the ability to get along with people are important. You should never send a resume without a cover letter. A cover letter is as important as your resume because it gives you the chance to show the personnel department why you are the right person for this job. In the first sentence of the letter, you should say why you are sending your resume. In the middle of the letter, you should say something about one or two points on you resume and why you are the right person for the job. Lastly, you should say that you will give the company a call in a week or ten days. You want them to know that you are serious about this job. Alexandra says that her office is already getting letters and resumes every day from people with the hope of a job. If a person seems interesting, Alexandra's office sends back an application. The person then puts down all the information and sends in the application together with any additional material, for example, letters of recommendation from earlier jobs. From among maybe 100 applications, Alexandra's office will give 10 people a call to make an appointment for an interview. 86 David Hayes 1234 Queen's Court • Boston • MA 01532 • (303) 222-2222 _____________________________________________________________ Objective To become Sales Team Manager with ABC Company in Latin America, where I can make use of my education, experience, and abilities. Education NEW YORK STATE UNIVERSITY 2008 Master of Arts in International Business UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2005 Bachelor of Science in Engineering President's List for two years Professional Experience INTERNATIONAL COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, Boston, MA 1997-present Manager, Customer Service Department • give program support services to more than 1200 customers • send teams of experts to customers' companies • take care of day-to-day customer problems • do year-end reports GENERAL SHOE COMPANY, Chicago, IL 1991-1997 Head, Midwest Sales Division • in charge of sales in Midwest from the Canadian to the Mexican borders • had direct contact with company president on expansion plans • responsible for sales increase from $3.5 to $150 million. • gave direction to a sales force of 100 representatives • kept costs down Other Experience 1988 DAVID'S SHOE STORE, New York, NY Owner/Manager 1986-1987 OFFICERS' TRAINING SCHOOL, Fort Benning, GA US Army Captain Special Abilities IBM Computer, experience with Windows among other programs Good team worker Foreign Languages Spanish, Portuguese International Experience Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Venezuela, Mexico, Japan, Indonesia Letters of Recommendation on Request87 1234 Queen's Court Boston, MA 01532 (303) 222-2222 April 23, 20__ Mr. William Jefferson Personnel Office ABC Company 126 N. King's Street Boston, MA 01538 Dear Mr. Jefferson: I am sending my resume in answer to your advertisement for a Sales Team Manager in Latin America. I am very excited about your company's plans for expansion into the Latin American market. I am sure that I can be of help in the development and organization of your new sales force. From my resume, you can see that I am presently the manager of a sales force of more than 100 representatives. I am responsible for their training and field operations. Since I came on board three years ago, the company's sales have gone from $3.5 million to over $150 million. I am directly responsible for this increase. I am ready to put my talent and energy to work for ABC. I have been in most of the nations of Latin America, specially Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. While I was a student at New York State University, I took part in one-year exchange program at the National University in Buenos Aires. My Master's degree is in International Business. I did quite a lot of investigation into the business culture of Argentina, which, as you know, is quite different from ours. I know that the door to economic growth in the area is open for companies with quality products, like your wireless telephones and two-way radio and TV systems. Much of my success in Latin America comes from the fact that I know English and Spanish equally well. My mother is Mexican, so I have heard and known Spanish since I was a child. I also know Portuguese very well. I am used to Latin American culture and am personally quite comfortable with its customs and way of life. My many trips through Central and South America have made it possible for me to keep up-to-date with what is going on in business circles from one end of the continent to the other, and given me practical, firsthand experience with the needs of the area. In short, I know the language, the people, and the market, where you want to make your future. I know exactly what I would be getting into as your company's Sales Manager for Latin America. I would like to have an interview at which time you can give me more details about the position and your plans. Then, I will show how my years of experience can be of help to your company's operations in Latin America. I will give your office a call in two weeks if I have not heard from you. Sincerely, David Hayes David Hayes88 Please put your answer on the line. Simple Present 1. I __am__ (to be) married. 2. You ____________ (to see) that he is an honest man. 3. He ____________ (to know) what my objective is. 4. She ____________ (to have) a lot of energy. 5. We ____________ (to go) to the desert quite often. 6. Do they ____________ (to do) nuclear experiments here? Simple Past 1. I __was__ (to be) married a year ago. 2. You ____________ (to see) that he is an honest man. 3. He ____________ (to know) what my objective is. 4. She ____________ (to have) a lot of energy. 5. We ____________ (to go) to the desert yesterday. 6. Did they ____________ (to do) nuclear experiments here? Simple Future 1. I will __be__ (to be) married next month. 2. You will ____________ (to see) that he is an honest man. 3. He will ____________ (to know) what my objective is. 4. She will ____________ (to have) a lot of energy. 5. We will ____________ (to go) to the desert tomorrow. 6. Will they ____________ (to do) nuclear experiments here? Present Perfect 1. I'm happy to say that I __have been___ (to be) married for more than ten years. 2. I'm excited to hear that you _________________ (to see) how clean our environment is. 3. He _________________ (to know) about the high costs for a long time. 4. I'm afraid that it is true, she _________________ (to have) only one objective since she was 15. 5. I'm sure that you _________________ (to think) about our situation and what we have to do. 6. ___________ they ______________ (to show) his interview on TV yet? Past Perfect 1. I think that they __had been__ (to be) married only a short time, when the accident took his life. 2. I know you ______________ (to see) the condition of our environment before you made a decision. 3. He ______________ (to know) about the high costs, before he took any action. 4. Because she _________________ (to find) the number of her security lock, she was able to get in. 5. We __________________ (to go) to the market and so we weren't home when he came by. 6. _________ they already __________ (to take) a look at my application, when I gave them a call? Future Perfect 1. I say that we will __have been__ (to be) married five, not six years on the first of next month. 2. I'm sure you will ______________ (to see) our environmental problems before you make your report. 3. It is probable that he will ______________ (to send)t the check before he puts the money in the bank. 4. She will ______________ (to have) breakfast, before we get to her place. 5. We will ______________ (to give) them exactly $100,000 when we sent our last payment. 6. Will they ______________ (to do) all the interviews by Friday?89 Romeo and Juliet Part 590 LESSON 5 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. monkey _______________ tiger _______________ elephant _______________ lion _______________ whale _______________ shark _______________ camel _______________ donkey _______________ __________ tail That monkey has a long tail. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ twist The bad boy gave the monkey's tail a hard twist. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ circus Do you want to go to the circus with us? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ justice Who doesn't want justice? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ advantage Your education gives you an advantage. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ push Will you give my car a push? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ pull The baby gave the cat's tail a pull. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ influence He has very little influence in political circles. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ panic Why is she in such a panic today? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ employer Did you have an interview with this employer? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ faith She put her faith in the future. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ God They have a strong faith in God. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ steam Where is that steam coming from? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ liquid Water has three forms: ice, liquid, and steam. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ salary When will we get our salary? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ account The newspaper account did not give all the details. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ ceremony What kind of ceremony was that? ___________________________________________________________________91 __________ speed What is this car's top speed? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ nightmare The child gave a cry because of his nightmare. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ imagination She has a wild imagination. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ winner The winner got a silver cup. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ instrument The police said that a knife was the instrument of death. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ statement When did the president make that statement? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ arrest Why did the police put those people under arrest? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ protest There was a protest against the government's decision. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ will The will of the people was clear after the election. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ memory Grandmother's memory for faces is not as good as before. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ tragedy His death was a tragedy for the country. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ funeral Even his enemies were at his funeral. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ shake The ship gave a shake and went down, front first. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ gentle She gave the child a gentle push in my direction. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ false Her papers were as false as a $3.00 bill. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ reliable How reliable is this information? ___________________________________________________________________ __________ disappointed I saw the disappointed look in her eyes. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ alone She doesn't like to be alone in an empty house at night. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ fair The teacher's decision was quite fair. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ dying The dying man said that he was sorry for what he had done. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ awake The baby was awake for three hours last night. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ sticky The sugar made my fingers sticky. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ stiff I put the picture on stiff, white paper. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ bent Keep your knees bent, not straight. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ rough His skin is as rough as wood. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ smooth Silk is a very smooth material. ___________________________________________________________________ __________ to leave Don't leave me! ___________________________________________________________________ __________ to throw He can throw the ball very far. ___________________________________________________________________92 SOME USES OF THE INFINITIVE I. The infinitive may be the subject of a sentence. 1. To be or not to be, that is the question. 2. To give is better than to get. 3. To know me is to like me. 4. To want things is quite natural. 5. To take the first step is always the hardest. 6. To say nothing is the best policy. 7. To be with you is all that I want! 8. To have a good memory is to have a real advantage. II. Always use the infinitive after want, seem, say, like, would like, be able. 1. I want to go for a ride on an elephant. 2. I don't want to go for a swim with whales or sharks. 3. He seems to be very fair and quite reliable. 4. He doesn't seem to know the difference between true and false friends. 5. She said to keep away from the lions and tigers. 6. She didn't say to hit the poor, little donkey. 7. We liked to see the monkeys at play in the tree tops. 8. We didn't like to hear his protest statement at the funeral because it wasn't the time or the place. 9. I would like to see how much money is in my bank account. 10. I wouldn't like to have so little imagination. 11. Will the workers be able to have a face-to-face meeting with their employer? 12. I am afraid that you won't be able to find that kind of smooth wood here. III. Never use to after: will, would, can, could, may, might, should, see, make, let. 1. I will get my salary on Wednesday. 2. I will not hear another word about how unfair life is for them. 3. If he would give them a gentle push, I'm sure they would go into the water. 4. If she could see me now, she would not be disappointed. 5. He can see the workers have little or no influence on their employer's decisions. 6. He says that we can not know God's will. 7. We may take a steam bath later this afternoon, after we come back from the protest meeting. 8. You should say something because they may not know that he is dying to see them again. 9. They might give our boat a pull across the river. 10. Should I make all his white shirts stiff? 11. Did you see him give the bottle a shake before he took a drink of this sticky liquid? 12. I didn't want to do it, but those big boys made me give camel's tail a twist. 13. Please let me give my own account because I didn't see any panic in the streets. 14. Let me show you what faith alone can do. Come with me. IV. The infinitive is used to show the reason. Andrew: Why did you have a cup of coffee? William: To keep awake. Andrew: Why did you give his car a push? William: To get it out of the way. Ashley: Why is she going to the circus tomorrow? Elizabeth: To see the wild animals. Ashley: Why are you going to his funeral on Wednesday? Elizabeth: To show my last respects and to make sure he is really dead.93 V. The infinitive is used after have to show that the action is necessary. 1. I have to give some food and water to the elephants and camels. 2. I have to get all this sticky oil off the machine before lunch. 3. You have to be very gentle if you want the monkeys to take food out of your hand. 4. She had to see the ceremony from start to end. 5. She had to give a statement to the newspaper reporters. 6. You will have to be very careful that pushy people don't take advantage of you. 7. You will have to show me how to put the new instrument together. 8. I think that they'll have to have someone with a lot of influence give the president a call. VI. to be + infinitive gives the idea of should or supposed to.... 1. You are to give this wire a strong pull, when I say the word. 2. No one is to know who the winner is until tomorrow. It is a secret. 3. He is to be put under arrest and sent to prison. 4. You are not to say a word to anyone about your high salary. 5. They were to keep their eyes and ears open for information. 6. She was not to have his bank account number. 7. We were not to go faster than the speed limit. 8. Are we to be awake all night? VII. The infinitive may be used after an adjective. A. 1. It is important to keep away from dangerous animals, specially lions and tigers. 2. It is necessary to have a little more imagination, if you are going to be a winner. 3. It is difficult to see why this tragedy took place. 4. It is easy to do the work, if you have the right instruments. 5. It was terrible to be under arrest and not know why. 6. It was wonderful to know that people had faith in the International Court of Justice. 7. It would be laughable to say everyone should get the same salary. 8. It will be good to get out of this nightmare situation as soon as possible. B. 1. He is an important man to know because he has a lot of influence. 2. It was a difficult thing to say to the dying man. 3. Tomorrow will be a good day to go to the circus. 4. The court's decision was terrible. There was no justice in its sentence. It wasn't fair at all . 5. It was nice of her to send a strong statement of support. 6. It was good of you to come to our school ceremony. 7. It would be good for you to get out in the fresh air at least one or two times a day. 8. It is not possible for you to keep a shark in a fish bowl or a tiger in your bedroom. VIII. In short answers, sometimes only the to part of the infinitive is used. Nathaniel: Do you have to keep the monkeys separate from the other animals? Alexandra: Yes, we'll have to. Nathaniel: Were you able to get that sticky material off your shoes? Alexandra: No, I wasn't able to. Katherine: Why did you give the handle a twist? Natalie: Because, I wanted to. Katherine: Why didn't you give your account of the accident to the police? Natalie: Because, I didn't want to.94 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES A conditional sentence has two parts or clauses: (1) an if clause and a (2) chief clause. The name "conditional sentence" comes from the fact that the action of the chief clause takes place as a condition of the if clause. For example: If he was not sick, he always went to school. If the condition is real or probable, the verb of the chief clause may be present, past, or future. If (real condition -PRESENT TENSE) , (PRESENT TENSE) . 1. If her children are happy, she is happy. 2. If you come to Los Angeles, give me a call. 3. If you can do it, I can do it. 4. If today is Tuesday, we must be in Belgium. 5. Take a seat, if you want to hear how disappointed I was with John's weak protest statement. 6. Come to my house, if you have time. 7. If you are going to see the whales, take me with you. 8. If you are sending them part of your salary, then I don't have to. 9. If I have made a mistake, let me know. 10. If there has been an accident, say something. If (real condition -PAST TENSE) , (PAST TENSE) . 1. If she came back, (I know that) she got the letter. 2. If he was at the funeral, (I know that) it was only for show. 3. If she knew the answer, she always put her hand up. 4. If I wanted something, my father always got it for me. 5. If the sea was rough, he never took his boat out of the harbor. 6. If there was a need for help, she always gave it. 7. If I was being bad, my father sent me to my room right away. 8. If he was thinking about some serious problem, we had to be very quiet. 9. If I had seen a film, I didn't want to see it again. 10. If she had made a decision, there was nothing anyone could do. If (real condition -PRESENT TENSE) , (FUTURE TENSE) . 1. If you want me to come, I will. 2. If he thinks long enough, he will get the right answer. 3. If she says one more word, I will go and never come back. 4. If you make us a nice dinner, I will take everyone to the theater. What do you say? 5. If that's really what you want, I'll get it for you. 6. If he has the information, the police will get it out of him. 7. If you are taking your medicine every day, you will be back on your feet in a few day. 8. If you are coming to class tomorrow, I will see you then. 9. If he has gone to the market, he will be back soon. 10. If he has done the work, he will get his money.95 If a condition is unreal or not probable, there is no real time. So, all verbs are in the PAST tense. If (unreal condition -PAST TENSE) , (would, could, might) . WOULD 1. If I had a million dollars, I would give you half. 2. If I knew his address, I would send him an invitation. 3. If they had nuclear arms, there would be an even greater danger to world peace. 4. If I were you, I wouldn't do that!* 5. If there were no sun, the earth would be a very cold place.* 6. If everyone were as nice as you, the world would be a much happier place.* 7. If you weren't doing something important, I wouldn't be here with you. 8. If I were under arrest for a capital crime, what would you do? 9. If you had said something, I would have given you some money. 10. If I had known that he was dying, I would have come sooner. COULD 1. If she were taller, she could be a professional basketball player. 2. If you had a little more money, I know where you could get a very good car. 3. If we were at the top of that mountain, we could see the ocean.* 4. If he were gentler, he could have more influence.* 5. If there were more room in the car, we could all go together.* 6. If the road were not so rough, we could go much faster.* 7. If I were thinking of only my advantage, I could make a lot more money. 8. If he were being fair with us, he could have a more reliable work force. 9. If you had given me that information last week, I could have made millions. 10. If he had sent the application on time , he could have gotten the job. MIGHT 1. If he had more self-control, he might have more friends. 2. If I had the right instrument, I might be able to get this door open. 3. If he took a bath now and then, he might not be alone all the time. 4. If she were a man, she might be our president.* 5. If he were not so stiff in his relations with others, we might make him head of personnel.* 6. If he were a woman, he might see the justice in our protest.* 7. If I were making that much money, I might be in the market for a new house. 8. If he were taking advantage of us, I might find it difficult to be a gentleman. 9. If she had been there, she might have known what to do with all those pieces of bent metal. 10. If I had seen the car in time, I might have been able to get out of its way. *In unreal conditional sentences, the verb to be has a special form: if I were if we were if you were if you were if he were if they were if she were if it were96 who/whom As with most, if not all, languages, there is a difference between "book" English and the way people speak. who and whom are good examples of this difference. Book English Everyday English To whom should I give this bent key? Who should I give this bent key to? That is the man to whom I gave the bent key. That is man who I gave the bent key to. With whom did you have a talk? Who did you have a talk with? That is the man with whom I had a talk. That is the man who I had a talk with. For whom did you make the receipt? Who did you make the receipt for? That is the man for whom I made the receipt. That is the man who I made the receipt for. From whom did she get the box of candy? Who did she get the box of candy from? That is the man from whom she got the box of candy. That is the man who she got the box of candy from. Through whom did you get your tickets? Who did you get your tickets through? That is the man through whom I got my tickets. That is the man who I got my tickets through. Whom did you see? Who did you see? That is the woman whom I saw. That is the woman who I saw. Whom do you know in this area? Who do you know in this area? That is the woman whom I know. That is the woman who I know. Whom do you want as president? Who do you want as president? That is the woman whom I want as president. That is the woman who I want as president. ...which/which... The top shelf is the one from which I took the book. The top shelf is the one which I took the book from. These are the stones under which I put the box of gold. These are the stone which I put the box of gold under. These are the facts with which he made his argument. These are the fact which he made his argument with. That is the bicycle on which I came to school. That is the bicycle which I came to school on. The metal from which he made my ring is silver. The metal which he made my ring from is silver. The door through which she will come is open. The door which she will come through is open. The tiger to which you gave the meat is still hungry. The tiger which you gave the meat to is still hungry. The elephant on which we went for a ride is almost 100 years old. The elephant which we went for a ride on is almost 100 years old.97 QUESTION? EXCLAMATION! SEE/KNOW Is it 9 o'clock? It is 9 o'clock! I see that it is 9 o'clock. Was it 10:30? It was 10:30! I see that it was 10:30. Will it be noon soon? It will be noon soon! I see that it will be noon soon. How many monkey are there? How many monkeys there are! I know how many monkeys there are. How many elephants were there? How many elephants there were! I know how many elephants there were. How many lions will there be? How many lions there will be! I know how many lions there will be. How much ability does he have? How much ability he has! I see how much ability he has. How much money did she have? How much money she had! I see how much money she had. How much gold will we have? How much gold we will have! I see how much gold we will have. How old are you? How old you are! I know how old you are. How big was he? How big he was! I know how big he was. How rough will it be? How rough it will be! I know how rough it will be. Who is that man? Who that man is! I don't know who that man is. What day is today? What day today is! I don't know what day today is. When is your birthday? When your birthday is! I don't know when you birthday is. Where is the army? Where the army is! I don't know where the army is. Why were you disappointed? I didn't see why you were disappointed. How tired were you? I didn't see how tired you were. Whose picture was that? I didn't see whose picture that was. Which instrument did he want? I didn't see which instrument he wanted. I don't know who that girl is. I don't know what that girl is doing. I don't know when that girl came. I don't know where that girl is from. I don't know why that girl is here. I don't know how that girl got in here. Charles: I have seen you somewhere before, but I don't know who you are. George: Yes, I've also seen you . My name is George Washington. Charles: Do you know who that beautiful woman in the red dress is? George: Oh, do you think she's beautiful? Then, you'll be happy to know she is my wife! Helen: How much is this blouse? Diana: I can't see how much it is because there is no price on it. Helen: How big is it? Diana: I don't know how big it is because there is no size on it, either Peter: Where will you be tomorrow at this time? Paul: I have no idea where I will be tomorrow at 2:45. Peter: What kind of instrument is that? Paul: I have no idea what kind of instrument that is. Mrs. Grant: What a long letter you got from Mary! Mr. Buchanan: Oh, you saw that it was 4 pages long! Mrs. Grant: And what a lot of information she sent! Mr. Buchanan: How do you know what was in my private letter? That's personal information.98 PRESENT to leave (+) to leave (-) I leave we leave I do not leave we do not leave you leave you leave you do not leave you do not leave he leaves they leave he does not leave they do not leave she leaves she does not leave it leaves it does not leave I leave my car in the garage. I don't leave my car in the garage. She leaves her shoes by the door. She doesn't leave her shoes by the door. He leaves his daughter at school every day. He doesn't leave his daughter at school every day. They leave their hats off. They don't leave their hats off. to leave (+?) to leave (-?) do I leave? do we leave? don't I leave? don't we leave? do you leave? do you leave? don't you leave? don't you leave? does he leave? do they leave? doesn't he leave? don't they leave? does she leave? doesn't she leave? does it leave? doesn't it leave? Do you leave the cat outside at night? Don't you leave your cat out at night? Does it leave you cold? Doesn't it leave you cold? Does he leave the windows open? Doesn't he leave the windows open? Do they leave at 8 o'clock? Don't they leave at 8 o'clock? to throw (+) to throw (-) I throw we throw I do not throw we do not throw you throw you throw you do not throw you do not throw he throws they throw he does not throw they do not throw she throws she does not throw it throws it does not throw I throw the ball to him. I don't throw the ball to him. He throws paper airplanes out the window. He doesn't throw paper airplanes out the window. She throws her books down on the table. She doesn't throw her books down on the table. They throw themselves into the water. They don't throw themselves into the water. to throw (+?) to throw (-?) do I throw? do we throw? don't I throw? don't we throw? do you throw? do you throw? don't you throw? don't you throw? does he throw? do they throw? doesn't he throw? don't they throw? does she throw? doesn't she throw? does it throw? doesn't it throw? Do you throw stones at their dogs? Don't you throw stones at their dogs? Does he throw his hands up? Doesn't he throw his hands up? Does she throw her head back? Doesn't she throw her head back? Do they throw their old clothes away? Don't they throw their old clothes away?99 ROMEO AND JULIET Part 5 Juliet leaves Father Laurence and goes back to her home with a bottle of liquid "poison." When she sees her mother, she says that she is ready to get married to Paris. Her statement makes the Capulet family very happy. It seems that their little girl has come to her senses . Her protest is over, a thing of the past. Juliet's father could not be happier. He thinks that she must have seen the many advantages of becoming Paris' wife. Now, there will be another big party, a wedding party. Life is wonderful! Things could not be better. For her part, Juliet keeps control of herself. Though she is full of doubts, she puts on a happy face and makes every effort to seem her normal self. This is, after all, the night before her wedding. She and her mother take a last look at her beautiful, long, white wedding dress. Everything seems in order. Her mother says, "My dear, everything will be perfect for tomorrow's ceremony. Everyone is so excited, specially your father. I haven't seen him so happy in a long time. Now, you go up to bed and get a good night's sleep. I still have a few things that I have to do down here. Good night, my love. Sweet dreams." With her bedroom door closed Juliet is completely alone and soon her eyes are full of tears. She thinks, "My parents are so cruel. My father wants everything his way. Only his will is important." She says to herself in a half voice, "Life is terrible. Life is not fair! I'm in love with Romeo and I'm getting married to Paris. It's all so unfair. Where is God's justice?" She is full of doubts. What is real? What is true? She is not at all sure about this plan of Father Laurence's. She is not even sure about the Father himself. Why should she have any faith in him? Things could go wrong. Everything that he said may be a lie. How can she be sure? Maybe he gave her real poison, so no one will ever know about the unlawful wedding ceremony that he did. Anything is possible! "This is a nightmare! What should I do? What can I do? Oh, God!" Then, in a very well-known scene, Juliet seems to go crazy with fear. Events are going round and round in her head. Her imagination is going wild. It is all so terrible. There is no one to give her any help, any support, any comfort. In her mind's eye, she sees the tomb. The air is heavy with the smell of bones. There is the bloody body of Tybalt, cold and stiff. Death is everywhere. She is alone. She is fourteen years old and she is face-to-face with death. In her imagination, half crazy with these ideas, she sees Tybalt get up and take his sword in his right hand, as he gets ready to take the life of Romeo. It is all too much! She takes the bottle of poison in her left hand, gives it a shake, and says, "What will be, will be! Let God's will be done! They will all be sorry, specially my father." Juliet takes a drink of the sticky, sweet liquid that Father Laurence gave her. She throws herself on her bed and goes to sleep, a deep, death-like sleep.100 The rest of the family knows nothing about the tragedy that has taken place. The house is like a circus. Everyone is busy and excited. Some have been up all night getting ready for the great day. The wedding of Juliet and Paris is now only a few hours away and there is so much still to do. Juliet's old nurse goes to see if she is awake. She gives the bed curtains a pull. She thinks, "Poor child, she must be so tired." She gives Juliet a gentle shake and makes the terrible discovery that Juliet is dead. Instead of a wedding, the Capulets must get ready for a different kind of ceremony, a funeral. We see the tearful faces and hear the sad music as the heartbroken family slowly take the body of their only child to the family tomb. In a change of scene, we see Romeo in the city of Mantua. He is in a happy mood. There is not a cloud in the sky. The sun is warm on his back. Life is good! Then, suddenly, he gets a blow that puts his world upside down . A servant comes with a message from Verona. The servant, being as gentle as possible, says in a soft voice that Juliet is dead. The news hits Romeo very hard. It takes his breath away. He hears the words, but thinks, "Who is this man? Why is he saying this to me? It makes no sense . What is going on ? Is it true? Oh, my God! It can't be!" Romeo keeps control of himself as long as the servant is there, but when he leaves, Romeo has only one idea. He says to himself, "Juliet, my dear, I will be with you tonight." Because life has no meaning without his sweet Juliet, Romeo goes to a pharmacy and gets some strong poison, and then, he gets on his donkey and leaves for Verona to be with his true love. For his part, Father Laurence kept his word. He did exactly what he said he would do. He sent a message to Romeo with all the details of his plan to put Juliet into a deep, death-like sleep. But, as we know, even the best plans can go wrong, sometimes terribly wrong. And, so it was this time. The messenger who was taking the message to Romeo heard that there was a terrible disease in Mantua and that many people were sick and even dying. Because of this false information, the servant became fearful and made a fateful decision. Too afraid to go into the city of Mantua, the servant went back to Verona. Father Laurence is thrown into a panic by the news that his message did not get through to Romeo. It is night and in only three more hours, Juliet will be awake. The Father knows that he must do something and he must do it fast. There is no one else, so the Father goes to the Capulet's family tomb. Paris is already there. We see him with bent back and in his right hand flowers for the beautiful girl who was to have been his wife. Paris hears footsteps; someone is coming. He takes a few steps back into the shadows. What! It is that Romeo. And, he even has a key for the lock on the tomb! In the eyes of Paris, Romeo is an outlaw who not only took Tybalt's life in a sword fight, but he is also directly responsible for Juliet's death. 101 Paris comes forward, out of the shadows. His sword is in his hand. First, there is an exchange of angry words and then they throw themselves at one another, in a fight to the death. After a few heavy blows, it is all over . Romeo is the winner. Paris is dying at his feet. He puts out his hand and makes a last request. "If you have a heart, please put me with Juliet." The words go directly to Romeo's heart. He can not say no to the dying man's request. Romeo takes Paris, as if he were a brother, and puts him at the side of his own lost wife. Romeo goes down on his knees and says to Juliet in a soft, heartbroken voice, "O my love, my wife!" As he gently puts his arms round Juliet, he takes the poison and gives her one, last kiss. Father Laurence, fat and slow, has taken quite a long time to get to the tomb. He goes in only to see the terrible tragedy that has taken place. Romeo and Paris are both dead. But Juliet will be awake any minute. The Father gets down on his knees at her side. Her first words as she comes back to life are "Oh, good Father. I am where I should be. Where is my Romeo?" The Father can say little that is of comfort. He makes one or two attempts to get her out of the cold tomb, but Juliet will not go. Then, suddenly, they hear a noise outside. It is the night watchman. He is coming. The old Father himself becomes afraid and goes out into the night, leaving Juliet alone in the tomb with her husband. There is no more poison, so she takes Romeo's sharp knife. The watchman is getting closer, there is time for only one short kiss and Juliet throws her head back and says to the knife, "Now, do your work. Let me be with my love for ever." Father Laurence does not get away. The night watchman sees him in the shadows and says. "Stop, in the name of the law! You're under arrest." He takes the Father to the Prince of Verona who hears the sad story together with the Capulets and Montagues. It is clear to everyone that their hate for one another was the cause of this tragedy, the death of their children. Too late, the two old men with their eyes full of tears put their arms round one another and say "What have we done? How foolish we have been."102 PAST to leave (+) to leave (-) I left we left I did not leave we did not leave you left you left you did not leave you did not leave he left they left he did not leave they did not leave she left she did not leave it left it did not leave I left my home early this morning. I didn't leave my home early this morning. You left something at the library. You didn't leave anything at the library. He left a million dollars for his family. He didn't leave a million dollars for his family. We left a message on the table. We didn't leave a message on the table. to leave (+?) to leave (-?) did I leave? did we leave? didn't I leave? didn't we leave? did you leave? did you leave? didn't you leave? didn't you leave? did he leave? did they leave? didn't he leave? didn't they leave? did she leave? didn't she leave? did it leave? didn't it leave? Did you leave any food for the animals? Didn't you leave any food for the animals? Did she leave the fire on? Didn't she leave the fire on? Did it leave them an advantage? Didn't it leave them an advantage? Did they leave us the key? Didn't they leave us the key? to throw (+) to throw (-) I threw we threw I did not throw we did not throw you threw you threw you did not throw you did not throw he threw they threw he did not throw they did not throw she threw she did not throw it threw it did not throw I threw sand in his eyes. I didn't throw sand in his eyes. You threw the papers across the table. You didn't throw the papers across the table. She threw herself at his feet. She didn't throw herself at his feet. He threw himself out the window. He didn't throw himself out the window. to throw (+?) to throw (-?) did I throw? did we throw? didn't I throw? didn't we throw? did you throw? did you throw? didn't you throw? didn't you throw? did he throw? did they throw? didn't he throw? didn't they throw? did she throw? didn't she throw? did it throw? didn't it throw? Did you throw anything at the elephant? Didn't you throw anything at the elephant? Did she throw herself in his arms? Didn't she throw herself in her arms? Did he throw himself under the train? Didn't he throw himself under the train? Did they throw kisses to the people? Didn't they throw kisses to the people?103 DAYDREAMS When I was a child, my family was very poor. We had to do without many things. We did not have a television, or even a radio. But now, when I think back, I had something much better -I had a grandfather. He had a very big influence on me. When he was a young man, only 18 years old, he left home and went to work for a circus. They put him in charge of the wild animals. He was responsible for the lions, tigers, elephants, camels, and monkeys, which he thought were a lot like people. After a few years with the circus, he got another job on a steam ship and made a trip round the world. He saw big whales and killer sharks in the open sea. Because he had seen and done so many interesting things in his life, he was full of wonderful stories. My grandfather had a special gift, an ability that few people seem to have today. He could make "pictures" with words. I could really see every detail in his accounts. When he said that one day he threw pieces of bloody meat to a school of sharks in order to get their attention away from his friend who had gone for a swim, I could see in my imagination the sharks' sharp teeth, their long, smooth bodies and strange tails going from side to side. My grandfather liked fresh air and nature, so we used to go for long walks in the country. He would often see something that would make him think of a person, place, or thing that he had seen or known in his life, and that would be the start of another one of his adventure stories. He had a very good memory and so his stories were full of colorful events and people. He used to go on and on , for hours, but I always wanted more. I was never disappointed. My grandfather left me with a love of life and the feeling that I am the captain of my fate. In any case , I am sure there is a very close connection between his accounts about far away places and the daydreams that I have. Daydreams are something that most of us have and for me they are a source of great pleasure. Now, don't get me wrong. Don't think that I am a foolish person whose head is full of daydreams. Let me say openly and directly that I never think of myself as a doctor making some kind of wonderful medicine, machine or instrument that will give us all a long and healthy life; nor do I think of myself as a general on a white horse at the head of a great army ready to do battle with the enemies of my country. I do not think of myself as a great person of science who will make the world a better place through my important discoveries. No, I am not at all that kind of person. My daydreams are not a way to get away from the problems and troubles of life. That is not my objective. In place of "foolish dreams," let's say that I have a "rich imagination." I have one great interest and I have had it throughout my life. I have an undying interest in history. I know the names of many kings, queens, and presidents by heart . I also know the places and dates of many important events by heart. If you wanted, you could say that I am in love with history, all kinds of history: political history, economic history, social history, military history, religious history and so on. For me, history is a special kind of adventure -the adventure of Man through time.104 Maybe now, you see why in my daydreams I have a wonderful invention that lets me go through time, a time machine. If I were the owner of a time machine, what adventures I would have! I could take any point in time and be a part of it. I could see with my own eyes all the great people, places, and events that I now know only from the pages of books. For example, I could know about the life of the people who made the first stone tools. In Athens, I could have a talk with Plato and Aristotle about the meaning of justice and what the best form of government is. I could go out of Egypt with the Children of Israel and their leader Moses. I could be among the people who knew firsthand the words and saw the works of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.. Naturally, I would like to have seen the great teacher Buddha and heard the message of Mohammed, the Messenger of God, from his own lips. With a time machine, I would be able to see Rome before its destruction by fire. I could go with Marco Polo to China and then, possibly, I would know why and how Genghis Khan was able to get half the continents of Asia and Europe under his control. I would like to have been with Christopher Columbus on his first trip to the New World in 1492, when most people still thought the world was flat. I would like to have seen the Aztec and Inca empires before and after Cortez and Pizzaro. I would so much like to have gone on a Portuguese ship round Africa and to India. Such firsthand experiences, I think, would give me a deeper understanding of the development of Man. They would let me see if Man has made any real progress. I would like to know if there is anything new under the sun. For me, one of the biggest questions of history is What has been Man's line of development? Have we gone from point A to point B, or have we been going round and round, like a wheel? I would very much like to know the answers to the old questions of history: What took place? When did it take place? How did it take place? Why did it take place? The more complete our answers are to such questions, the clearer we are able to see the connections between people and events and the better will be our understanding of the effect events have had on people or people have had on events. You know, for me, one of the most interesting questions that keeps going round and round in my head is: Do people make history or does history make people?105 Every time I take a history book in my hands, I come face-to-face with one unanswerable question: What if...? What if George Washington had been a girl? What if the American Revolution had never taken place. What if the South had been the winner in the American Civil War? What if Winston Churchill had not had a seat in the British House of Commons? What if the attempt on Hitler's life had been successful in 1944? To me, such questions make clear the accidental nature of our lives, not only in the past but also in the future. With a time machine, I could go into the future. I would simply give a push to a button or a twist to a handle and I could be part of the future. I would very much like to see what Man's life will be 100, 200 or even 1000 years from now. I would like to know if there will still be schools, hospitals, offices, and factories as now, or if the dreams about different political, social and economic systems, that some people have today, will ever have any relation to our future. If I were the owner of a time machine, I would also be able to go to other worlds. I could go faster than the speed of light. I could go to other planets and farther, even to the edge of space. I want to know if our world is the only one with life. Or, if there are other worlds with life, as we know it, I would like to know all about them. I want to know their ideas, their languages or systems of communications, their histories, their plans, their products, their feelings, their jokes, their needs, wants, hopes, and fears. I would like to know about their standards of behavior, their systems of justice. I want to know all about their economic structures, political systems, religious faiths, and social customs. I would like to know what makes them happy and what makes them sad. I would like to know if their development has been a copy of ours, or if it has been different or special in some way or ways. Since I was very young, I have had this dream about a time machine. As you can see, I have a very rich imagination. I am a person, not only of the present, but also of the past and the future. Some people may say that I am a foolish dreamer. But, for me, dreams are the source of change and change is this only source of progress.106 FUTURE to leave (+) to leave (-) I will leave we will leave I will not leave we will not leave you will leave you will leave you will not leave you will not leave he will leave they will leave he will not leave they will not leave she will leave she will not leave it will leave it will not leave I will leave before Wednesday. I won't leave before Wednesday. You will leave her alone. You won't leave her alone. He will leave many broken hearts. He won't leave many broken hearts. She will leave us with sweet memories. She won't leave us with sweet memories. to leave (+?) to leave (-?) will I leave? will we leave? won't I leave? won't we leave? will you leave? will you leave? won't you leave? won't you leave? will he leave? will they leave? won't he leave? won't they leave? will she leave? won't she leave? will it leave? won't it leave? Will you leave your baby with us? Won't you leave your baby with us? Will he leave the application with them? Won't he leave the application with them? Will she leave her hair alone? Won't she leave her hair alone? Will it leave a nice smell in the room? Won't it leave a nice smell in the room? to throw (+) to throw (-) I will throw we will throw I will not throw we will not throw you will throw you will throw you will not throw you will not throw he will throw they will throw he will not throw they will not throw she will throw she will not throw it will throw it will not throw I'll throw gasoline in his face. I won't throw gasoline in his face. You'll throw the system off balance. You won't throw the system off balance. He'll throw the ball back over the fence. He won't throw the ball back over the fence. We'll throw another piece of wood on the fire. We won't throw another piece of wood on the fire. to throw (+?) to throw (-?) will I throw? will we throw? won't I throw? won't we throw? will you throw? will you throw? won't you throw? won't you throw? will he throw? will they throw? won't he throw? won't they throw? will she throw? won't she throw? will it throw? won't it throw? Will you throw that old coffee out? Won't you thrown that old coffee out? Will he throw on a clean shirt? Won't he throw on a clean shirt? Will she throw off her coat? Won't she throw off her coat? Will they throw themselves across the river? Won't they throw themselves across the river?107 THE JOB INTERVIEW If you want a job, you must keep in mind the rules of today's job market. Most American employers want to see a resume, in addition to an application. Keep in mind that the best resume in the world will not get you a job. A resume is nothing more than a form of self-advertisement. Like all advertisements, it does not say everything. Its purpose is to get attention, nothing more, nothing less. It should show your best side, that is, it should clearly show your qualifications for the job. The most a resume can do is get you an interview. Naturally your resume and the cover letter that you send with it must be free of any mistakes. The form and content of both your resume and letter must be perfect. I shouldn't have to say it, but I will. Never, ever put any false information on your resume or in your cover letter. A lie is the kiss of death on a job application. No employer wants a liar in the company. If you do not hear from a company after ten days or two weeks, you may want to give them a call to see what is going on . One request you always want to make is for an interview. You may want to say something like: Hello. My name is _____________. I sent your personnel office a copy of my resume a few days ago. I would like to know if the computer programmer position is still open. I have three years experience in the field. I also have a university degree in computer technology. I have been with my present employer for almost a year. I know my field well. I'm a hard worker and a team player. I have very good references from my past employers. Do you have any time in the next few days when we could get together for an interview? I'm free for an appointment any afternoon, except Friday.108 When you know the date, time, and place of your interview, you should keep in mind that an interview is face-to-face contact with someone who can make you a job offer. Do not think simply because you have a wonderful resume, or you have many years of experience, or you really want the job that you will automatically get it. You should know that almost half of all the people who get to the interview stage make a bad "first impression" and so do not get the job. Their biggest problems often seem to be with their clothes and hair. With this in mind, you will want to do everything possible to make a good first impression. It may not be fair, but it is true that for many people clothes are a sign of success. To show your success you will want to give attention to not only your clothes, but also to your shoes. Be sure to take a look at your hair and get a haircut if necessary. Naturally, you will want to be clean, so take a shower and make sure your hands are clean. You will never have second chance to make that "first impression." Equally important with your looks, is what you say and how you say it. For Americans, in general, and specially employers "Time is money." They want short, direct answers. So, the answers you give to the interviewer's questions are very, very important. You should be ready for such questions or statements as: 1. Why don't I let you first say something about yourself? 2. Why should I give you a job? 3. What are your strong points? 4. What are your weak points? 5. What kind of salary are you thinking about? 6. What relation does your experience have with the work we do? 7. What are your plans for the future? 8. What would your past or present employer say about you, if I gave him a call? 9. Where does your interest in this position come from? 10. Why do you want a job with our company? 11. Why do you want to leave your present job? 12. Is your present employer having trouble with you? 13. Is there anything you want to say or want me to know about your personal situation? 14. Are there any questions you have for me? 15. How did you come to know about this position?109 The reason for such questions is the desire of the interviewer to know more about your abilities and about you as a person. Though the interviewer is not normally so direct, his or her real questions are: 1. Are you a good worker? 2. Are you easy to get along with? 3. Are you reliable? 4. Can you do the job? 5. Have you done this kind of work before? 6. What is your level of experience? 7. Is the company going to have to put time and money into training you? 8. Do you have any personal problems that might have an effect on your work? 9. Are you a trouble-maker? 10. How much do you know about our company? 11. How much interest do you really have in this position? and in this company? 12. Do you know the standard business practices in our field? You should always give short, direct answers that do not do any damage to the impression you are making. Give the facts about your life and experience and then show how they are an advantage. You want to show what makes you the right person for this job. Always give examples in support of your statements. You want to leave the impression that you are a person who knows exactly what you are doing and where you are going. You are a person with clear, professional objectives. Keep in mind that you are in control of the picture you are making of yourself. You can get up and leave at any time. But if you did that, you would be throwing away any chance for a job. So what you want to do is to give the impression that you are ready, willing, and able to give a fair day's work for a fair day's salary. Go over your possible answers until they come easily and naturally. Keep in mind, "Practice makes perfect." For example, an employer might say after going through your resume, "I don't know why you are here. We want someone with more experience in this area. Why should we even think about you?" One possible answer is: "You're right! There are people with more experience than I, but that's true for everyone in your company. What I have is four years of university training and three years of on-the-job experience. Because my training and experience are up-todaate I am open to new ideas and new ways. I'm a hard worker, very reliable. I won't let you down . Give me a chance. Let me show you what I can do for two or three months. Then you can make a decision." In short , you must take advantage of the situation to make your own offer. Make use of your interview to give a strong first impression. In this connection , keep in mind that the first rule is -have faith in yourself. There is no reason to become worried. Don't get panicky. Keep your cool. Never think that this is the only job. There will always be others, probably even better. An important part of a job interview is your "body language," that is, what you do with your body. Always give a good. strong handshake at your first meeting, and say, "How do you do? My name is _______________." Make sure you that you don't have a shaky voice. Say your first and last names clearly. Eye contact is very important for Americans. In some cultures strong eye contact is not a good because it does not show respect. But for Americans, the opposite is true. They want to see your eyes and they want to hear your words. If you are going to be a good representative of the company, you must first be a good representative of yourself! How smoothly your interview goes and what kind of impression you make are completely up to you .110 Please put your answer on the line 1. __ To leave__ his job with the circus was very difficult (to leave). 2. What do you want ____________ with is rough material (to do)? 3. The baby seems _________________ the monkeys most of all (to like). 4. She said _______________ away from the lions and tigers (to keep). 5. He wants _____________________ all his salary in the bank (to put). 6. I would like __________________ you again (to see). 7. Are you able ________________ to our protest meeting (to go)? 8. The police will _______________ to know all the details about this tragedy (to want). 9. I would _______________ nothing about that bent door, if I were you (to say). 10. The donkey can not ________________ faster (to go). 11. He could _______________ advantage of us right now (to take). 12. She may __________________ more than she wants to say (to know). 13. That might __________________ a good idea (to be). 14. The boys should not ______________ one another (to hit). 15. I saw you _____________ that smooth stone across the water (to throw). 16. Make them ________________ us alone (to leave). 17. He let us ____________________ that we had all the necessary information (to think). 18. When do the winners have ________________ here (to be)? 19. You are _________________ where is sticky liquid is coming from (to find). 20. Is it fair _______________ anything less than a full day's work for a full day's salary (to give)? REAL CONDITIONS 1. If she is from France, she __knows___ French (to know). 2. If you want more salad, please _______________ the rest in that bowl (to take). 3. If I had three glasses of water every day, I _________________ okay (to be). 4. If he was awake, he ____________________ the lions (to hear). 5. If you put sugar in your coffee, it will _______________ sweet (to be). 6. If he says one more word to you, I will ______________ him (to hit). UNREAL CONDITIONS 1. If I __ were__ you, I would be very gentle with that elephant. 2. If he ___________ my employer, I would leave. 3. If she ________________ a man, she could throw that ball farther. 4. If he ________________ a woman, he could go for a swim at that beach. 5. If this material _______________ not so sticky, we might be able to make use of it. 6. If this their statement ____________ not so laughable, we might show some sign of good will. QUESTION EXCLAMATION 1. How disappointed is he? How disappointed he is! 2. How gentle was she? __________________________________! 3. How fair will their decision be? __________________________________! 4. When will he be awake? __________________________________! 5. Where is the monkey? I see ______________________________! 6. Why was it so reliable? I see ______________________________. 7. Who was the winner? I know _____________________________. 8. How many whales were there? I know _____________________________.