1 Lane's English as a Second Language by Richard R. Lane, Ph.D. Illustrations by Leon Samoilovich Book 32 Copyright © 1977; revised 1988, 2000, 2009 by Richard R. Lane All rights reserved. No part of this book may be changed without written permission from the publisher. The world’s most efficacious ESL series is given freely to all students and teachers of English by-Lane Press P.O. Box 17822 Stanford, CA 94305 USA3 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Forward Lesson 1 -Europe and Asia.................................................................................................1 for a second, etc./in a second, etc. so, all (complete), as...as... to take (requires) by (not later than), to have: a) possessions, b) people, c) food/drink, d) must every -some -any -no persons with "er" and "or" to make/to want Lesson 2 -The European Discovery of the New World.................................................23 to take: a) + noun, b) to personalize things, c) take place, d) required, e) + preposition, f) take to, g) take in, h) take part in more, maybe to make: a) + noun b) + adjective, c) + verb comparative and superlative to give/to get Lesson 3 -Colonies in North America..............................................................................45 to get: a) ≠ give, b) + noun, c) + adjective, d) + preposition word order of direct and indirect objectives much -much more -much too metaphoric word use adjectives formed with "y" right + (time or place) over: a) ≠ under, b) = end to like/to know Lesson 4 -The American Revolution...............................................................................67 by (instrument), though, as (role), would like to go for a drive, ride, run, swim, walk come to ... objective case I know the way... questions and exclamations, nouns as adjectives, uses of prepositions: on, in, to see/to do Lesson 5 -The American Government.............................................................................89 to do: a) negative, b) question, c) repeated actions, d) emphasis, e) in place of a known verb, difference between to make and to do, well (adverb), adjectives with "ful" and "less," uses of prepositions: into, at, about, through, by, over to think/to say APPENDIX.......................................................................................................................111 Review of verbs: to be, to have, to go, to come, to put, to take, to give, to get, to do, to make, to think, to say, to see, to know, to like, to want. Prepositions and their expansions.4 Intentionally left blank5 FOREWORD The English language is now closer to being the world's second language than any other since the dominance of Latin in Western civilization. Today, English is the official or first language of 23 nations with a combined population of about 500,000,000. In addition, it is a co-official or widely used second language in another 25 nations with more than 900,000,000. The best estimates are that 50,000,000 primary school students and 75,000,000 secondary school students are currently studying English as a second language. To this can be added millions more who are studying English at the adult and college/university levels. China alone is said to have more people (500,000,000) studying English than the combined populations of the UK (61,000,000). the USA (305,000,000), and Canada (33,000,000) among whom 75%-80% claim English as their mother tongue. As a student of English, you have a lot of company. You are part of a truly global enterprise. The fact that English is a key to many doors—technology, science, business, politics, culture—accounts in large measure for its present attractiveness. To any list of causes that might be offered for this widespread use, we should keep in mind that in sharp contrast to those who have made a near fetish out of their languages, native speakers of English have not fixed it within any standard, except intelligibility. The absence of any high authority to decide what is and what is not "English" has given the language a relatively unfettered line of development which is probably more dynamic today than ever before. English has never echoed to any call for "purity." Because it is not afraid of being “corrupted” and has such a high tolerance for new words and expressions, regardless of their origins, English is able to adapt to local conditions with ease. There have been many well-intentioned efforts directed at the needs of English learners. The traditional approaches were entirely grammar based. These were later supplemented by frequency word counts. Then came the communicative approach, which spawned audio-lingual methods seeking to teach the living language. A more recent development along this line has been Survival English. Looking at these approaches in terms of progress in the language against time and effort expended, the criteria of efficacy, we see that each is found seriously wanting. The grammatical approach to English was nothing more than an extension of the traditional teaching of Greek and Latin. Students had a very difficult time going from their passive knowledge to an active use of the language. Desiring to eliminate such useless sentences as "Lightning has struck my carriage," textbook writers turned to word counts only to discover that students needed a relatively large vocabulary before much of consequence could be said. Though the word count approach strengthened reading and writing abilities, it did little to get students to speak. Thus the door was opened for the communicative approach which demanded students be taught the spoken language in daily situations. But, if we were to teach what students are likely to hear, we would begin with a number of "four-letter" words and then graduate to "I ain't gonna" and "He done it." Since this is unacceptable to most people, teachers and material developers have concentrated on getting and giving information in a number of different situations: the post office, the bus stop, the doctor's office, job interview, etc. Unfortunately, natural conversations in these various situations require a rather extensive vocabulary and command of sophisticated grammatical structures as well as a plethora of idioms. Much of this material seems designed to keep the teacher's interest, rather than approach the problem of language acquisition from the student's perspective. The communicative approach can not be faulted for its goal. The problem lies with its lack of any apparent criteria for introducing vocabulary and structures. Beginning students do not need ten ways to say "Hello." In my own search for an alternative to these approaches to English, I have been attracted by various ideas of simplification, particularly those of C. K. Ogden, the developer of BASIC English. I see simplification as principally a controlled and ordered approach to the language. There is no doubt in my mind that more than 80% of the English language conforms to certain rules and patterns and if students can begin to see this underlying structure or logic, they can experience the joy of communication and gather the momentum to carry them through the rough, illogical parts. Lane's English as a Second Language is different because it offers the learner a step-by-step, cumulative approach that unlocks the logic of English. It consciously excludes idiomatic word usage until the learner is prepared to deal with it. By eliminating the capricious and/or arbitrary elements of English, the Lane approach presents the learner with a system, a reasonable, logical linguistic system that can be explained, and therefore understood and mastered. This approach is specifically designed for the learner who wants to know why and the teacher who sees English as more than an inexhaustible jumble of words and expressions best acquired with mother's milk.6 The total vocabulary of Lane's English as a Second Language is about 1200 words. By limiting the vocabulary, one of the major obstacles to learning English—its non-phonetic spelling—is skirted. With approximately 200 words to be learned in each book, students need not be burdened with spelling rules and their numerous exceptions. More than half of the words are only one syllable long, so they are easily mastered by speakers of languages that are not cognate to English. The 1200 words were selected on the basis of usefulness, not frequency. The choice was made in accordance with the linguistic tendency toward general and away from specific uses. This allows the vocabulary to be manipulated at various levels of sophistication. In the presentation of this vocabulary, the approach is first to establish the primary meaning of each word and then to expand its usage in a systematic manner. With this expanded usage the 1200 words actually give a learner a level of expressability many times greater. This may be seen graphically as follows (in regard to body parts): 1. BASIC MEANING: This is a hand. 2. Compound words: This is a shoulder bone. 3. Expanded usage: I am the head of my family. 4. Metaphoric: She has a big heart. 5. Set phrases. We came face-to-face with a problem. 6. Idioms (a): The walls have ears. 7. Idioms (b): He put his foot in his mouth. 8. Sayings: His eyes were bigger than his stomach. One of the primary advantages of this system is the development of a mind-set that causes learners to form their thoughts directly in English, rather than to think in their native languages and merely plug in English words. This is accomplished by concentrating on 12 verbs and 31 prepositions, which in combination give about 4,000 verb ideas. For instance, we are quite comfortable saying: I put my hand in my pocket; I put my money in the bank; I put $1000 in a company; I put my heart in my work; I put a new sink in the kitchen; I put my ideas in English. The typical student, however, is more likely to express these same ideas with the discrete verbs: insert, deposit, invest, concentrate, install and translate. The economy of time and effort in learning put in vs. six different verbs is obvious. What is not so obvious is the methodology that will enable the learner to manipulate verbs and prepositions like a native-speaker. This is achieved through the logical, controlled, sequential presentation of material. The approach of this text takes phrasal or two-word verbs out of the idiomatic category by showing an inner logic to their use. When the learner once grasps this inner-logic, he has a hard time going back to his native language to find equivalents and soon gives up the attempt. He thus makes the quantum leap to thinking in English. There is no attempt to limit students to the vocabulary of this series. In fact, I assume that learners will develop their own vocabularies according to individual needs and interests. I want to point out, however, that the 1200 words of the system represent a common core that all learners need to know and control. This stress on commonality is a conscious effort to counter the pernicious efforts of those pendants who for their own reasons want to emphasize and exaggerate the differences between American and British English. Imparting this common core is the first duty of all teachers. A very important and unique feature of this system is that it gives learners a complete system of communication. It is not an exaggeration to say that almost any thought or action can find expression within its 1200 words. The required specificity for even very technical or specialized fields may be had with the addition of only 60 to 100 words from a particular field. For students who wish to go on to university level studies, this series provides an excellent basis to study for entrance examinations, especially the TOEFL. The efficacy of this approach to English is beyond doubt. It offers students, regardless of their objectives, an extremely high rate of progress in relation to the time and effort they put into their studies. Because time is our most precious commodity, I offer this series to students and teachers around the world. Richard Lane7 EUROPE and ASIA8 LESSON 1 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. music _______________ cook _______________ gift _______________ pot _______________ wood _______________ pan _______________ fire _______________ computer _______________ ____________ system They have a new computer system. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ cover The cook put a cover on the pot and put the fire down. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ experience The cook had almost five years of experience. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ dance The dance came to an end. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ vacation Who had a three week vacation in the mountains? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ example A father should be a good example for his son. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ interest in Why doesn't he have any interest in good music? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ trip How was your trip to Alaska last summer? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ life He had a long and happy life. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ story Grandfather always had a story for us at bedtime. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ writing Her writing is out of this world. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ reading Her reading in English is also not too bad. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ information Do you have any new information about her trip to New York? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ sport Apart from sport, he has very few interests in life. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ art She came across an expensive piece of Japanese art. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ at war The nation may soon be at war again. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ at peace When will the world be at peace? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ empire Mexico was a part of the Spanish Empire until 1821. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ silk It is all silk, and that is why it is so expensive. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ spice There is too much spice in this food for me. _____________________________________________________________9 ____________ business Whose business is it? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ meeting When the business meeting came to an end, I was tired, dead tired. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ company Our company is only five years old. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ price If the price is low enough, I will take two. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ customer In business, the customer is always right. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ for sale Are these computers for sale? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ profit Where did last year's profit go? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ loss His business had a loss in place of a profit this year. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ fall George had a bad fall from his bicycle. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ agreement The businessman put his name on the agreement. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ choice I have nothing against his choice of music. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ decision What is your decision? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ manager The store manager should be back at 2:30. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ rest After dinner, I put the rest of the meat in the icebox. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ great Together with their children, they went to Great Britain. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ normal His normal question is "How much?" _____________________________________________________________ ____________ strange Now and then, she has a strange look in her eyes. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ rich He is rich, that is why he has many friends. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ poor They are from a poor nation. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ fast The fire went through the house very fast. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ slow The music was slow. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ quite He was quite weak after his fall. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ safe We are quite safe now. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ a lot of She has quite a lot of information from her reading. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ as...as... Mary is not as strong as her big sister. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to want I want an answer to my question and I want it now. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to make She makes delicious spice cakes. _____________________________________________________________10 This form shows a period of time. for a second for a week for a minute for a month for an hour for a year for a day Natalie: How long were you in South America? Christine: I was there for a month. I went up the Amazon River by ship. Natalie: How long were you in North Africa? Christine: I was there for a year. I had a lot of fun on that trip, also. Philip: How long was the manager out of the office? Theodore: He was out of the office for three days. Philip: How long was the cover off the pot? Theodore: I took the cover off for only a second or two. Jessica: How long will you be on the telephone? Ashley: I'm afraid that I'll be on the telephone for a few more minutes. Jessica: How long will you be in front of your new computer? Ashley: I'll be here for three hours or more because I have a lot of information to put in. so so may give the idea of "very." 1. Why are you so strong? 2. Why is she so special for him? 3. There was so much rain, we went back to the hotel for the rest of the day. 4. There were so many customers in the store, I didn't go in. 5. He is so slow, I'm sure the work won't be ready for another week. 6. She is so fast, she is almost always there before we are. 7. They are so poor, they almost never have meat. 8. He is so weak, we may take him to the hospital in a taxi. 9. This spice is so strong, you shouldn't put too much in the soup. 10. The cake was so sweet, I could have only one piece. take take may show that something is necessary or required. Edward: How many eggs does your brown sugar cake take? Lisa: It takes only three eggs. Edward: How much time will the input of this information into your computer take? Lisa: It will not take a lot of time because much of it is already in the system. Andrew: How long does it take for light to come from the sun? Richard: It takes 8 1/2 minutes for light to come from the sun. Andrew: How long does it take for the world to go round the sun? Richard: It takes 365 1/4 days for the world to go round the sun. Mrs. Clinton: How much experience does it take to be a cook? Mrs. Bush: It takes many years of experience to be a good cook. Mrs. Clinton: How much time will the meeting take? Mrs. Bush: Because there is no important business, it shouldn't take too long.11 This form shows a future point of time: in a second in a week in a minute in a month in an hour in a year in a day Nathaniel: When will Andrew be here for his music lesson? Susan: He'll be here in a minute. Nathaniel: When will Mrs. Jefferson be back from her vacation? Susan: She'll be back in a day or two. Martha: When will your parents be in Europe? John: They'll be there in a week or two. Martha: When will you be back from Asia? John: I'll be back in a year and a half. Diana: When will you be ready for dinner? Charles: I'll be ready in a few seconds. Don't be angry! Diana: I have only the first two pages of our agreement. Where's the rest of it? Charles: The rest of it will be ready in about three hours. all all may give the idea of complete. We can put all before both nouns and adjectives. 1. The price of this light green blouse is high because it is all silk. 2. We had an all vegetable dinner on Sunday evening. 3. That all wood house is for sale. 4. We were sorry that we had rain all day. 5. They will be in the United States of America all summer. Right? 6. She was one of the great dancers of all time. 7. Why are your shoes all wet? 8. The children's faces were all dirty after their ice cream. 9. I won't be worried because the children'll be all safe in their beds. 10. You will be all ready to go tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock. Right? by by may have the meaning of "not later than." Anthony: What time should I be at the meeting? Mary: You should be there by 5:30. Anthony: What time will the bus be at the corner of University and Flower Streets? Mary: If the timetable is right, it should be there by 3:45. Henry: Will you be in Great Britain by May? George: My plan is to be there by the middle of April. Henry: Will John be in Brazil by next year? George: Yes, he should be there by then. Mrs. Washington: When will my blue, silk evening dress be ready? Mrs. Lincoln: It will be ready by Wednesday. Mrs. Washington: When will Matthew be rich? Mrs. Lincoln: He will be rich by the time he is 30 years old.12 TO HAVE A. have is used with all things to show possession. James: Do you have a computer? Paul: Yes, I have a computer in my office. James: Do you have a lot of experience with the new computer system? Paul: I have some experience, but more is necessary for me to be good at it. Katherine: What kind of spices did they have for sale? David: They had close to a hundred different kinds of spices for sale. Katherine: Did the company have a profit or a loss last year? David: I don't have any information about that. Elizabeth: When will we have a new car? Andrew: We will have a new car very soon. Elizabeth: When will we have a new house? Andrew: Car! House! House! Car! You will have them both! It is only a question of time. B. have is used with people to show relationship. 1. I have two brothers and one sister. 2. Do you have any children? 3. The restaurant has four cooks. Am I right? 4. He had two wives at the same time! 5. Did she have her baby already? 6. How soon will you have your baby? C. have is used with food and drink. Victoria: What time did you have breakfast this morning? Peter: I had breakfast early this morning, because I was up before 7 o'clock. Victoria: What will you have for lunch today? Peter: I'll have a bowl of soup, some fried potatoes and a nice piece of red meat. Ashley: Do you have cream and sugar with your coffee? Susan: Oh, yes. I can not have coffee without a lot of cream and a little sugar. Ashley: Does your husband always have a glass of wine or beer with his dinner? Susan: Not always, but quite often he has a glass of red wine with his dinner. Thomas: Why don't we have dinner together next week? Helen: That's a great idea. What's a good day for you? Thomas: Is it okay with you, if we have dinner on Friday evening at 7:00? Helen: How wonderful! Is it okay with you if my little sister comes also? D. have +verb shows necessity (must). 1. I have to go to the airport at 8:30. 2. We had to come to school early yesterday. 3. They will have to put on their heavy winter clothes because there will be snow. 4. She has to be home at 6 o'clock because the streets are not safe after dark. 5. I had to take my wet shoes off, before I came in the house. 6. You will have to have dinner with us again, very soon.13 EVERY SOME+ ANY-,? NO everything something anything nothing everybody somebody anybody nobody everyone someone anyone no one everywhere somewhere anywhere no where every time sometime anytime no time every...has the meaning of all, without exception. Everything in the store is for sale. Nothing in the store is for sale. Everybody, but Mary, was ready for his story. Nobody, but Mary, was ready for his story. Everyone should be strong in time of war. No one should have this information, but you. Everywhere, but here, there was peace. No where, but in his heart, was there peace. Every time he comes, she goes away. She has no time for him. some...is used in a positive sentence, any...in a negative sentence or question . The cook has something special for us. The cook doesn't have anything special for us. There is somebody with a good example. There isn't anybody with a good example. There was someone by the fire. There wasn't anyone by the fire. The information is somewhere in his report. The information isn't anywhere in his report. We will have a profit sometime soon. We won't have a profit anytime soon. Ruth: Why do some people have everything and others have nothing? Matthew: Nobody has an answer for that kind of question. That's life! Ruth: Well, then, an easy question: Why are there books everywhere in your room? Matthew: Because I had no time to put my bookshelves together. Eugene: Where is everyone? Walter: Everyone, but I, went to Hawaii for a two week vacation. Eugene: That's terrible! Is everything okay? Walter: Yes, everything is okay for now. Tomorrow may be a different story. a lot of = many/much a lot of may take the place of many and much everywhere but in questions. Ann: How much rice did the cook put in the pan? Mary: He put a lot of rice in the pan. Ann: How many potatoes did the cook put in the pot? Mary: The cook put a lot of potatoes in the pot, before he put the pot on the fire. William: How much silk does this kind of long evening dress take? Arthur: It takes a lot of silk and so it will be very expensive. William: How many meetings did you have with him before you came to an agreement? Arthur: We had a lot of meetings before we came to an agreement. Alexandra: How much experience is necessary for that kind of work? Nicholas: A lot of experience is necessary, years and years. Alexandra: How many customers did we have today? Nicholas: We had a lot of customers and our sales were up.14 Very often we put "er" or "or" at the end of a word to show a person or thing: teacher, shower, computer, doctor, neighbor. work worker farm farmer bank banker dance dancer garden gardener report reporter love lover own owner question questioner start starter time timer part partner law lawyer war warrior empire emperor building builder reading reader writing writer juice juicer open opener stop stopper direction director 1. The worker will be at work for 8 hours. 2. It takes the banker 35 minutes to go to the bank. 3. The gardener put water on everything in the garden and along the fence. 4. The dancer had five years of theater dance experience. 5. The farmer has no other animals, but horses at his farm. 6. Her heart was broken when her lover went to war without a word of good-bye. 7. A long distance trucker can go across the US in three days. 8. The owner of that business is a very young businesswoman from Mexico. 9. If two or three people are part-owners of a business, they are business partners. 10. The head of an empire is an emperor and his wife is an empress. 11. A person in a strange place is a stranger. 12. The builder may put up a new office building. 13. The warrior came back from the war with flowers round his neck. 14. The first reader's reading was out of this world. 15. George should go to a lawyer because he has so many problems with the law. 16. I always take the juice out of an orange with a juicer. 17. If you want to take a bath, you must first put the stopper in the tub. 18. There is a bottle opener by the sink, next to the big kitchen knife. as...as... as...as... is used to make a comparison. 1. Her dark skin is as soft as silk. 2. A pan is not as big as a pot. 3. Please come as soon as you can. 4. The dance music was as slow as can be. 5. Food is not as necessary as air and water. 6. The last question on the test is never as easy as the first one. 7. Her interest in him is not as strong as before. 8. His life was as strange as those in the stories of the American writer, Edgar Allen Poe.15 If you put words together, you can make new ideas. 1. He will be a first class French cook in another two or three years. 2. In my eyes, you are number one. My life is nothing without you. 3. If it's okay with you, I'll take a look at these paperback books tomorrow, when I'm not so tired. 4. Their family problems are not our business. 5. The profit hungry businessman put prices up on all the goods in his store. 6. A yearbook should have up-to-date information about those kinds of important questions. 7. Most of his ideas are quite out-of-date. They are from another time and another place. 8. Because of his back problem, the old cook can not be on his feet for a long time. 9. How much input did she have in the decision to put the house up for sale? 10. The chairman of the company's board of directors wasn't happy about the fall of the factory's output. 11. It was quite clear to everybody that the price was far from what it should be. 12. It is not clear to me who or what is in back of their decision to go to war. 13. They had many ups and downs in their married life. 14. My mother-in-law has very strong ideas about what kind of examples are good for children. 15. My sister-in-law has a special gift for writing children's animal stories. 16. Now and then, she must put him in his place with a few strong words. 17. Here and there, almost everywhere, there is a blackmarket in computer parts. 18. She was not ready for his reading her address book. She has no more interest in him now. 19. Today's children are tomorrow's doctors, lawyers, farmers, business people and so on. 20. Why don't we go to the Saturday night dance together? 21. It is as far from your house to my house as from my house to your house. 22. I am tired of reading his works and do not have any more interest in his strange ideas. 23. Without question, she is one of the world's great dancers. Her dances are out of this world! 24. He was in business for five years before he went out of business not too long ago. 25. It is not normal for her to come back home so late. The film was over two hours ago. 26. I had a good look at her face in the soft firelight that came from the fireplace. 27. When the choice was clear to him, we came to an agreement without any more problems. 28. That's life, my poor boy! To put the clock back is out of the question. 29. The story of his life will come out in a new book next year. There may be a film after that. 30. The people were so poor, I was at a loss for words. 31. The question is not if, but when they will have another child. 32. Money was not too important to him. His idea about life was: Easy come, easy go. 33. I could not put into words all the interesting ideas I had in my head. 34. In my eyes, Alexander was a man among men. He was great! 35. The problem is out of my hands now. What will be, will be! 36. It is interesting that for everyone, but newspaper reporters, no news is good news! 37. The decision was the outcome of a lot of work, very hard work, by all six business partners. 38. The house is on fire! Where are the firemen? Where is the fire truck? 39. He was a great empire builder, but his life's work came apart as soon as he was dead. 40. She came to be (became) the head of the business because she is very good at business. 41. She may still put a little spice in his life, but it will take a lot of her time and a lot of his money. 42. His big ideas came to nothing! He was not very lucky in business or love. 43. The company had a profit last year because its income was up and its outgo was down. 44. I have to go to the police because there can be no question about what took place last night. 45. You can take the boy out of the country, but you can never take the country out of the boy. 46. I'm against their reading love stories all day long in place of work. 47. I had no choice, so I put my name on the agreement and had another drink. 48. It's all the same to me, if he comes or goes. I have to be out of here by 4:45. 49. It should be quite clear to everyone by now that she is one of our company's top managers. 50. Apart from fast cars, old wine and beautiful women, he has very few interests in life.16 PRESENT make always gives the idea of creation, production. Something new comes into existence. to make (+) to make (-) I make we make I do not make we do not make you make you make you do not make you do not make he makes they make he does not make they do not make she makes she does not make it makes it does not make I make a fire when it is cold. I do not make a fire when it is hot. She makes wonderful chocolate cakes. She does not make terrible chocolate cakes. He makes problems for everyone. He does not make problems for anyone. They make computers at that factory. They do not make computers at that factory. to make (+?) to make (-?) do I make? do we make? don't I make? don't we make? do you make? do you make? don't you make? don't you make? does he make? do they make? doesn't he make? don't they make? does she make? doesn't she make? does it make? doesn't it make? Do you make your own clothes? Don't you make your own clothes? Does he make little ships by hand? Doesn't he make little ships by hand? Does it make wine out of grapes? Doesn't it make wine out of grapes? Do they make grapes into wine? Don't they make grapes into wine? to want (+) to want (-) I wantwe want I do not want we do not want you want you want you do not want you do not want he wants they want he does not want they do not want she wants she does not want it wants it does not want I want another cup of black coffee. I do not want another cup of black coffee. He wants another example of my work. He does not want another example of my work. She wants something more from him. She does not want anything more from him. They want all the pots and pans that we have. They do not want all the pots and pans that we have. to want (+?) to want (-?) do I want? do we want? don't I want? don't we want? do you want? do you want? don't you want? don't you want? does he want? do they want? doesn't he want? don't they want? does she want? doesn't she want? does it want? doesn't it want? Do you want any white silk? Don't you want any white silk? Does he want any more information? Doesn't he want any more information? Does she want to go with us? Doesn't she want to go with us? Do they want to make the decision? Don't they want to make the decision?17 A BUSINESSMAN John Wilson is a young businessman. He came to be (became) the head of a family business not too long ago. He's the owner and manager of a bookstore. His interest in the business goes back* many years. When he was still a university student, he took part in the business for two or three months every summer. One summer, he put in the store's first two computers. At that time, computer systems were quite slow. They were not as fast as they are today. There was only one computer for every five salespeople. Those were the difficult years. That was back when John's father was still the head of the business. For the first three years that its doors were open, the business had a loss every year. That's when John's father was often worried about his business. After the business was on its feet and John had some experience in the business world, he was ready to take the family business from his father. Now his father and mother do not take part in the day-to-day work of the business. They only take trips to different parts of the world for three or four weeks every year. This is the "vacation time" of their lives. Poor John! His life is not as easy as that. In the last few years, he put a lot of time in the business and now it almost never has a loss, but its profits are not very high. He makes enough money for a nice house and the necessary things for his family, but he is not a rich man. * goes back: His interest in sports goes back many years. The problem goes back to when he was a student. John is a very busy businessman. He is up at 6:30 every morning, Monday through Saturday. He has breakfast with his wife, Ann, and then goes to work by car. The distance from his home to his work is only about 10 miles. The trip takes about 20 minutes. His bookstore is open from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. every day, but Sunday. He has ten good workers. Two of his saleswomen come only in the afternoon, so they are part-time workers. The normal work day for all his other salespeople is 8 hours. Everyone must be at work by 7:45. After two hours of work, everyone has a 15 minute rest, the name of which is "coffee time," because it is normal for everyone to have a cup of coffee at that time. Everyone also has a 30 minute lunch and then another coffee time in the afternoon. John's bookstore is at the corner of University and Flower Streets, not far from the river. It is in a busy part of the city with a lot of walk-in customers. Sometime ago, John had a bright idea. He took a corner of the store and put in a Cake and Coffee Corner. So now a tired customer can take a seat, and at the same time have a cup of coffee and/or a piece of cake and take a look at the newspaper or his new book. Sometimes, on Friday evenings, there is even music at the Cake and Coffee Corner. Our city is lucky to have a nice, clean bookstore with a great choice of books, newspapers and so on. It's a wonderful place to go after work and on the weekend. My friends and I often go there.18 Sometimes John puts books with strange or beautiful covers in the bookstore windows. One window is only for the world's great art works. There are somewhere between 20,000 and 25,000 books for sale in his store. Every book has the sale price on the outside of its cover. There are hardback and paperback books about almost everything under the sun. There are shelves and shelves of books everywhere. There are long shelves with books about far-away places, about what took place long ago in world history, the lives of great and important people, the special problems of today's poor nations of the "Third World" and so on. Now and then, John puts different kinds of books on sale. For example, he may put all his art books on sale. Then, in February, he may put all the science books on sale, and so on. In the summertime, when the weather is nice, he puts a number of books on tables outside the store for a sidewalk sale, so customers do not have to come inside. In John's eyes, books are meeting places where we can take part in the experiences of others. This is why reading should be an important part of all our lives. Because many of John's customers are sportsmen and sportswomen or have a strong interest in different kinds of sports, he also has books about football, basketball, handball and so on. There are books about yesterday's and today's films and film stars. There are shelves and shelves with foreign language books, for example, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and so on. For customers who may want books about English as a second language, John has two long shelves with nothing but them. For example, he has all of Lane's English as a Second Language books there. There are some special "corners" in the store with children's books, art books, music books, picture books, map books, books about World War I and World War II, and books about the ups and downs of yesterday's empires: Egyptian, Persian, Greek, Roman and so on. There are many books with both black and white and color pictures. The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and everything that took place after that in Central and Eastern Europe is of great interest to many of us who are John's customers, so it is necessary for him to have quite a good choice of books with fresh or up-to-date information about that part of the world. Now, that the Cold War is over, readers have quite a strong interest in everything that takes place in Russia and want more and more information about that nation's history. Two, new Russian history books with many pictures and maps came out* not long ago. One is about Russia's first emperor, Peter the Great (1682-1725). The other is about the empress, Katherine the Great (1762-1796). It is interesting that customers take them as fast as John's salespeople can put them on the shelves. There is a special table in the middle of the store with the works of many world class writers, for example: Mark Twain, Jack London, Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Shakespeare. Two books that many people still want are George Orwell's terrible story of Big Brother, 1984, which first came out in 1949 and Animal Farm, which came out for the first time in 1954. For readers with an interest in the ideas of the big name writers, there are also Lev Tolstoy's War and Peace and Jules Verne's Round the World in 80 Days, together with many others. _____________________ * come out: The newspaper comes out every day. The story of his life came out in a book two years ago.19 There are handbooks for the owners of new cars and trucks with information about how to take them apart and put them back together. Everyone with a computer should have a handbook about how to put information into its system and how the computer puts out information or, in other words, the input and output of computer information. There are yearbooks with important and interesting information about the world. A good example is The Information Please Yearbook. It is a very good book to have at home. It comes out every year with up-to-date information about everything under the sun. For example, if you want information about the number of companies in the United States that went out of business* last year, you should take a look in The Information Please Yearbook. I'm sure the number will be there, somewhere! If you have questions about money, for example, what is a safe business to put your money in, you should make a stop at John's because he has all kinds of books about the subjects of money and business. Or, if you want information about important people in today's business world, you should take a look in Who's Who in US Business. This is only one example of many different kinds of Who's Who... books. There are also Who's Who in Art, Who's Who in South America, Who's Who in Computer Science and so on. If you have a question about a good place to go for your vacation next summer, you should take a look at that part of John's store that has all kinds of vacation information, both books and maps. There are books about thousands of different subjects, everything from body * go out of business: After only four months, the restaurant went out of business. Stores often go out of business in hard times. building and computers to the history of music and the American system of law. Many people want books about different branches of science. For example, there is a big, beautiful book for someone who may want to be a doctor. It has all the parts of the body, inside and outside, in living color. But that kind of book is not for everyone. Different people have different interests and tastes. Some want only short story books. Some want police stories. Others want only long love stories, with a lot of broken hearts. This is why John has shelves and shelves of paperback books at the back of the store. There is another part of the store that is of a lot of interest to young people because it has many books with stories about tomorrow: trips to the moon in moonships or to the stars in starships, cities under the oceans, strange experiences in other worlds and so on. These are all subjects that are close to my own heart. Many people want How to... books. John has all of them in a special place close to the front of the store. There are books about how to make a business agreement. There are cookbooks about how to make delicious salads, cakes and breads. There are books about how to make wine out of apple juice or an old dress into a new blouse. There are books about how to make your own wood furniture, about how to put a new cover on an old sofa and so on. In other words, John's store has books about almost every subject that people may have an interest in. A book is a wonderful gift. John's prices are very low, that is why he has so many customers. If you want a birthday gift for someone special, you should first go to John's place because, without question, he will have a book that is right for you.20 PAST to make (+) to make (-) I made we made I did not make we did not make you made you made you did not make you did not make he made they made he did not make they did not make she made she did not make it made it did not make I made an agreement with them. I did not make an agreement with them. You made a good choice. You did not make a good choice. He made everything, but the salad. He did not make everything, but the salad. She made shorts out of her old pants. She did not make shorts out of her old pants. to make (+?) to make (-?) did I make? did we make? didn't I make? didn't we make? did you make? did you make? didn't you make? didn't you make? did he make? did they make? didn't he make? didn't they make? did she make? didn't she make? did it make? didn't it make? Did you make a decision about my story? Didn't you make a decision about my story? Did they make a trip to South America? Didn't they make a trip to South America? Did it make a hole in the bottom of the pot? Didn't it make a hole in the bottom of the pot? Did he make peace with his sister? Didn't he make peace with his sister? to want (+) to want (-) I wanted we wanted I didn't want we didn't want you wanted you wanted you didn't want you didn't want he wanted they wanted he didn't want they didn't want she wanted she didn't want it wanted it didn't want I wanted to be a cowboy or a fireman. I didn't want to be a cowboy or a fireman. He wanted to have lunch with her again. He didn't want to have lunch with her again. She wanted to make some coffee. She didn't want to make any coffee. They wanted to take us to the meeting. They didn't want to take us to the meeting. to want (+?) to want (-?) did I want? did we want? didn't I want? didn't we want? did you want? did you want? didn't you want? didn't you want? did he want? did they want? didn't he want? didn't they want? did she want? didn't she want? did it want? didn't it want? Did you want anything special for dinner? Didn't you want anything special for dinner? Did he want another bottle of red wine? Didn't he want another bottle of red wine? Did she want to take a shower or a bath? Didn't she want to take a shower or a bath? Did they want to have another meeting? Didn't they want to have another meeting?21 EUROPE AND ASIA The great Roman Empire went from Britain in the North to North Africa in the South and from Spain in the West to the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the East. It was at one and the same time a European and Asian empire. In 312 A.D., (that is, 312 years after the birth of Jesus Christ) Constantine the Great (280?-337) came to be (became) the one and only emperor of this great Eurasian empire. Because he was busy with problems in the Eastern part of the empire and had to be there so much of the time, he made the little city of Byzantium into a second capital, a new Rome, and gave it a new name: Constantinople or Constantine's City. Later, it became Istanbul. Until 1923, Istanbul was the capital of Turkey. Constantine is a very important person in history. In 325 A.D., that is, 13 years after he came to be emperor, Constantine put an end to all Roman laws against Christians. At the very end of his life, in 337 A.D., Constantine became a Christian, and so in the history books he is the world's first Christian emperor. By an agreement, in 364 A.D., among Constantine's sons one of them became head of the Western Roman Empire with its capital in Rome and another became the head of the Eastern Roman Empire with its capital in Constantinople. Because of* problems of time and distance the Christian Church also came to have two parts or branches, the Roman Catholic Church in the West and the Greek Orthodox Church in the East. Through the years, the Western Catholic and Eastern Orthodox experiences were so different no one could put them back together, but there were many who wanted to. So, Constantine the Great was not only the * because of: We went to the dance because of the music. Because of the fire, we did not go to the mountains. first Christian emperor, but he was also the last head of a united Christian Church. The Western Roman Empire came to an end in 476 A.D. For hundreds of years after the fall of Rome, the people of Western Europe had almost no interest in the outside world. They were very happy in its mountains and valleys and in cities along its rivers. The little interest that they did have in the rest of the world was in the birthplace of Jesus Christ and the great city of Jerusalem.22 Christians went to Jerusalem every year with only the normal problems of that time, until 1084, when Turkish Moslems took it. In the next two hundred years, Christians from Western Europe made war eight times against the Moslems because they wanted to take Jerusalem back. But, in the end, they were too weak! The Moslems were too strong! From this experience of more than two hundred years of war in the Middle East,* thousands of West Europeans had a good look at a kind of life that was very different from their own. It was different in art, different in music, different in dance, different in food, different in clothes, different in ideas and so on. From this Middle Eastern experience came a very strong interest in Asia and the things of Asia. And Europe was never the same again. Much of Europe's information about the Far East came from a young Italian, Marco Polo (1254?-1324?). Marco Polo went to China in 1278 with his father and uncle. The roads across mountains, through valleys and along * The Middle East is the Arab countries. There is a lot of oil in the Middle East. The Far East is China, Japan, Korea and so on. They went to the Far East for their vacation. rivers were not safe. All together, their trip to China by foot and horse took three years. After 17 years at the side of the great Emperor of China, Kubilai Khan (1216?-1294), Marco Polo went back to Italy with many expensive gifts and strange stories. He put the story of his life in a book, which came out in 1299. His picture of China was one of a big, strong, rich empire. Marco Polo's writing was "wood on the fire" of European interest in Asia. Already at the time of Marco Polo, Europeans were very "hungry" for the strange and beautiful things from the Far East -the goods of Asia. There was a big European market for Asian goods. Among the things that Europeans wanted most were tea, silk, spices and fireworks. Tea was a strange, new, delicious kind of drink for Europeans. Silk clothes were very different from anything in the European experience, so rich people wanted them very much. Cooks and housewives everywhere wanted the different kinds of spices that came from Asia. This is why the silk and spice business always made a good profit. Fireworks, which were beautiful and fun for the Chinese, became an important part of the European science of war.23 For a long time, tea, silk, spice, and other Asian goods went from the Far East to Europe through the hands of Arabs and Jews. For hundreds of years, these Arab and Jewish "middlemen" were the ones who made the long and difficult trips to and from the Far East. Sometimes, they went by foot or horse. Sometimes, they went by ships, ships that were little and not very safe. In 1453, Turkish Moslems, under the great empire builder, Sultan Mahmet II, took the great city of Constantinople and so put an end to the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire. Until then, Constantinople was a market place for ideas and the meeting place of East and West for almost a thousand years after the fall of Rome. It was a place where men of ideas, arts, business and science could came together. For many, the fall of Constantinople, the city of Constantine the Great, put their world upside down. In their eyes, it was a terrible loss, a loss without words! But, among West Europeans, there was no loss of interest in Asia. The problem was that very few of them had firsthand experience in Asia. Without much hard information about the Far East, West Europeans came to have some very strange ideas about Asia and Asians. In the European picture of the world, Europe was poor and Asia was rich -very, very rich! But between "poor" Europe and "rich" Asia were those "bad" Turks. Many Europeans wanted to go to Asia. Some wanted to go for business. But others were ready to make the long and difficult trip because they wanted to make the people of the Far East into Christians and then shoulderttoshoulder, in agreement with their new Christian "brothers," they wanted to have a two front war against the Turkish Moslems. But this answer to the "Turkish Question" had two problems. The first was that nobody had the necessary maps to go from Europe to Asia by ship. The second was that no one had the necessary ships that could make the long and difficult trip round Africa. But it was only a question of time until the European empire builders came up with* answers to these difficult problems. Soon they had both the necessary maps and ships. And then, thousands of them went to Asia. ______________________ *come up with: He came up with an interesting idea. I am sure that she will come up with the necessary information before out next meeting.24 FUTURE to make (+) to make (-) I will make we will make I will not make we will not make you will make you will make you will not make you will not make he will make they will make he will not make they will not make she will make she will not make it will make it will not make I will make another agreement with them. I will not make another agreement with them. He will make some more sales today. He will not make any more sales today. She will make a beautiful bedcover. She will not make a beautiful bedcover. They will make work for their mother. They will not make work for their mother. to make (+?) to make (-?) will I make? will we make? won't I make? won't we make? will you make? will you make? won't you make? won't you make? will he make? will they make? won't he make? won't they make? will she make? won't she make? will it make? won't it make? Will you make a light dinner for us? Won't you make a light dinner for us? Will she make her own evening dress? Won't she make her own evening dress? Will he make any problems for us? Won't he make any problems for us? Will it make a trip to the moon and back? Won't it make a trip to the moon and back? to want (+) to want (-) I will want we will want I will not want we will not want you will want you will want you will not want you will not want he will want they will want he will not want they will not want she will want she will not want it will want it will not want I will want her answer tomorrow. I won't want her answer tomorrow. He will want some of her art work. He won't want any of her art work. She will want some cake pans. She won't want any cake pans. They will want another meeting. They won't want another meeting. to want (+?) to want (-?) will I want? will we want? won't I want? won't we want? will you want? will you want? won't you want? won't you want? will he want? will they want? won't he want? won't they want? will she want? won't she want? will it want? won't it want? Will you want a gift for them? Won't you want a gift for them? Will he want us to be the cooks? Won't he want us to be the cooks? Will she want him to go with her? Won't she want him to go with her? Will they want me to make peace? Won't they want me to make peace?25 A GOOD TIME WITH OLD FRIENDS David and Mary Hayes are business people. They are the owners of a computer business with branch stores all across America. David put his first computer together when he was still in high school. His interest in the field of computers goes back many years. When David made the decision to go into the computer business, his wife, Mary, had no choice, but to become his partner. Together they put their time, money and ideas into building their computer business. It is clear to everyone today that they made the right decision. I am only sorry that I did not become their partner back then. David and Mary have two very close friends, Mr. and Mrs. William Pierce. Mr. Pierce is an important man in the field of art. He has many works of art from round the world. Mrs. Pierce is a businesswoman. She is both the manager of a music store and also a dance teacher. Her interest in music goes back many, many years to when her father first took her to the theater. In the eyes of her dance students, she is a wonderful, one of a kind teacher. Last year, all four friends, David and Mary, together with Mr. and Mrs. Pierce, had the experience of a lifetime, when they took a trip to North Africa for two weeks. One very interesting country that they went to was Morocco, a nation on the North West corner of the African continent. Morocco is about the size of California and has about the same number of people. Its capital Rabat with only about half a million people is not as big as Casablanca, which has about five times as many people. Their North African vacation took a new direction one beautiful, clear day in the city of Tangier when Mr. Pierce and his wife, tired and hungry, went into a clean, little restaurant on a side street. The air in the restaurant was heavy with the smell of Arabic spices. Everything was new, different, and a little strange for the Pierces. For the first time in their lives, they had some delicious Arabic food. In the middle of their meal, two beautiful girls came out from in back of a thick, dark red curtain. Their dance and the music that went with* it were strange to the eyes and ears of the two Americans, who could not take their eyes off the two dancers. It was one of those experiences that will not come again. A short time later, Mrs. Pierce was in the city's open air marketplace where everything under the sun was for sale. It was there that she came across** some good examples of Arabic music, both old and new. She took them all because the price was right and it was one of those "now or never" times. * go with: Those shoes go with that dress. Potatoes do not go with rice. ** come across: I came across a good book at the library. I'm sure you'll come across an Italian restaurant if you go down this street.26 It should be clear to the readers of this short story that all four friends came back with many wonderful stories about their North African vacation. It should also be clear why David and Mary want to have a little dinner party with their close friends, the Pierces, this Saturday evening. The four friends always have a great time when they are together. Before the Pierces come, Mary will not have much time for anything, but work. She will put everything in its place on Saturday morning. She wants to have a fire after dinner, so her husband will put some wood and paper in the living room fireplace. High over the fireplace there is a beautiful, long shelf. At one end of it there is a music box from Switzerland and at the other end there is a bottle on its side with an old-time ship inside! It was a gift to Mary from her grandfather, who made it out of wood before his own ship went down, with him on it, in World War II. Mary wants to have a nice, little, dinner party. She has a beautiful, dark blue-green silk dress from India, which she will put on for the party. Sometime before their friends come, she will take some flowers from her own flower garden and put them here and there round the house. Those that are perfect, she will put in the middle of the dining table. Then, she will put all her special light blue china: plates, bowls and so on, together with her new knives, forks and spoons on the table. Without question, Mary's dining room will have a wonderful look. For dinner, Mary wants to have cream of vegetable soup with French bread, beef with new potatoes, green beans, tomato salad and sweet lemon cake. Because there will be red meat, I'm sure David will want to put a bottle of his good California red wine on the table. Red meat and red wine always go together. Red wine should never be cold. On the other hand, white wine should always be cold. That is why many people put their white wine in an ice bucket. White wine always goes with white meat, for example, chicken or fish. Mary is a very good cook. She has a lot of experience in the kitchen. She has many bottles and boxes of food on her kitchen shelves. Apart from garden fresh vegetables, she also has all kinds and sizes of pots and pans for her big dinner parties, so she should have no problem to make a delicious dinner for four.27 Mary has her own special system to make big dinners. When the time comes, she will make the soup. It will take only about 20 minutes work. First, she will put a big pot of water on the stove. Second, she will put the stove on.* When the water is hot, she will put some meat and bones in the pot. Third, she will take the skins off some garden fresh vegetables. Fourth, she will put them in the soup pot with the meat and bones. Fifth, she will put some salt and pepper in also. Sixth, she will put the cover on the pot. Seventh and last, she will put the fire down. The soup will be ready in about an hour. Next, Mary will put her oven on. If she has any problem or question about the meat, she can always take a look in one of her many different cookbooks. Before the oven is hot enough, Mary will take the meat out of the icebox and take off the paper, which is round it. Then she will put it under the water for a minute or two to be sure that it is clean. When it is all dry, Mary will put some salt, pepper and a few spices all over** the outside of the meat. Next, she will put the meat in a special meat pan and the pan inside the oven. From time to time, she will take a look at it. Now and then, * put on ≠ off: I put the radio on. She put the radio off. ** all over = everywhere: There was ice cream all over the baby's face. There were broken plates all over the floor. she will take the juice out of the pan and then put it back over the top of the meat with a big kitchen spoon. In an hour and 15 minutes, after she takes their skins off, Mary will put some new potatoes together with a few onions, in the pan, round the meat. Mary's oven has a special kind of kitchen clock, an oven timer, and so, in 45 minutes, when the potatoes are ready, a little red light will come on and the oven will go off.*** Everything will be ready to put on the table at the same time. When they are through with dinner, Mary, David and their friends, the Pierces, will go into the living room and take their seats by the fireplace where there will be a big, but safe fire. David wants to have Mr. Pierce's ideas about two new pieces of art that he came across on sale not long ago. Before the evening is over, everyone will have a piece of Mary's sweet lemon cake with a cup of Turkish coffee. Strong, black coffee and sweet lemon cake go together and will make a perfect end to Mary's delicious meal. *** come on ≠ go off: The street lights come on in the evening and go off in the morning (automatic).28 Please put your answer on the line: 1. She put her coat on. She took her coat off. 2. She put the gift on the table. __________________________________________ 3. She put the rest of the plates on the shelf. __________________________________________ 4. She put a paper cover on her new book. __________________________________________ 5. He put all his money in the bank. __________________________________________ 6. He put a new sink in the kitchen. __________________________________________ 7. He put $1000 in the business. __________________________________________ 8. He put many examples in his book. __________________________________________ everything nothing everybody nobody everywhere no where every time no time 1. All the business people were at the meeting. Everybody was at the meeting. 2. All the wood and paper are in the fire. ________________________ is in the fire. 3. Helen always goes away when Arthur comes. ____________ he comes, she goes away. 4. There were many, many fires in the city. Fires were _________________________. 5. I don't have anything under the bedcover. ________________ is under the bedcover. 6. There wasn't one person with the cook. ___________________ was with the cook. 7. The answer isn't in my book, or your book, or his book. It is _________________ in these books. 8. Between 10 and 2 o'clock I went to the bank, the store and the hospital. I had _______ for lunch. 1. I make all my own decisions. I made all my own decisions. 2. We make an agreement. _____________________________________ 3. He makes good money. _____________________________________ 4. She makes her old dresses into blouses. _____________________________________ 5. They always make problems out of nothing. _____________________________________ 6. I want to make a special system only for you. _____________________________________ 7. She only wants to be safe. _____________________________________ 8. He wants us to go with him to Mexico. _____________________________________ 9. We want you to come again to our home. _____________________________________ 10. They want as much as we have. _____________________________________ great important rich weak strong easy light normal strange dark special poor 1. George Washington was an __important__ man in American history. 2. His ________________ question is always "How much?" 3. She has on a _______________ brown business suit. 4. After reading Marco Polo, we all had a ______________ interest in Asia. 5. The Third World is another name for ________________ nations. 6. He had many ______________ experiences in his long life. 7. A ____________ teacher always has many examples for her students. 8. He was _______________ in experience, but not in money. 9. The baby was ______________ because his mother didn't have enough milk. 10. It is _____________ for a good cook to make a delicious dinner. 11. You will always have a _________________ place in my heart. 12. There was the ________ red color of blood on his left hand.29 EUROPE and the NEW WOLRD30 LESSON 2 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. king _______________ wave _______________ queen _______________ swim _______________ nurse _______________ run _______________ ____________ mistake It was a terrible mistake to come here without all the information. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ attention Thank you for your attention, ladies and gentlemen. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ medicine The nurse put some medicine in a glass of water. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ pain This medicine can take the pain away. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ pleasure Life has both pain and pleasure. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ equipment American hospital equipment is good, but expensive. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ accident The airplane accident took many lives. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ cut After the accident, the boy had a cut on his leg. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ bandage When did the nurse put a bandage on your cut? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ feeling I don't have any feeling in my right arm. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ help Who wants my help? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ injury He may have a back and/or neck injury. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ condition What is the condition of his neck injury? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ ray A ray of sun light came through the window. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ emergency We have an emergency, so please come now. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ control The queen had control of the king. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ prescription Take this prescription to a pharmacy. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ discovery He made an important discovery in medicine. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ health How is your grandmother's health? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ temperature He has a high temperature. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ degree The normal body temperature is 37 degrees Celsius. _____________________________________________________________31 ____________ sea They went by ship to an island in the Caribbean Sea. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ beach Why don't we go for a walk along the beach? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ sand The sand was too hot to be without shoes. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ harbor A ship came into the harbor. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ burn A doctor should take a look at this burn. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ danger The king and queen were not in any danger. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ appointment I have a 10:45 appointment with my doctor. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ disease He may have a lung disease. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ shot Everyone must go to the doctor for a shot. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ operation Will he have a stomach operation? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ infection With an open injury there is always the danger of infection. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ favorite What is your favorite vacation place? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ serious I want an appointment today because my injury is serious. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ sick Sick people should go to a doctor. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ well sick Is your brother well now, or is he still sick? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ economic If you want the economic news, it's on page 8. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ political The American political system is very different from others. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ military It was a military decision to take the city. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ religious Does she have a lot of religious books on her shelves? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ physical Was he in good physical condition? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ real High waves are a real danger to houses along the beach. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ more He should not have any more medicine. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ less more The pain is less. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ most Most of the nurses want more money. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ least most Last is not always least. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ than A broken arm is more serious than a broken toe. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to give The nurse gives help to the doctor. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to get I get pleasure from reading. _____________________________________________________________32 TO TAKE A. take + NOUN Helen: Who took my new winter sports equipment? Walter: That big boy took your new winter sports equipment. Helen: Did you take any money out of my handbag? Walter: Why should I take any money out of your handbag? I have my own money. Henry: Is it okay if I take some more potato salad? Lisa: Yes. Please take as much as you want. Henry: Do you take cream and sugar in your coffee? Lisa: Yes, please. I take only a little cream, but a lot of sugar. B. take + NOUN is often used to personalize things (to make things our own). 1. Please take a seat. 2. May I take your picture? 3. Who will take control if we have a real emergency? 4. My friend and I took a run along the beach. 5. May I take a look at your work? 6. It is normal for a woman to take her husband's family name after they are married. 7. How did she take the bad news about her uncle's heart operation? 8. After his swim, John took a ten minute rest. 9. I want to take a trip across North America by bus. C. take place has the special meaning of occur, happen, be. Philip: What took place? Andrew: A serious car accident took place. Philip: When did it take place? Andrew: The accident took place a few minutes ago. Peter: Where did the accident take place? Paul: It took place at the corner of Park and Flower Streets. Peter: Why did it take place? Paul: The accident took place because there is ice on the streets. D. take may be used to show that something is necessary or required. 1. This cake takes six bananas, four eggs, a cup of nuts, and very little sugar. 2. I was worried because the birth of her baby took two doctors and three nurses. 3. The king and queen's trip down the Mississippi River took almost two weeks. 4. This kind of problem takes a person with military experience. 5. He always takes a long time to make a decision. 6. That new office equipment will take a lot of money! 7. It takes a special kind of person to be a nurse. 8. It took only two drops of his medicine to put him to sleep. 9. How long will it take us to go to your apartment?33 E. take + PREPOSITION 1. I took the dirty bandage off, before I put a clean one on. 2. She is not strong enough to put the child on the horse, but she can take him off. 3. John puts his money in the bank and his wife takes it out. 4. After my helper took the old sink out of the kitchen, I put a new one in. 5. The bad boy took a page out of our English book with his pocket knife. 6. A policeman took the knife away from the boy. 7. You took the words out of my mouth. 8. This Chinese medicine will take all your muscle pain away. 9. Okay, you took your new French bicycle apart, but can you put it back together? F. take to may give the idea of "go with." Mary: Where did the King of Spain take the Queen of England? George: He took her to an island in the Mediterranean Sea for a short vacation. Mary: Did they take a ship or an airplane? George: They took a ship because the weather was perfect. Nicholas: Why did you take your new silk dress back to the store? Martha: I took it back to the store because it was the wrong size. Nicholas: What should we take to John's party? Martha: Why don't we take a bottle of his favorite red wine? G. take in has the meaning of collect and/or absorb. 1. The farmers will take in all the apples before the middle of October. 2. The woman took in her family's clean clothes before the rain came down. 3. The fishermen took in more fish than the last time they went out in the sea. 4. The students took in every word of their favorite geography teacher. 5. It is difficult for him to take in all the information that is in this book. 6. The eye of television takes in much of what takes place in the world today. 7. I could not take in everything that I wanted to when I was in Washington, D.C., so I have to go back! 8. How much money did the company take in last year? 9. The business should take in more than a million dollars this year. H. take part in has the meaning of participate. David: How many people took part in the discovery of the new medicine? Victoria: Only ten people took part in its discovery. David: Who will take part in the religious meeting? Victoria: I'm not quite sure, but two of our close friends will be among those who take part. Christine: How many students took part in the political work? Eugene: More than 15 students took park in the political work. Christine: How many runners will take part in the 5 mile run along the sea next weekend? Eugene: I'm not worried about the number of runners. I'm worried about the weather.34more We use more with both people and things (NOUNS). Ashley: I have the feeling that there are more people here today than yesterday. John: You are right. There must be at least 20 more people here today than yesterday. Ashley: Are any more nurses or any more equipment necessary for the emergency room? John: Yes, please. Both more nurses and equipment are necessary. Katherine: Do you want me to put any more ice on your muscle injury? Richard: No, thank you. You don't have to put any more ice on my injury. Katherine: For the last time: Who wants any more ice cream? Richard: May I have some more before you put it away? Chocolate is my favorite. Ann: Do you want me to put any more medicine on your cut? Arthur: Yes, please put a little more medicine on my cut. Ann: Where is there more pain, on your left or right side? Arthur: There is much more pain on my right side than on my left. William: Does he have any more health problems? Anthony: Yes, I'm afraid that he has many more health problems, enough for two people. William: Do we have any more bandages? Anthony: We have only a few more boxes of bandages. Mr. Tyler: Who had more mistakes on her physical geography test, Mary or Diana? Mr. Kennedy: Without question, Mary had a lot more mistakes on her test paper. Mr. Tyler: Who has more control, Dr. Harrison or Dr. Taft? Mr. Kennedy: Without question, Dr. Taft has a lot more control than before. Mrs. Roosevelt: Are you sure that Mr. Grant took his heart medicine today? Mrs. Nixon: Yes, I am sure that he took more than enough of his heart medicine. Mrs. Roosevelt: Does Mrs. Cleveland have enough help with her housework? Mrs. Nixon: She has more than enough help, because both of her daughters are at home. Maybe 1. He may be at the doctor's office. Maybe, he is at the doctor's office. 2. There may be a real infection. Maybe, there is a real infection. 3. Everyone may be at the harbor already. Maybe, everyone is at the harbor already. 4. She may have some sand in her eye. Maybe, she has some sand in her eye. 5. The dog may have some kind of disease. Maybe, the dog has some kind of disease. 6. There may be no real news until tomorrow. Maybe, there'll be no real news until tomorrow. 7. She may be well enough to go on Monday. Maybe, she'll be well enough to go on Monday. 8. He may be a long distance runner. Maybe, he'll be a long distance runner. 9. The nurse may be here this evening. Maybe, the nurse will be here this evening. 10. We may go for a swim after lunch. Maybe, we'll go for a swim after lunch. 11. He may come by bus. Maybe, he'll come by bus. 12. She may not want to make another mistake. Maybe, she'll not want to make another mistake. 13. We may go for a run on Saturday. Maybe, we'll go for a run on Saturday. 14. They may come to our beach house. Maybe, they'll come to our beach house. 15. I may take Mary to her favorite restaurant. Maybe, I'll take Mary to her favorite restaurant. 16. She may put her new swimsuit on. Maybe, she'll put her new swimsuit on. 17. They may want some real Chinese tea. Maybe, they'll want some real Chinese tea. 18. They may make an important discovery. Maybe, they'll make an important discovery.35 TO MAKE A. make + NOUN shows creation/production (something new) 1. Wind makes waves. 2. That factory makes hospital equipment. 3. We made a big fire on the beach. 4. She will make a honey spice cake. 5. How much profit did the company make last year? 6. I want to make an appointment for Friday. 7. It was a difficult choice to make. 8. Columbus' discovery of America made history. 9. The accident made news. 10. Make three cuts on both the left and right sides and one through the middle. 11. Who made the first computer and when? 12. She has to make another business trip to New York next week. 13. Can you make us some tea? 14. You can make a bandage out of a clean shirt or blouse. 15. You can make newspaper into a hat. B. make + ADJECTIVE shows a new or changed condition. 1. Rain makes everything wet. 2. The smell of the car makes me sick. 3. The waves made us afraid. 4. The film made her sad. 5. The disease made him weak. 6. The war made some people rich. 7. The new equipment will make our work easy. 8. The fire will make the water hot. 9. This medicine will make you well. 10. Make the room clean. 11. Make the room dark. 12. Make the map big. 13. Don't make me angry! 14. Don't make the lights too bright. 15. Don't make your clothes so dirty. C. make + VERB shows force. 1. The wife makes her husband go to work. 2. The mother makes her children have a hot breakfast every morning. 3. She made me put on a clean shirt. 4. He made me come to school. 5. The dog made us have an accident. 6. Helen makes us want to be real swimmers. 7. Make him take his medicine. 8. Make him take his wet boots off, before he comes in the house. 9. Make the children be good. 10. I will make them take part in the work. 11. I will make him take you to the train station. 12. I will make her take another picture of us. 13. Don't make the birds go away. 14. Don't make me make another mistake. 15. Don't make me make you all wet.36 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES This is a sweet apple. This apple is sweeter than that apple. This is the sweetest apple in the box. 1 2 3, 4, 5... sweet sweeter than the sweetest clean cleaner than the cleanest strong stronger than the strongest rich richer than the richest safe safer than the safest high higher than the highest new newer than the newest sick sicker than the sickest fast faster than the fastest great greater than the greatest dark darker than the darkest few fewer than the fewest slow slower than the slowest easy easier than the easiest dirty dirtier than the dirtiest heavy heavier than the heaviest lucky luckier than the luckiest far farther than the farthest good better than the best bad worse than the worst serious* more serious than the most serious less serious than the least serious important more important than the most important less important than the least important difficult more difficult than the most difficult less difficult than the least difficult beautiful more beautiful than the most beautiful less beautiful than the least beautiful interesting more interesting than the most interesting less interesting than the least interesting very clean far/much cleaner than very big far/much bigger than very good far/much better than very bad far/much worse than very delicious far/much more delicious than far/much less delicious than very necessary far/much more necessary than far/much less necessary than * If the adjective is long (three or more syllables), we put more/most and less/least with it.37 COMPARATIVE James: Why are there fewer swimmers at the beach today than yesterday? Theodore: There are fewer swimmers today, because the weather is colder than yesterday. James: Who is older, you or your brother? Theodore: I am older than he.* Elizabeth: Is your brother a better runner than you? Matthew: Yes, he's a better runner than I, but I'm a better dancer than he.* Elizabeth: Is the man's broken leg better today? Matthew: No, today his broken leg is not better, but worse than yesterday. Thomas: Which nation is bigger, Canada or Mexico? Alexandra: Canada is much bigger than Mexico. Thomas: Which nation has more beautiful beaches Canada or Mexico? Alexandra: Mexico has many more beautiful beaches than Canada. Dr. Taylor: Which is more important, air or water? Ruth: Air is much more important than water. Dr. Taylor: How serious is the burn on the right side of that man's body? Ruth: I'm afraid there is an infection now, so it is much more serious than yesterday. Mrs. Truman: Is your life easier now than before? Mrs. Hoover: Yes, my life is much easier now than before. Mrs. Truman: Is your new apartment more expensive than your old one? Mrs. Hoover: No, it is much less expensive, and it is also much closer to my work. SUPERLATIVE Dr. Hayes: What is the shortest day of the year in North America? Jessica: December 21st is the shortest day of the year in North America. Dr. Hayes: What is the longest day of the year in North America? Jessica: June 21st is the longest day of the year in North America. Nathaniel: Who is the youngest person in your family? Andrew: My baby sister is the youngest. She is only six months old. Nathaniel: Who is the oldest person in your family? Andrew: My grandmother is the oldest person. She is 89 years old. Susan: Among all the boys, who had the fewest mistakes on the test? Charles: Philip had the fewest mistakes on his mathematics test. Susan: Where should we take the people with the most serious injuries? Charles: You should take the people with the most serious injuries to the emergency room. Edward: Who was in the most danger? Richard: Walter was in the most danger because he had the highest temperature. Edward: What day does Dr. Clinton have most of his appointments on? Richard: He has most of his appointments on Wednesday. Mrs. Grant: Who is the best swimmer among all your friends? Mrs. Coolidge: Without question, Nathaniel is the best swimmer among all my close friends. Mrs. Grant: Who was the worst dancer at the dance? Mrs. Coolidge: You can not be serious! That is the least important question in my life. * In formal English use I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they after "than."38 PRESENT to give (+) to give (-) I give we give I do not give we do not give you give you give you do not give you do not give he gives they give he does not give they do not give she gives she does not give it gives it does not give I give less medicine to him than to her. I don't give less medicine to him than to her. He gives more help to us than to them. He doesn't give more help to us than to them. It gives greater pleasure to me than to you. It doesn't give greater pleasure to me than to you. We give some attention to their problems. We don't give any attention to their problems. to give (+?) to give (-?) do I give? do we give? don't I give? don't we give? do you give? do you give? don't you give? don't you give? does he give? do they give? doesn't he give? don't they give? does she give? doesn't she give? does it give? doesn't it give? Does he give all his love to her? Doesn't he give all his love to her? Does she give much feeling to the music? Doesn't she give much feeling to the music? Do you give the good news to everyone? Don't you give the good news to everyone? Do they give a lot of money for information? Don't they give a lot of money for information? to get(+) to get(-) I get we get I do not get we do not get you get you get you do not get you do not get he gets they get he does not get they do not get she gets she does not get it gets it does not get He gets some medicine from me. He doesn't get any medicine from me. I get the most pleasure from his books. I don't get the most pleasure from his books. We get the least help from him. We don't get the least help from him. They get a lot of news from us. They don't get a lot of news from us. to get(+?) to get(-?) do I get? do we get? don't I get? don't we get? do you get? do you get? don't you get? don't you get? does he get? do they get? doesn't he get? don't they get? does she get? doesn't she get? does it get? doesn't it get? Do you get more economic help from them? Don't you get more economic help from them? Do we get much light from the sun? Don't we get much light from the sun? Does he get fewer injuries from his work? Doesn't he get fewer injuries from his work? Do they get religious ideas from books? Don't they get religious ideas from books?39 NURSES From the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, all across both Canada and the United States, the telephone number for emergency help is 911. It is the number for help in all kinds of emergencies: fire, police or accidents. In an emergency, the most important thing is time. My sister is a nurse at a big-city hospital. She gets pleasure from the help she can give others. She is one of the hospital's best nurses, so she almost always gets the most serious problems. Much of her experience came from her work at a military hospital, in the last war, where emergencies were a normal part of her every-day work. Now, when there are two or three emergencies at the same time, she makes the decision about who is in the most danger and who should get the doctor's attention first. My sister is in love with her work, so she has no problem to go to work every morning. Her interest in medicine goes back many years. Because her hospital has all the necessary and up-to-date equipment, it can give help to people with many different kinds of health problems: cuts, burns, broken bones and so on. She has very strong feelings about her work and the kind of emergency attention people should get. In a busy hospital emergency room, doctors and nurses have only a few minutes in which to make very important decisions. At those times it is clear to everyone that nothing takes the place of real firsthand experience. This is why the doctor takes control as soon as he comes into the room. At that time, his word becomes law! Some people get very serious injuries from accidents, for example: car accidents, sports accidents, home accidents, work accidents and so on. Some people come to the hospital for help, maybe after a fall, with broken arms and legs. Others come for help with burns or cuts which they get from equipment at their companies. Sometimes, there is a lot of blood and the cuts are both deep and dirty. Because broken bones, burns and cuts are all serious physical injuries, doctors often give attention to them in the emergency room of the hospital.40 If a person comes to the emergency room after a serious accident, for example, a car accident, the doctor almost always wants the nurse to take an x-ray or two. If nothing is broken and if the injury is open, the doctor may put a few drops of medicine on it. Then he puts a clean bandage on the injury. If there is a danger of infection, the doctor may give a shot to the person. He may also give the person a prescription to get some medicine from a pharmacy. Sometimes, the people who come to a hospital emergency room are in very bad condition. They may have some kind of disease. A disease often goes from person to person. Sometimes, doctors can overcome a disease with only one or two shots. People may have other serious problems, for example, stomach problems with pains that come in waves. Or, they may have a loss of feeling in different parts of their bodies. Or, if they have a heart problem, they may have terrible chest pains, or the feeling that they can not get enough air, or that their head goes round and round. It is normal for people in this condition to be afraid and sometimes angry. Their question is almost always: Why me? If a person has an infection, he may have a very high temperature. Our normal body temperature, when we are well, is 96.7 degrees F (Fahrenheit) or 36.6 degrees C (Centigrade). Because a person who comes into an emergency room with a high temperature may be very sick, the nurse has to get all the necessary information: the person's health history. If that information is not already in the hospital computer, the nurse has to put it all down* on paper, as fast as she can, for the doctor. She has to have everything ready for the doctor when he comes in. Burns are a very difficult kind of problem. There are first degree, second degree and third degree burns. A third degree burn is the worst. If a person with a third degree burn has a lot of pain, the doctor almost always gives him some strong medicine to overcome the pain. It is not normal to put a bandage on burns. It is better if a burn can get air. But this is why there is always a real danger of infection with burns. * put down: I put my name down on the paper. Please put down your telephone number for me.41 Sometimes, there is no choice and the only answer to a person's physical problem is an operation. If an emergency operation is necessary, the doctors and nurses go to work without the loss of another minute. Again, time is the most important thing in an emergency. There are many different kinds of operations. There are eye operations, heart operations, brain operations, lung operations and so on. Some operations are more serious than others, but everyone who goes under a doctor's knife is in some degree of danger. Sometimes, in place of an operation, people can get their health back with a lot of bed rest, fresh air and good food. Sometimes, that is all that is necessary because time is often the best doctor! If there is no emergency, it is best for people to make an appointment with their own doctor. Sometimes, he only has to take a look at the person's eyes, ears, nose and throat, before it is clear to him what the problem is. This short look is often enough to give him all the necessary information about the person's physical condition. But at other times, the doctor may not be quite sure what the problem is, so, to be on the safe side, he may want his nurse to take a few x-rays. If x-rays are necessary, the nurse takes the person into a special x-ray room and puts him or her on an x-ray table. She then takes the x-rays and gives them to the doctor. If the doctor still has questions, he may want a blood test, so the nurse takes a little blood out of the person's arm. Blood is important for different kinds of tests. If a person is very, very sick or if the doctor has the feeling that the person's life is in danger, the doctor may want to put him or her in a hospital where there is more control and until there is a clearer picture about what the real problem is.42 PAST to give (+) to give (-) I gave we gave I did not give we did not give you gave you gave you did not give you did not give he gave they gave he did not give they did not give she gave she did not give it gave it did not give We gave them some new military equipment. We didn't give them any new military equipment. He gave us news of the important discovery. He didn't give us news of the important discovery. She gave him some help with his English. She didn't give him any help with his English. It gave me a strange physical feeling. It didn't give me a strange physical feeling. to give (+?) to give (-?) did I give? did we give? didn't I give? didn't we give? did you give? did you give? didn't you give? didn't you give? did he give? did they give? didn't he give? didn't they give? did she give? didn't she give? did it give? didn't it give? Did it give you more good ideas? Didn't it give you more good ideas? Did he give her all his love? Didn't he give her all his love? Did she give him a few more questions? Didn't she give him a few more questions? Did you give them any more problems? Didn't you give them any more problems? to get (+) to get (-) I got we got I did not get we did not get you got you got you did not get you did not get he got they got he did not get they did not get she got she did not get it got it did not get I got a bad sunburn at the beach. I didn't get a bad sunburn at the beach. You got a broken arm from your fall. You didn't get a broken arm from your fall. He got a shot from the nurse. He didn't get a shot from the nurse. She got too much attention from the boys. She didn't get too much attention from the boys. to get (+?) to get (-?) did I get? did we get? didn't I get? didn't we get? did you get? did you get? didn't you get? didn't you get? did he get? did they get? didn't he get? didn't they get? did she get? didn't she get? did it get? didn't it get? Did you get any religious feeling? Didn't you get any religious feeling? Did he get any political news about the US? Didn't he get any political news about the US? Did she get any less economic help? Didn't she get any less economic help? Did they get any fewer health problems? Didn't they get any fewer health problems?43 THE EUROPEAN DISCOVERY OF THE NEW WORLD In the eyes of many people, Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) was a strange man with strange ideas. He had two important ideas. The first was that the world was as round as a ball. His second idea was that because the world was round, a ship could go to the Far East if it went West, across the Atlantic Ocean. Because no one in his birthplace, the harbor city of Genoa, Italy, gave any attention to his strange ideas, Columbus went to Portugal where people were more open to new ideas. But the Portuguese did not have much interest in Columbus' ideas because their ships could already go to Asia round the south end of Africa. This is why Columbus went to Spain, where he put his ideas to make Spain into a great empire before the king and queen. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella had economic, political, military and religious interests in the ideas of Columbus, so they gave him some money, equipment and three little ships: the Pinta, the Niña and the Santa Maria. Though the ships were old, they were still in good condition. On August 12, 1492, Columbus went west from the Spanish harbor city of Palos, out into the great Atlantic Ocean. This was not a pleasure trip, but a trip of discovery! After 71 very difficult days, Columbus, together with 87 seamen, came across land. It was only a little island, but it was land! He gave it the name San Salvador. The discovery of San Salvador took place on October 12, 1492. It was one of the most important discoveries in all history. It was the best of times for some and the worst of times for others. The world was never the same again!44 Before Columbus made his discovery of America, no one in Europe had any idea that there was a continent between Spain and Asia. The best maps had nothing on them. This is why Columbus made a big mistake. He gave the name "Indian" to the first people he came across, because he took them to be* the people of India. The music, dances, arts, languages and so on of these "Indians" were very strange to European eyes and ears. Before the end of his life, Columbus made three more trips across the Atlantic Ocean. There were new dangers every time. But, at the end of every trip he took some "Indians" back to Spain, together with many of the different fruits and things that he came across. One of the Indian vegetables soon became very important in Europe -the potato. To Columbus, until the very end of his life, his great discovery was not of a "New World" but * take X to be: People often take me to be younger than I am. We took her to be English. of a short cut to Asia, the land of silk and spices and of riches out of this world. Because it is normal for discoverers to give their own names to their discoveries, the New World should have the name "Columbia" or "the Land of Columbus." But, in place of Columbus, the continent got its name from another Italian, Amerigo Vespucci, a discoverer, seaman and map maker who was the first to have the feeling that the land which Columbus came across was not Asia, but a new continent. In 1507, a Dutch physical geographer and map maker was the first to come up with** the idea that the name of the New Would should be America because "Amerigo was its real discoverer." So that's the story, the real story of how America got its name. ** come up with: He has to come up with a new plan because the old one is no good. She came up with a good idea for a book.45 In the one hundred years after Columbus made his first trip West, the Spanish overcame many problems and made many important discoveries about the geography and peoples of Central and South America. Between 1519 and 1522 Spanish ships went round the world. At the same time, Hernan Cortes, with fewer than 400 men, got control of the Aztec Empire and made Mexico City the capital of "New Spain," which was the name he gave to all the land that is today Mexico, Guatemala, San Salvador and Honduras. A few years later, in 1535, Francisco Pizzaro, another Spaniard, got control of the great Inca Empire in what is today Peru. In less than 50 years and without a serious war, Spain became the controller of almost all the land between California and Argentina. Soon, the first wave of Europeans came to the New World. On the map of the New World Spanish names were everywhere. The Spanish language became a world language. Among the many wonderful things the New World gave the Old World, that is, Europe, were a number of new foods. Chocolate, for example, was one of them. It came from Mexico. The word "chocolate" has an interesting history. It is two words from the Mayan Indian language: "sour water." Without question, until 1588, Spain was the strongest nation in the world. It had control of both Portugal and the Netherlands in Europe, much of North America, all of Central and South America, the Philippine Islands in Asia and some parts of Africa. The Spanish Empire was the first real world empire on which the sun never went down.46 FUTURE to give (+) to give (-) I will give we will give I will not give we will not give you will give you will give you will not give you will not give he will give they will give he will not give they will not give she will give she will not give it will give it will not give I'll give them their medicine. I won't give them their medicine. It'll give her a lot of pleasure. It won't give her a lot of pleasure. She'll give you an appointment for next week. She won't give you an appointment for next week. They'll give us their decision when they are ready. They won't give us their decision until they are ready. to give (+?) to give (-?) will I give? will we give? won't I give? won't we give? will you give? will you give? won't you give? won't you give? will he give? will they give? won't he give? won't they give? will she give? won't she give? will it give? won't it give? Will you give him any more help? Won't you give him any more help? Will he give her any more attention? Won't he give her any more attention? Will she give us any more information? Won't she give us any more information? Will they give me any more work? Won't they give me any more work? to get (+) to get (-) I will get we will get I will not get we will not get you will get you will get you will not get you will not get he will get they will get he will not get they will not get she will get she will not get it will get it will not get I'll get a clean bandage from the nurse. I won't get a clean bandage from the nurse. She'll get a birthday gift from us. She won't get a birthday gift from us. He'll get a disease from those people. He won't get a disease from those people. We'll get the best answer from the book. We won't get the best answer from the book. to get (+?) to get (-?) will I get? we will get? won't I get? won't we get? will you get? will you get? won't you get? won't you get? will he get? will they get? won't he get? won't they get? will she get? won't she get? will it get? won't it get? Will I get it from him tomorrow? Won't I get it from him tomorrow? Will we get an injury from that work? Won't we get an injury from that work? Will he get a burn from the sun? Won't he get a burn from the sun? Will they get the news from the radio? Won't they get the news from the radio?47 A GOOD TIME ON A PLEASURE SHIP Last winter, when the temperature was very low and the snow came up to my knees and the north wind made everyone cold to the bone, our city newspaper had a report about a Caribbean vacation. Next to it was a picture of a big, white pleasure ship in the clear bluegrree water of the Caribbean Sea. Very close to the ship was an island with little waves all along its beautiful beach. The only clothes that the people on the beach had on were swim suits. Together the picture and story made me want to go so much! I took a long look at that picture and then I took a look round me at the worst snow storm in the last 20 years. A lot of things went through my head and then I made a decision: I will give my parents a wonderful gift, the experience of a lifetime, a vacation trip on a Caribbean pleasure ship, in the dead of winter. It will make them both very happy. And, it's better to give than to get! Why not? I made good money from the sale of a nice piece of farmland, so money isn't a problem. And, I'm sure that the trip, the sun, the sea and the fresh air will be very good for my father's health. He is not as well as before and I'm a little worried about him. The newspaper story gave the address and all the necessary information about the company which has those big, white, pleasure ships that go from island to island, one more beautiful than the other. Some ships go for a week and others go for two weeks. Every ship has enough room for 200 to 300 people. The rooms on board the ships are not too big, but all the furniture is new, or at least, in good condition and everything is very clean.48 Everyone gets round-the-clock attention on these ships. They get three, big, delicious meals every day, together with "high tea," which is almost another meal, at 4:00. The cooks on these pleasure ships are very, very good. Their meals are wonderful, out of this world! What to do the rest of the time, that is, between meals, is not a real problem. Some people take a swim, and some take a sunbath. Others who are lucky enough to have their favorite writer's latest book may want nothing more than the peace of reading a few pages. Still others may want only to go to sleep on the long, ship chairs. Choices, choices, choices, but sometimes life can be sweet! There are only two problems that my parents may have. Because we are from the heartland of America, far from any great body of water, I'm not sure how they will take to* the sea. They may be seasick. The second problem is sunburn. But these are not very * take to: Most women take to him at their first meeting. How did she take to Chinese food? serious problems. They are both quite easy to overcome. There is a special seasick medicine that my parents can get with a prescription from their doctor. They may want to take it before they go on board the ship at the start of their trip. If they take it as they should, I'm sure that they will be okay. The medicine should be a big help until they get their "sea-legs." The second problem is the sun. The rays of the sun are quite strong in that part of the world, so it is easy for people to get a very bad sunburn. A bad sunburn can take all the pleasure out of a vacation. When people take their first few sunbaths, they should be in the sun's strong rays for 20 minutes at most. If, by mistake, someone gets too much sun there are a doctor and a nurse on board the ship. They are there to give vacationers help when necessary. But it is clear to most people that it is best not to get a sunburn in the first place.49 Vacationers on a pleasure ship can have a lot of fun. For those people who do not want to go to bed early, there is a dance almost every night on board the ship. There are also films with important information about the ship's next stop, for example, about where there is a good place for a walk or what the different places of interest are: the central market where one can get fresh fruits, a good restaurant where one can get different kinds of sea food and so on. When the ship makes its stop at an island, some people may want to go for a walk along the beach. Some may want to go for a swim in the waves. Almost everybody wants to take a few pictures for their friends back home. And, vacationers always want to get some little things, gifts, to take back with them. There is a special place where I want my parents to go for sure. It is special because it is an undersea "park." In place of animals, this park has thousands and thousands of fish -all kinds and all colors. It is one of the few places in the world with sea horses, a strange and wonderful animal that always makes people happy. Because the undersea park is very big and rich with different kinds of sea life, I want my parents to take a look at everything. They are both good swimmers and they are both in good, if not top, physical condition. There will be someone with them all the time, so they will be quite safe. Everybody will have special undersea equipment. In one corner of this park, there is something of special interest to most people. It is an old Spanish warship, which went down long ago. It has holes all over. Many different kinds of fish make their homes there now. I am sure that this will be of great interest to my mother and father because of their love of history and the great outdoors. I am not a rich person, but life is short and money is not the most important thing in the world. My family is much more important to me. I want my parents to have this experience of life on board a ship. I am sure that the most difficult part of their trip will be for them to put into words the feelings they will get from a vacation on a great, white Caribbean pleasure ship.50 Please put the verbs in the sentences. √ come go give put make get 1. Can you ___come___ to our party on Saturday night? 2. Can you __________ with us to the beach? 3. Could he __________ the necessary information at the library? 4. He can not __________ on his shoes because he is only three years old. 5. She could not _____________ us any news about the queen's vacation trip. 6. They can not _____________ any decision until next Friday. Please give the opposite of these sentences. 1. The radio gives news to us. We get news from the radio. 2. The nurse gives attention to sick children.__________________________________________ 3. The king gave a letter to Columbus. ______________________________________________ 4. The queen gave money to Columbus._____________________________________________ 5. The waves will give pleasure to the swimmers.______________________________________ 6. The businessman will give control of his company to his son.___________________________ 7. The sunlight may give a burn to you.______________________________________________ 8. It must give a religious feeling to him. _____________________________________________ 9. The sea can give food to everyone. ______________________________________________ 10. The nurse should give more information to the doctor. ________________________________ Please put these sentences in the past tense. 1. I will get some information from the books. I got some information from the books. 2. She will get some gifts from her father. ____________________________________________ 3. He will get help from the teacher. ________________________________________________ 4. It will get salt from the sea. _____________________________________________________ 5. We will get some milk from the store. _____________________________________________ 6. They will get a cold wind from the north. ___________________________________________ 7. You will get many ideas from reading._____________________________________________ 8. The teacher will give a vacation to them.___________________________________________ 9. The doctor will give some help to them. ___________________________________________ 10. The nurse will give the medicine to them. __________________________________________ 11. The queen will give her attention to them. _________________________________________ 12. The king will give them his answer. _______________________________________________ 13. The discoverer will give them the news. ___________________________________________ 14. Their mother will give them her love.______________________________________________ Please give the comparative and superlative forms: clean cleaner than the cleanest safe ________________ _______________ dirty ________________ _______________ sick ________________ _______________ big ________________ _______________ good ________________ _______________ bad ________________ _______________ rich ________________ _______________ important ________________ _______________ difficult ________________ _______________ serious ________________ _______________51 NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES52 LESSON 3 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. stone _______________ percent _______________ ticket _______________ area _______________ check _______________ center _______________ machine _______________ line _______________ ____________ copy This is a copy of my airplane ticket. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ monument It is a monument to peace. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ service They gave us first class service at that new Italian restaurant. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ order The company got a big order a few days ago. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ purchase When and where did you make your purchase? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ care of Can you take care of the children for two hours tomorrow? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ industry The output of industry went up last year. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ plan Do you have a better plan? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ card He put his home telephone on the back of his business card. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ hope Where there's life, there's hope. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ success His success comes from hard work. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ change There may be a change in the timetable. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ group Our group made a few changes in your business plan. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ use Fire has more than one use. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ credit Why won't the bank give us any more credit? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ town He is from a town that has fewer than 100 families. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ colony Jamestown, Virginia was an English colony. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ way What is the shortest way from your house to school? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ payment He must make a payment on the first of every month. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ organization What is the name of your organization? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ development The country's economic development was too slow for many. _____________________________________________________________53 ____________ support How much support does the queen have among the workers? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ army When did you go into the army? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ navy Maybe the navy will give all its support to the army. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ force How many airplanes does the air force have? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ call I want to make a telephone call to Tokyo. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ flight What time is your next flight to Boston? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ reservation I want to make a reservation for flight #865. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ government She is a strong supporter of the government. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ president The president is the head of the American government. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ under attack The city was under attack before sunup. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ contact with Why does she still have contact with him? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ trade There is a lot of trade between the US and Canada. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ wait She was angry because she had a half hour wait. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ free You are free and may go where and when you want. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ responsible Who in the government is responsible for science and industry? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ direct There are direct flights from London to New York four times a day. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ medical He is a medical student, not a doctor. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ in general In general, flight reservations are easy to make. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ common It is a common medical problem. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ full The truck was full of vegetables direct from the field. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ empty Why is your glass empty? Have another bottle of beer. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ warm A baby's bath water should be warm, not hot. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ cool The weather was cool, so I put my sweater on. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ straight Go straight along this street to the next corner, then left. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ international You have an international call on line 5, Mr. President. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ even She makes all her own clothes, _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to like People like the new stone monument. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to know I want to know all about you. _____________________________________________________________54TO GET A. get (≠ give) + NOUN shows goes from one person to another. Elizabeth: When did you get that wonderful necklace? Victoria: I got it on my last birthday. Isn't it beautiful? Elizabeth: Who did you get those fresh flowers from? Victoria: My boyfriend, Andrew, gave them to me. Aren't they beautiful? I'm so lucky! John: Who gave you that copy of our trade agreement? Mary: I got it from Natalie. She's responsible! John: Did you get a check from her also? Mary: Maybe yes, maybe no! It is not your business, if I got a check from her or not! Susan: Did you get the airplane tickets for our group? Henry: Yes, I got all our tickets and made reservations for the 10 o'clock flight. Susan: Did we get good seats? Henry : Yes, they gave us seats in the middle of the airplane. Your place is by the window. B. get + NOUN may also have the meaning of "go, take and come back with." Helen: Will you get me some vegetable oil when you go to the market? Philip: Sure, I'll be happy to get you everything you want, if you give me the money. Helen: Will you get some honey also? Philip: It'll be a pleasure to get you some honey, Honey! But my pockets are empty! Paul: There is a bottle of beer in the icebox. Will you get it for me? Ruth: Do you want me to get the cheese also? Paul: Yes, that's a good idea! And get some bread also. Okay? Ruth: Okay, okay! I'll get the beer, bread and cheese for you, when I'm ready. David: This man got a broken leg from his fall off the roof. Jessica: I'll get a doctor. David: Yes! And get some bandages also. Jessica: Okay, I'll get a box of clean bandages for his injuries. C. get + ADJECTIVE shows change. William: Why did Philip get sick? Martha: He got sick because he had some fish that was not fresh. He'll get well soon. William: How and when did our new machine get broken? Martha: It got broken yesterday, when it got too hot because there wasn't enough oil in it. Nicholas: Please get ready and be sure to take a warm coat, because it's already cool outside. Katherine: I'll get ready, but who'll get the kitchen clean? Nicholas: I'll get it clean, but you get busy now! We don't want to be late again! Katherine: What a change! This is the first time in history you don't get angry about kitchen work. Mr. Eisenhower: Does the study of English get easier or more difficult with time? Mrs. Monroe: Without question, English gets easier, much easier with time. Mr. Eisenhower: Do you get worried, if your husband is late for dinner? Mrs. Monroe: Yes, if he doesn't give me a call, so I know where he is, I get very worried.55 D. get + PREPOSITION only the preposition is important. get does not have a meaning of its own in such sentences, so the preposition determines the meaning. 1. The man gets up at 6:30. 2. The man gets out of his house at 7:15. 3. The man gets in his car at 7:18. 4. The man gets to his work at 7:45. 5. The man gets through his work at 5:00. 6. The man gets back to his house at 5:50. 7. The boy got up in the high tree. 8. The boy got down out of the high tree. 9. The boy got up on the roof. 10. The boy got down off the roof. 11. The boy got away from the angry dogs. 12. The boy got together with his best friends. 13. The woman will get down on her knees. 14. The woman will get up off her knees. 15. The woman will get down in the water. 16. The woman will get up out of the water. 17. The woman will get back from the mountains tomorrow. 18. The woman will get out from under the control of the government. 19. Get your hands up! 20. Get your head down! 22. Get your feet together! 21. Get your back against the wall! 23. Get your eyes on your own paper! 24. Get your fingers out of the cake! Very often get is used in place of another verb of action to show difficulty. EASY DIFFICULT 1. He took a piece of wood out of my toe. He got a piece of wood out of my toe. 2. She put her shoes on. She got her shoes on. 3. The attackers went across the river. The attackers got across the river. 4. The driver came back after midnight. The driver got back after midnight. 5. Someone went in our apartment. Someone got in our apartment. 6. I put them together. I got them together. 7. She put her car in good condition. She got her car in good condition. 8. We came to school an hour ago. We got to school an hour ago. 9. They took the stone away from him. They got the stone away from him. 10. He took his mother to the theater. He got his mother to the theater. 11. They put the stone monument up. They got the stone monument up. 12. She came to the United States. She got to the United States. He got on the last flight. We got to the president at last. He got out of the navy a year ago. The worker got under the car. Everyone got out of the attackers' way. How did the dog get over the stone fence? My big fish got away. I could not get the top off the box without help. The more we get together, the happier we'll be. For your friends are my friends and my friends are your friends.56 to give/to get In sentences with give/get the normal order of direct object and indirect object is often changed. 1. I give a lot of care to the dog. I give the dog a lot of care. 2. She gives music lessons to children. She gives children music lessons. 3. I gave my flight reservation to Lisa. I gave Lisa my flight reservation. 4. He gave the use of his car to John. He gave John the use of his car. 5. They will give their support to us. They will give us their support. 6. Please give a call to me. Please give me a call. 7. Give good service to them. Give them good service. 8. I get milk for the cat. I get the cat milk. 9. She gets information for us. She gets us information. 10. I got that box of candy for you. I got you that box of candy. 11. He got the theater ticket for her. He got her the theater ticket. 12. Will you get a copy of his medical history for me? Will you get me a copy of his medical history? 13. Will you get some more ice cream for the children? Will you get the children some more ice cream? 14. Get their latest military plans for the president. Get the president their latest military plans. much much may be used to make adjectives stronger. 1. Her husband is much older than she. 2. It was much warmer in Florida than in Canada. 3. The streets are much safer now than two years ago. 4. The hotel service is much better than before. 5. His health is much worse than last week. 6. Her love of children is much stronger than his. 7. It is much farther to Mary's town than to John's. 8. Our wait was much longer than necessary. Why? 1. Diana is beautiful. Victoria is more beautiful than Diana. Elizabeth is much more beautiful than Victoria. 2. John's gift was expensive. William's gift was more expensive than John's. Eugene's gift was much more expensive than William's. 3. Food is necessary. Water is more necessary than food. Air is much more necessary than water. The price is high. The price is too high. The price is much too high . His questions are direct. His questions are too direct. His questions are much too direct. There was much support for his ideas. There was too much support for his ideas. There was much too much support for his ideas.57 It is very important for every student to see that there are two levels of thinking: The concrete and the metaphoric. With our words we make pictures in either the world of things or the world of ideas. The World of Things: Concrete The World of Ideas: Metaphoric She has a big heart. She has a big heart. He has a big mouth. He has a big mouth. Her hands are dry. Her words are dry. His feet are cold. His heart is cold. The sky is clear. It is clear what he wants. The food made me sick. The news made me sick. Maybe the machine is broken. Maybe his heart is broken. The food had no taste. The film had no taste. The force of the waves was too much for us. The force of his words was too much for us. She put on a new dress. She put on a happy face. What is the name of that mountain? Mary got a mountain of gifts for her birthday. There were many lines on the paper. There were many lines on the old man's face. I took off my dirty clothes. Someone put dirty words on the fence. He is in the field of potatoes. He is in the field of medicine. What is your field? Those people are in line for theater tickets. He is in line to be the next king. He put his hat on his head. She is the head of the organization. He got through the front door. He got through a difficult time of his life. The harbor is in that direction. His life took a new direction. The weather is cool in the fall. They were very cool about my ideas. I was very busy yesterday. Their telephone was busy all evening. He put a long word on the blackboard. He gave me his word. Grandfather has many stories. He gave us his life story. This wall gives support to the roof. She gave me some economic support. There is a fire in the fireplace. There is a fire in his eyes. We put our money in the bank. We put our hearts in our work. I have a pain in my shoulder. She is a pain in the neck. The way is clear and straight. He is a very straight person. Don't be afraid! Don't put your finger in the cake. Don't put your nose in my business. The ocean waves came over us. The pain comes in waves. It is five minutes after six. The doctor came at the last minute. I took a look at the problem. She had a far-away look in her eyes. They were in the army for a long time. An army of workers made the Great Wall of China. Elizabeth is the Queen of England. Katherine is the queen of his heart. She gave birth to a baby boy. His ideas gave birth to an empire. The book cover is blue. The attack came under cover of night. A flower came up. An interesting problem came up. Don't be angry with me! When the sea is angry, no ship is safe. The president is very sick. That idea is sick. The world goes round the sun. My head went round and round. A dog's tongue is pink. Tongues of fire came out of the windows. The mother has her eye on the child. John has his eye on Mary. There is money in the bank. There is money in your idea. I gave her a gift. Her feeling for music is a gift. She has a nice body. There is an important body of information in this report. He had a long and happy life. He was the life of the party. The car accident was not serious. It was no accident that he came into our area. A bird is on the tree branch. It was a bird-brain idea. He is up to his neck in water. He is up to his neck in work. He has his ticket to San Francisco. He was her ticket to "the good life." The clouds are up in the air. Our trip to Europe is up in the air. The town got bigger. Our trade with Mexico got bigger. Put a button on your coat. Put a button on your lip. Is this a safe way to go? The way to a man's heart is through his stomach.58 ADJECTIVES Many adjectives have "y" at the end. busy I had a very busy day yesterday. sorry There was no hope in his sorry eyes. ready Who's ready for dinner? angry Don't be angry with me. I'm not responsible for your problems. hungry The cat came to me because he was tired and hungry. easy If you give me an easy question, I'll give you a straight answer. dirty Why are your hands still dirty? heavy The army was under heavy attack from the air force. empty Do you have an empty box that I can have? lucky She is very lucky to have him for a husband. We can make many nouns into adjectives by putting "y" at the end. storm stormy I don't want to be on a ship in stormy weather. rain rainy One cold and rainy night a stranger came to our door. wind windy I didn't go outside because it was too windy. cloud cloudy The gray cloudy sky made me a little sad. snow snowy It was a snowy day in the middle of January. sun sunny I took a sunbath because it was a warm and sunny afternoon. star starry It was a beautiful starry night. fog foggy One foggy morning, she took a walk along the beach. fun funny He has many funny stories about his experiences in other countries. salt salty The soup had a salty taste. water watery He only had a watery soup for lunch. blood bloody It was a very bloody time in our history. sand sandy We had lunch on the sandy beach, only a few minutes from town. health healthy He is as healthy as a horse! smell smelly She doesn't want that smelly fish in her house. oil oily He has very oily hair. sleep sleepy They put their sleepy children in bed. ice icy There was an accident on the icy road. hair hairy He has a hairy chest. box boxy They have a boxy, little apartment. cream creamy Her blouse is a creamy yellow. glass glassy His eyes had a glassy look. juice juicy These oranges are so juicy. silk silky She has silky brown hair. spice spicy I want some hot, spicy food this evening.59 right + (time/place) right means exactly at the indicated time or place. Alexandra: I want my money right now! Anthony: I'm sorry, but I don't have it right now. Alexandra: Then, I have no other choice, but to get the police right now! Anthony: Okay, okay! My bank is closed right now. Give me a day or two to get it for you. Richard: Where were you when John came into the room? Ashley: Right then, I was at the big, front window. Richard: What did he want? Ashley: He wanted me to go with him to the central post office right then. Theodore: When did Thomas give you the news of his latest success? Nathaniel: He gave me the happy news right before class. Theodore: When did he go to his friend's apartment? Nathaniel: He went right after he got a call from Jessica. Henry: What time did the bus come? George: It came right at 8:45. Henry: What time did you go for lunch? George: I went right at noon. Natalie: Where is my airplane ticket? Susan: It's right by your political science book. Natalie: Where is my credit card? Susan: It's right next to or right on top of your checkbook. over over (≠ under) may have the meaning of up. Mrs. Madison: Where was the airplane? Mrs. Lincoln: It was right over the city. Mrs. Madison: Where was the check for the full payment of the machine? Mrs. Lincoln: It was among some business papers right under his nose. Mr. Ford: Where did you put your beautiful, cut-glass lamp? Mr. Adams: We put it right over the dining room table. Mr. Ford: Where did you put your new outdoor furniture? Mr: Adams: We put it right under the big tree in our garden. over may also have the meaning of end, finish. Mrs. Washington: What time will the cowboy film be over? Mrs. Jefferson: The start was at 8:15, so it will be over at 9:45. Mrs. Washington: What time was your European history test over? Mrs. Jefferson: My test was over at 8:30. Mr. Roosevelt: Will our meeting be over before noon? Mr. Eisenhower: Yes, it should be over right at noon, so I'll be free to have lunch with you. Mr. Roosevelt: How long did Edward's operation take? Mr. Eisenhower: It was all over in less than two hours.60 PRESENT to like (+) to like (-) I like we like I do not like we do not like you like you like you do not like you do not like he likes they like he does not like they do not like she likes she does not like it likes it does not like I like this little town. I don't like this little town. He likes fast music. He doesn't like fast music. She likes our group of friends. She doesn't like our group of friends. They like my business card. They don't like my business card. to like (+?) to like (-?) do I like? do we like? don't I like? don't we like? do you like? do you like? don't you like? don't you like? does he like? do they like? doesn't he like? don't they like? does she like? doesn't she like? does it like? doesn't it like? Do you like the new president? Don't you like the new president? Does he like physical contact? Doesn't he like physical contact? Does she like to be the center of attention? Doesn't she like to be the center of attention? Do they like to make big plans? Don't they like to make big plans? to know (+) to know (-) I know we know I do not know we do not know you know you know you do not know you do not know he knows they know he does not know they do not know she knows she does not know it knows it does not know I know about his international contacts. I don't know about his international contacts. You know something about me. You don't know anything about me. We know the shortest way to the university. We don't know the shortest way to the university. They know that she likes chocolate cake. They don't know that she likes chocolate cake. to know (+?) to know (-?) do I know? do we know? don't I know? don't we know? do you know? do you know? don't you know? don't you know? does he know? do they know? doesn't he know? don't they know? does she know? doesn't she know? does it know? doesn't it know? Do you know her name? Don't you know her name? Do you know what time it is? Don't you know what time it is? Do you know when the next flight is? Don't you know when the next flight is? Do you know where our theater tickets are? Don't you know where our theater tickets are?61 MY BROTHER -AN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSMAN When my brother got out of the army, he wanted to get into international business right away. But he could not because he did not have enough money. So, he went to work as a salesman for a company that made hospital equipment. At first, everything was quite difficult for him, but he always made sure that most of his check went into the bank every month. At last, he had enough money to become serious about his business plans. Two years ago, the time came, at last, for my brother to go into business with two of his old army friends. And why not? The three of them have a lot in common. They know and like one another a lot. They not only went through the army together, they always wanted to have their own international business. So, there was nothing strange when the three partners made the decision to put their money together for the startup capital of their own company. For help with building international business contacts and to give general direction to the business, they put together a Board of Directors. My brother became the chairman of the Board. Every one of the company's ten Directors has a good name in the field of business. Under its Board of Directors, the company went a long way along the road to success. Because of their years in the army, my brother and his friends know a lot about big organizations, about how they make their plans and decisions and so on. Because of this very special kind of know-how and firsthand experience, the three partners became responsible for different operations. For example, my brother is responsible for overseas or foreign operations. Right now, overseas operations is only international sales, but some day the partners' hope is to have their own factory somewhere overseas. I know that the company already has branch offices in a number of different countries: France, Mexico, Korea and a few others. My brother likes to go overseas as often as he can. Because he knows three languages, apart from English, he has no problem to get his business ideas across to others. He knows a lot about political developments, history, and the way of life of other peoples, and so he has little or no problem when he is among foreigners. As an international businessman, he is, without question, a real success.62 My brother's company makes medical equipment. They have a line of machines that doctors like and often make use of in different kinds of serious operations: brain operations, lung operations, eye operations and so on. One of the machines that my brother's company makes is for use in open-heart operations. It takes the place of a person's heart so the doctor can have a clear look at the heart and then do what he has to do -make all the necessary cuts and changes. The company's home office, which is in New York City, has all the latest office equipment: computers, copy machines and so on. My brother has telephones everywhere, he even has one in his car. In general, this makes it easy for him to be in direct contact at all times with his many customers round the world. If a problem comes up, he can take care of it right then, without any loss of time. For example, if he has to give special attention to one of his customers' orders, it's not a problem. He can make the necessary changes right away. Or, if there is a change in general economic conditions, he knows that he must take care of things fast, so they don't get out of hand. My brother's factory gets so many orders that his customers often have a hard time to get their machines in less than six months. Six months is the normal wait. My brother knows that is too long for many customers and he wants to make it much shorter. He wants to give his customers better and faster service. But the changes he must make will take time. And, as everyone knows, time is money. My brother wants to get his company's output up, at least, to two and maybe even three times what it is now. Right now, with a work force of 150 full-time and 25 part-time workers their factory output is about 20 machines a week. If he can get that up 100 percent, to 40 or more machines a week, his customers will be much happier and the income of the company will go up also. Without question, this change will take his company out of the red and put it in the black. That will make the Board of Directors much happier, for sure. My brother's business is not too different from other international businesses. He can give his customers different choices, for example, different colors, different sizes and so on. He always has to have our government's okay to get his machines out of the country.63 Hospitals around the world know there are no better machines than his. For a few, money is no problem. Their order comes with a check for the full purchase price of the machine. For those hospitals that do give the full purchase price at one time, my brother takes off 10 percent. This also makes everyone happy. For poor hospitals that do not have enough money to give the full purchase price at one time, my brother can make a special credit agreement. Sometimes, it is necessary to give them credit for three or even four years. Under the conditions of a credit agreement, a hospital makes a down payment, in other words, a first payment, and then it makes payments every month. A hospital's down payment can be as little as 10 percent of the purchase price. The hospital can take care of the rest through an easy payment plan. If a hospital wants, it can take up to four years. Credit is one way poor hospitals can get the equipment they want right away, without a long wait. Hospitals know that every year, the company makes a gift of five of its newest machines to the poorest of the poor. The general outlook for the medical equipment industry and for my brother's business is very good both in the United States and Europe. As, I'm sure, you already know, the European Union makes most of the countries of Europe into one, big common market. This makes trade among them easier. Now, in North America, we have something almost the same. It is the North American Free Trade Agreement among Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Together these three countries make up a market of about 360 million people, the biggest and richest market in the world. It is not out of the question that other countries, for example, Panama and/or Costa Rica in Central America and some of the island-nations of the Caribbean Sea will become part of this great free trade area before too long. At least, that is my hope. Companies that are outside the European Common Market and/or the North American Free Trade Area will have a much more difficult time with the sale of their goods than those countries that are inside. This is why my brother and his partners have high hopes for the success of their company.64 PAST to like(+) to like (-) I liked we liked I did not like we did not like you liked you liked you did not like you did not like he liked they liked he did not like they did not like she liked she did not like it liked it did not like I liked the dance music. I didn't like the dance music. He liked the cowboy film. He didn't like the cowboy film. She liked my general plan. She didn't like my general plan. We liked the flight very much. We didn't like the flight very much. to like (+?) to like (-?) did I like? did we like? didn't I like? didn't we like? did you like? did you like? didn't you like? didn't you like? did he like? did they like? didn't he like? didn't they like? did she like? didn't she like? did it like? didn't it like? Did you like the fried chicken? Didn't you like the fried chicken? Did he like the boiled fish? Didn't he like the boiled fish? Did she like our international party? Didn't she like our international party? Did they like our system of government? Didn't they like our system of government? to know (+) to know (-) I knew we knew I did not know we did not know you knew you knew you did not know you did not know he knew they knew he did not know they did not know she knew she did not know it knew it did not know I knew that she wanted to come. I didn't know that she wanted to come. You knew that I did not have enough money. You didn't know that I did not have enough money. She knew that he was sick. She didn't know that he was sick. We knew that you were in the army. We didn't know that you were in the army. to know (+?) to know (-?) did I know? did we know? didn't I know? didn't we know? did you know? did you know? didn't you know? didn't you know? did he know? did they know? didn't he know? didn't they know? did she know? didn't she know? did it know? didn't it know? Did you know that he made the payment? Didn't you know that he made the payment? Did you know that he gave her the check? Didn't you know that he gave her the check? Did you know that I had the use of his car? Didn't you know that I had the use of his car? Did you know that his glass was empty? Didn't you know that his glass was empty?65 COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA In the years after Columbus made the European discovery of the American continent, Spain put together the first, real, world empire. The sun never went down on Spanish lands. Spain had colonies not only in the New World, but also in Asia and Africa. Until 1588, it was, without question, the strongest nation in the world, much stronger than England or France and that is why it got control of much of North America and all of Central and South America. England and France were both late-comers to the American continent. They both knew that they were much weaker than Spain, so they had to give their attention to that part of North America where Spain did not have any special interest. The center of their attention became that part of the North American continent that is today the United States and Canada. Four hundred years ago, economic conditions in the area were very different from today. The Indians of North America were much poorer than the Indians of Central and South America. This is why most of the English and French attention was on fish, animal skins and land. Little-by-little, and year-after-year, the trade between North America and Europe got bigger and bigger until, at last, the English government had to make a decision, a very important decision. The government in London came face-to-face with a very serious economic problem. On the one hand, it wanted to have colonies all along the Atlantic seaboard of North America. On the other hand, it did not have enough money for the building of these colonies. The answer to this problem was land. The king of England had land, lots of land in North America. So, he made a number of agreements with companies and groups of English businessmen who were ready to put money into the development of North America. Under the conditions of the agreements, these companies were responsible for building the colonies. What these companies got for their money and hard work was land, big, beautiful pieces of land in what is today Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Georgia and so on. So, from the very start, much of the development of North America was in the hands of business organizations. In this way, many rich English businessmen got even richer with the help of the English government.66 But as everyone knows today and knew then, land without people has very little use. This is why the king of England made it very easy for people to come to North America. He did not have to make use of force because many people wanted to come. Many did not like life in England. Some had economic problems, some had political problems and some had religious problems. So, it is clear that among the people who came to America there were those who wanted to get rich, those who were angry at their government, and those who had strong religious feelings. Some even wanted to make Christians out of the Indians. Most wanted a new start in life. It is clear that people came to the New World with many different ideas. But, without question, they all had one thing in common: they all wanted to make new and better lives. They all wanted and were ready for a change, a big change in their lives. They liked the idea of a new life in the New World. The name of the first English town in America was Jamestown, because the king of England, at that time, was James I.* The first English families came to Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. * James I = James the First Elizabeth II = Elizabeth the Second George III = George the Third The first French families got to Quebec a year later, in 1608. Quebec was the first French colony in North America. But this was more than one hundred years after the first Spanish and Portuguese families came to the New World, and more than fifty years after the start of classes at the University of Mexico! Among all these different people, there was one special group with very strong religious ideas who did not like their king's church, the Church of England. They wanted to get out from under its control. This was the central idea of 102 English men, women and children who got on board a little ship, the Mayflower, in September 1620. They were full of hope. They made their way across the Atlantic Ocean in 64 days. Their name in American history is the Pilgrims. The Pilgrims wanted nothing more than to be free. They had their own religious ideas. They knew that they had to become farmers. At first, their plan was to go straight to Jamestown, Virginia, but because of very bad weather on the way, they got off the Mayflower at a little harbor, far to the North. The place, where they got off, is today the city of Plymouth, Massachusetts. But, in 1620, the area was empty. There was nothing there -no town, no house, no restaurant, no school, no hospital, no street -nothing!67 Before they got off their ship, the Pilgrims put their names on an agreement under which they made a government for their colony. The idea that they could and should make their own government was very new in history, but it was in line with their other idea that they could make their own church. In the cold and snow of winter, the Pilgrims put up a meeting house and a few little buildings. At first, because they did not have any experience with living conditions in North America, everything was difficult for them. They were safe from Indian attack, but not from the terrible cold. At the end of their first hard winter, 52 out of the 102 people who came were dead. That was more than half of them. What a terrible price for a new start in life! But it is important to know that when warm weather came in the spring of 1621 and the Mayflower, at last, went back to England, not one of the Pilgrims, still living, went back on it. In the warm days of spring, 1621, the Pilgrims put up some bigger and better houses for their families and made vegetable gardens with the help of an Indian friend, whose name was Squanto. They had close contact with the Indians and even made friends with some. But with the idea of "Better safe than sorry!" they made a wall out of trees and stones round their little town. The Pilgrims were very busy all through the hot summer months. In the fall of 1621, after they took in** all their vegetables, the Pilgrims had more than enough food to get through the winter, so they had a kind of party to give thanks for their new life and everything that they had. That was the first Thanksgiving. Even until today, Thanksgiving is an important day for Americans. It is always on the last Thursday of every November. It is a kind of living monument to the work of all those who came before. ** take in = The farmers take in the fruits in the fall. The farmers took in the tomatoes when they were red. The farmers will take in the rice next month.68 FUTURE to like (+) to like (-) I will like we will like I will not like we will not like you will like you will like you will not like you will not like he will like they will like he will not like they will not like she will like she will not like it will like it will not like You'll like what he got for you. You won't like what he got for you. She'll like what he made for her. She won't like what he made for her. He'll like all the changes that she made. He won't like all the changes that she made. They'll like the new stone monument. They won't like the new stone monument. to like (+?) to like (-?) will I like? will we like? won't I like? won't we like? will you like? will you like? won't you like? won't you like? will he like? will they like? won't he like? won't they like? will she like? won't she like? will it like? won't it like? Will he like life in the army? Won't he like life in the army? Will you like more contact? Won't you like more contact? Will she like to get another call from him? Won't she like to get another call from him? Will they like to take care of our reservations? Won't they like to take care of our reservations? to know (+) to know (-) I will know we will know I will not know we will not know you will know you will know you will not know you will not know he will know they will know he will not know they will not know she will know she will not know it will know it will not know I'll know everything by tomorrow. I won't know everything by tomorrow. We'll know every place they go. We won't know every place they go. She'll know about that area. She won't know about that area. He'll know all about the use of copy machines. He won't know all about the use of copy machines. to know (+?) to know (-?) will I know? will we know? won't I know? won't we know? will you know? will you know? won't you know? won't you know? will he know? will they know? won't he know? won't they know? will she know? won't she know? will it know? won't it know? Will they know what time out airplane gets in? Won't they know what time our airplane gets in? Will he know where to get medical help? Won't he know where to get medical help? Will she know how to make the payments? Won't she know how to make the payments? Will you know what percent to take off the price? Won't you know what percent to take off the price?69 A GOOD TIME IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS I will go to Hawaii for a vacation next month. I will go to Honolulu, the capital of Hawaii. The name "Honolulu" is Hawaiian for "safe harbor." It is a not a city of heavy industry, but of trade, international trade. It is a city with more than 450,000 people, which is about 40 percent of all the people in the state of Hawaii. The people of Hawaii come from the four corners of the world. But most of them are Chinese, Filipino, Japanese and Polynesians. The Polynesians were the first people to get to the Hawaiian Islands. They came from Polynesia which is more than 2000 miles to the south. Those first Polynesian seamen had to make their way across the open ocean without any special equipment or even maps. They had only the stars from which to get their directions. The Polynesians first made the trip from Polynesia to Hawaii about 1300 years ago. It is clear that those Polynesians were very good seamen. They were not afraid of the sea. They knew how to make use of it as a kind of highway to get from one place to another. They had not only strong bodies and muscles, but also strong hearts. Europeans did not get to Hawaii for another thousand years. In 1779, an Englishman, James Cook, under orders from his government, was the first European to get there. With a British navy ship, Discovery, under his control, Cook was on his way to the North Pacific when he came across the Hawaiian Islands. Cook's discovery of the Islands was an accident. He had no idea that they were there because they were not on any of his maps. Cook was on his way to the North Pacific because the English government wanted to know if there was a through-waterwwa between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, to the north of the American continent. Cook made use of the Hawaiian Islands as rest station, a place to get his ship ready for the most difficult part of the trip. After a few weeks rest, Cook and his men got back on board Discovery and made their way north to Alaska. At that time Alaska was part of the Russian Empire. The Russian-American Company had an agreement with the Russian government under which the RAC was responsible for the economic development of the area. And so, the Russians did not like the idea of the British in the North Pacific. But, apart from their different political and economic interests, the Russians were nice to Cook and his men, as people. They had a few parties for them with good food, lots of drinks, music, and even women. But the Russians did not give the British any real information or even maps of Alaska. After a few weeks, when he did not come across a through-water-way to get across North America, Cook had to go back the same way he came. Because the Hawaiians were very nice to him and his men the first time, Cook made another rest stop at the Islands. But this time things were quite different. It was there, on a beautiful, sandy beach that some angry Hawaiians took his life with stones. The date was February 18, 1780. When Cook made his discovery of the Hawaiian Islands, they were under a king. Hawaii had kings and queens until 1894, when a few Americans took control of the government by force. The Americans, most of whom were land owners and businessmen, wanted to make Hawaii a part of the United States. But, Grover Cleveland, the American president at that time, was very much against the idea, so the Americans in the islands put together a government under their own control.70 A few years later, William McKinley became president of the United States. He very much wanted to make Hawaii part of the US. He took the Hawaiian Islands under the political umbrella of the US government. In 1959, the islands became the 50th state of the United States. The Hawaiian Islands are a group of many islands, in almost a straight line 1,523 miles (2,437 kilometers) long. At the northwest end of the line they are nothing but sand, in the middle they are stone, and at the southeast end there are eight, big, beautiful islands with trees, flowers, little rivers and so on. Seven of these eight have people on them. The city of Honolulu is on the island of Oahu. But Oahu is not the biggest island. The name of the biggest island is Hawaii, the same as the name of the state. In the middle of the island of Hawaii there is a mountain with snow allyeea round. There are many little towns here and there on the Big Island. The Hawaiian Islands are nothing more than mountains that came up from the ocean floor hundreds of thousands of years ago. Through the years, ocean waves made soft sand out of their hard stone. Today, there are beautiful, white and black sand beaches on all the islands. Rain, warm weather, and soft, cool winds make the Hawaiian Islands one big garden. There are waterfalls everywhere, together with thousands of different trees, flowers and birds. Without question, some of the most beautiful birds in the world are in Hawaii. My trip to Hawaii is for both business and pleasure. I'm with a company that has a number of branch offices round the world. Our home office is in Los Angeles, California, very close to the film capital of the world, Hollywood. This is important because our company makes special equipment for the film industry. We have customers on every continent, but we make most of our sales in North America and Europe. We have plans to get into the Asian market very soon because it is the biggest in the world. Everyone knows, for example, that India makes more films every year than Hollywood. Because we are an international business organization, we can give good support to all our customers round the world. If, after a customer makes a purchase of one of our machines, there is a problem, we can take care of it right away. The attention and service we give our customers is a big part of why we are a success. Every year we get together with the president, the Board of Directors, and all the other big people of our company in a different city. The close contact among all the top people gives everyone the feeling that we are a kind of family. We all like the idea that we have some input into the company's operations. This year, we'll have a four-day meeting in Honolulu. At this year's sales meeting, I know that we'll make plans about ways to get a bigger part of the market, in other words, a greater number of orders. Last year, we got orders for more than $35 million. With an income of $35 million and an outgo of $32.5 million, our profit was $2.5 million, which is not too bad for a company our size. I know that our company president wants to make at least 20 percent more profit for next year. It's clear that the choices we make at our Honolulu meeting will be important for our company and its economic health. I even have a few ideas of my own that I want to put before our company president and the Board of Directors. When the meeting is over, I want to take a few days of my vacation time and get away from all the problems of business. I am sure that I'll be of more use to my company after a few good days of rest. I'm happy because I got the flight and hotel I wanted. My secretary, Miss Wilson, gave a call to the airline ticket office yesterday and with my credit card number she got my ticket and hotel reservation right away. Now, my only problem is to get all my work out of the way, so I can go.71 I'll take United Airlines flight number 747 on Tuesday morning. I have to be at the airport on time. If I am late, the airplane will take off* without me! The distance from Los Angeles, where I have my home, to Honolulu is more than 2,500 miles, which is 4000 kms, more or less. The flight time, or air-time, is less than 5 hours. So, I will get in** a little after 2 p.m. The big hotels and high office buildings of Honolulu give the city the skyline of other big cities. What makes it a very special city are its nice people, who are never too busy to give a stranger some help or information. Also, there are flowers and birds everywhere. The temperature is always between a low of 60 and a high of 85 degrees F. There are cool afternoon winds almost every day. All together, these things make life in Hawaii very nice and very easy. People like to go there. The city of Honolulu has many places of interest. I want to get a car and go round the island of Oahu. I'll take some pictures and get a few postcards. I want to be sure to go to the Polynesian Center, where people can take pictures of life in Hawaii as it was more than 100 years ago. Another place of interest is the East-West Center, which is a part of the University of Hawaii. The East-West Center is a place, where students from all the Pacific nations get together. A third place of interest, where I want to go very much, is Pearl Harbor. It is an important place for all Americans and foreigners also. On the second evening of my Hawaiian vacation, I will go to a big Hawaiian outdoor party. The center of attention at an Hawaiian outdoor party, or "luau," is a pig. To get the pig ready for a luau, Hawaiians first make a big hole. Next, they put a bed of stones in the hole and then they make a big fire on the stones. The fire gets the stones very, very hot. At the time some are busy with this "cook hole," others are busy with the pig. First, they take out its insides: stomach, heart, lungs and * take off: Your flight will take off at noon. The airplane took off ten minutes ago. ** get in: Our train should get in at 4:45. What time will flight 354 get in? so on. Then, they get it very clean, inside and outside. When the pig is ready, they put banana tree leaves round it. When everything is ready, they will put the pig down in the "cook hole." It takes, at least, 8 hours before the pig will be ready. When, at last, the cooks take the pig out of the hole and take the banana leaves off, everyone knows from the smell and taste of the pork that the long wait was not for nothing! People always have a great time at Hawaiian luaus. There will be more than enough delicious food. No one goes home from a Hawaiian party with an empty stomach. Everyone knows that a party is not a party without music, so there will also be Hawaiian music and dances. Both the men and women dancers will have very long, grass skirts and beautiful, flower necklaces. Hawaiians like bright colors, so women's party dresses are often long with wonderful pictures of beautiful, island flowers. Men almost never have on a white shirt and necktie. It is normal for men to have shirts with many colors: red, yellow, blue and so on. Now, you know much more about Hawaiian history, geography and way of life than most people. And my hope is that the next time someone, maybe your husband or wife, boyfriend or girlfriend, or lover -that important someone in your life -comes up with the idea of a vacation trip to Hawaii, you will go, go, go, as fast and as soon as you can!72 Please put these sentences in their other form: 1. I gave my life to you. I gave _ you_ my life. 2. He gave feeling to the music. He gave ______________________ feeling. 3. She gave a bath to her baby. She gave _____________________ a bath. 4. We gave much help to John. We gave __________________ much help. 5. Mary gave medicine to her dog. Mary gave __________________ medicine. 6. It gives pain to me. It gives _________________________ pain. 7. They give pleasure to us. They give ___________________ pleasure. 8. Do you give support to them? Do you give __________________ support? 9. Did he give attention to his son? Did he give _________________ attention? 10. Will you give an answer to me? Will you give ______________ an answer? Please put these prepositions in these sentences. √ in out over under away through on off up down together to 1. I am afraid that I can not get _in_ my apartment. 2. Can you get ______ of class early? 3. I want to get ________ with all my friends before I go back to Japan. 4. How did the boy get _____ from the tree? 5. I am sorry, but without the help of his father, the boy can not get _____ on the horse. 6. They will never get ______ from the police dogs. 7. He is much too big to get _______ his bed. 8. The cat got _______ the fence without any problem. 9. I didn't get ______ sleep until after midnight last night. 10. The students got _______ their English test in less than 30 minutes. 11. Mary can not get her sister's dress _____. 12. Only with the help of a nurse could John get the bandage _____. Please put your answers on the line. √ call order copy check postcard support warm free weak rich worried cool through out of to down on in 1. I got a _call_ from my best friend yesterday. 2. Did you get my _______________ from Paris? 3. Every month he gets a __________ for more than $3,000. 4. She got _________ from both her mother and father. 5. Did you get your ______________of his new book? 6. The company got an _____________ for more than $1,000,000. 7. In springtime the days get ______________. 8. After the sun goes down, it always gets _____________. 9. How did the dog get ______________? 10. Because he is very lucky, he may get ______________ very soon. 11. Without good food a person's body will get _______________. 12. She gets _______________ if I am more than half an hour late. 13. I don't know how he got that big machine ________________ the door. 14. I don't know how he got ______________ the theater without a ticket. 15. I don't know how he got ______________ the flight without a reservation. 16. I don't know how he got ______________ from the roof of that building. 17. I don't know how he got ______________ the president. 18. I don't know how he got ______________ town without a car.73 The American Revolution74 LESSON 4 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. bee _______________ list _______________ mosquito _______________ earth _______________ fly _______________ pipe _______________ wing _______________ pump _______________ step _______________ well _______________ ____________ present The oil pipeline is okay at present. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ past What is past will not come again. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ future He must make his own future. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ drive We may go for a drive in the country next Sunday. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ ride I have a 30 minute bus ride from my house to my work. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ job Who got a new job with an overseas oil company? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ dish How did the dish get broken? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ turn You can go left at the next turn. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ sign Wasn't there a big sign on the store window? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ tax The price of the equipment with tax is $237.25. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ insect A bee is a kind of insect. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ bite The insect gave Mary a bite on her left arm. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ study When did you make this study about the oil industry? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ growth This year's economic growth of the nation is 4.5%. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ talk I want to have a short talk with you after class. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ pressure Why does he have high blood pressure? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ chemical Water should take the chemical off the fruit. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ gold Do you know how much gold there still is in Alaska? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ silver Do any governments still put silver in their money? _____________________________________________________________75 ____________ training Training is important if you want to be good at sports. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ plant Where did she put the beautiful green plant that I gave her? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ enemy The enemy of my enemy is my friend. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ effect What effect did the medicine have on his back pain? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ action His action had almost no effect on her future. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ nature Wind and waves are two great forces of nature. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ defense The best defense is attack. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ revolution The American Revolution took place in 1776. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ understanding They had no understanding of the effect of their action. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ noise Where did that terrible noise come from? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ surprise It was a surprise for us all when he came into the room. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ reason for What was the most important reason for the war? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ meaning I don't know the meaning of this word. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ process Oil must go through a process before it is ready for use. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ secret It is no secret that she does not like the smell of chemicals. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ policy Do you know the meaning of their new defense policy? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ simple They had a simple dinner of fish and rice. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ complex The teacher gave us a complex mathematics question. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ chief The chief reason for his trip was pleasure. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ quiet It was a quiet Sunday afternoon. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ loud There was a loud noise outside. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ sudden The music came to a sudden stop. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ wild The wild animal made its attack. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ dependent A child is dependent on his parents. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ though Though mosquitoes were everywhere, I did not get one bite. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ would like I would like to know more about you. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to do Parents do a lot for their children. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to see He can not see without his glasses. _____________________________________________________________76 by by may show the person or instrument through which something is done. Nathaniel: Who is that beautiful picture by? Christine: It is by Rembrandt. Nathaniel: Who is that wonderful story by? Christine: It is by the great American writer, John Steinbeck. Ashley: Who is that piece of music by? Theodore: It is by Mozart. Ashley: Who was yesterday's talk about Brazilian insects by? Theodore: It was by Dr. McKinley, our bright, new science teacher. though 1. Though it was hot, he had his big, winter coat on. 2. Though the plant was dead, she still put water on it. 3. Though he made no noise, I knew he was in the room. 4. Though the steps were quite high, the child got up them without any problem. 5. Though she was over 50, she had the perfect, soft skin of a baby. 6. Though she is married, she often goes to the theater with John, her old boyfriend. 7. Though there were many children at the park, it was quiet where we were. 8. Though there was very little hope of success, the army still put up quite a strong defense. 9. The earrings were not very expensive, though they were real gold. 10. They had lunch outdoors, though the weather was quite cool. 11. I was not afraid, though there was fire everywhere. 12. She liked the talk he gave, though sometimes his ideas were very complex. go for a drive, ride, run, swim, walk Nicholas: Do you want to go for a drive in the country? Alexandra: Yes, that's a great idea. Whose car will we take? Nicholas: Why don't we take your father's new car? It has a very nice ride. Alexandra: If he is not busy, I'm sure he and mama will want to go for a drive with us. Henry: Are you free this afternoon? George: Yes. But why this sudden interest in my afternoon? Henry: Why don't we go for a ride on our bicycles? George: A bicycle ride is okay with me. I'm always ready to get outdoors. Charles: I like to go for a run early in the morning, before it gets too hot. Diana: Early morning runs are not for me. I like to take my time after I get up. Charles: You and I are so different. We have very little in common. Diana: Yes, you like the outdoors and I like the indoors. But different isn't the same as bad! Martha: I know that you like to go for a swim every day. Susan: Yes, that's right. I went for a swim yesterday and tomorrow I'll go for another. Martha: Why do you like the water so much? Susan: I don't know. Maybe, I'm part fish! Mrs. Cleveland: Why don't we go for a walk after lunch? Mrs. Reagan: What a wonderful idea! My husband and I always go for a walk after our meals. Mrs. Cleveland: Before we got married, my husband and I often went for walks in the moonlight. Mrs. Reagan: Yes, I know after one gets married there are often sudden changes in one's life.77 come to ... come to (+ verb) shows a process or a change. Matthew: How did Mr. Johnson come to be the owner of his own business? Mary: He was lucky. He was the right person, in the right place, at the right time. Matthew: How did he come to have an interest in law? Mary: His father was a lawyer, so he also became one. Andrew: How did Mary come to have so much money all the time? Helen: Her father was a very rich man, so he gave her everything she wanted. Andrew: How did he come to be so rich? Helen: His grandfather made the family's real money. Natalie: How did you come to have this great interest in plants, animals and insects? Katherine: I like nature very much and they are part of nature. Natalie: How did you come to know so much about plants, animals and insects? Katherine: If one has an interest in a subject, one comes to know a lot about it. Richard: How did Ruth come to take so many different kinds of medicine? David: She was very sick for many months, so she came to be dependent on them. Richard: How did John come to like honey more than sugar? David: It's because of his health! Honey is better for one's body than white sugar. Elizabeth: How did the enemy forces come to take the city in so short a time? Edward: They had more and better equipment than the defenders. Elizabeth: How did the revolution come to take place? Edward: The policy-makers made one terrible mistake after another. Mrs. Clinton: How did George come to get control of his mother's money? Mrs. Garfield: When she was very sick last year, she gave him control of everything. Mrs. Clinton: How did she come to put all her eggs in one basket? Mrs. Garfield: Her old friend, Mrs. Harrison, gave her that idea. Mr. Nixon: How did Anthony and Martha come to get married? Mr. Kennedy: Why not? They were living together for two or three years. Mr. Nixon: How did they come to know one another? Mr. Kennedy: About four years ago, they took a trip on one of those Caribbean "love boats." OBJECTIVE CASE PRONOUNS me us you you him them her it 1. I want to take the first step. I want you to take the first step. 2. I don't want to be dependent on medicine. I don't want them to be dependent on medicine. 3. They want to get a new job. They want me to get a new job. 4. She didn't want to take a bite of the apple. She didn't want him to take a bite of the apple. 5. He wanted to have a secret talk with her. He wanted me to have a secret talk with her. 6. We wanted to give you the list of chemicals. We wanted her to give you the list of chemicals. 7. Do you want to get through this job today? Do you want him to get through this job today? 8. Do you want to know where the gold is? Do you want them to know where the gold is?78 way way is used to get from point A to point B, so it can be used in place of how. I know how.... I know the way.... 1. I know how to go to the city. I know the way to go to the city. 2. I know how to get up that tree. I know the way to get up that tree. 3. I know how to make chocolate ice cream. I know the way to make chocolate ice cream. 4. He knows how to put oil in the machine. He knows the way to put oil in the machine. 5. She doesn't know how to take this kind of test. She doesn't know the way to take this kind of test. 6. Do you know how to get another ticket? Do you know the way to get another ticket? 7. Do they know how to give a business talk? Do they know the way to give a business talk? 8. She knew how to have a big effect on people. She knew the way to have a big effect on people. 9. They knew how to get everyone's attention. They knew the best way to get everyone's attention. 10. He knew how to make the pump go faster. He knew an easier way to make the pump go faster. as as may be used to show role. 1. She was very good as a teacher. 2. As a part-time job, it was okay. 3. I came to you as an old friend. 4. They were worried as new parents. 5. It was a success as an economic revolution. 6. As a gift, you can't go wrong with gold. 7. I can not take his empty talk as a serious call to action. 8. As president, he made a defense agreement with our one-time enemies. 9. She made the decision as the head of the hospital. 10. The government wanted to make use of the school as a military training center. 11. The special service that they got, they took as normal. 12. He was nothing as a doctor, but as a lover he was out of this world! would like would like is the polite way to say want in the present. 1. I want a simple gold ring for my birthday. I would like a simple gold ring for my birthday. 2. She wants a better job. She would like a better job. 3. He wants a list of our policy changes. He would like a list of our policy changes. 4. We want a bottle of good, red wine. We would like a bottle of good, red wine. 5. They want seats on the next flight to London. They would like seats on the next flight to London. 6. Do you want an appointment on Thursday? Would you like an appointment on Thursday? 7. Do you want us to know all the new words? Would you like us to know all the new words? 8. I want you to make a left turn at the next corner. I would like you to make a left turn at the next corner. 9. I want to know more about his past. I would like to know more about his past. 10. She wants to be an eye doctor. She would like to be an eye doctor. 11. He wants to make a change in the process. He would like to make a change in the process. 12. We want to go for a nature walk with you. We would like to go for a nature walk with you. 13. They want to come to our next party. They would like to come to our next party. 14. Do you want to have lunch together? Would you like to have lunch together? 15. Do you want to take your coat off? Would you like to take your coat off?79 QUESTIONS EXCLAMATIONS What time was it? What time it was! What was the price? What the price was! How many flies were there? How many flies there were! How much growth was there? How much growth there was! How old is this pump? How old this pump is! How rich is this earth? How rich this earth is! How complex will the process be? How complex the process will be! How long will the wings be? How long the wings will be! How dependent was he on her? How dependent he was on her! Who is she? Who she is! That's who she is! I know who she is. What is it? What it is! That's what it is! I know what it is. When was he here? When he was here! That's when he was here! I know when he was here. Where was the sign? Where the sign was! That's where the sign was! I know where the sign was. Why is the music so loud? Why the music is so loud! That's why the music is so loud! I know why the music is so loud. ADJECTIVES Nouns used as adjectives are normally singular. 1. There are many vegetables in this soup. This is vegetable soup. 2. This is a group of students. This is a student group. 3. This factory makes chemicals. This is a chemical factory. 4. The apartment has two bedrooms. It is a two bedroom apartment. 5. The trip will be 200 miles. It will be a 200 mile trip. 6. He is 25 years old. He is a 25 year old man. 7. The call is $.50 (cents). It is a $.50 (cent) call. 8. That house is $200,000 (dollars). It is a $200,000 (dollar) house. 9. The pipe is 2 meters across. It is a 2 meter pipe. 10. The well goes down 5000 feet (1524 meters). It is a 5000 foot well. 11. My vacation was for 3 weeks. I had a 3 week vacation. 12. There are 250 pages in that book. It is a 250 page book.80on ≠ off SURFACE: When on has reference to a surface, the opposite is off. 1. He put a bag of silver on the table. He took a bag of silver off the table. 2. Mary put her computer on the shelf. Mary took her computer off the shelf. 3. John put his name on the business agreement. John took his name off the business agreement. 4. Did you put a picture on the wall? Did you take a picture off the wall? 5. She put the buttons on her evening dress. She took the buttons off her evening dress. 6. He put a new sign on the side of the building. He took the old sign off the side of the building. 7. Put new heels on my shoes. Take the old heels off my shoes. 8. The government put a tax on oil. The government took the tax off oil. 9. They have their Sunday shoes on. They have their Sunday shoes off. 10. The leaves are on the tree. The leaves are off the tree. 11. She got up on the horse. She got down off the horse. 12. He got down on his knees. He got up off his knees. 13. How much salt did he put on his meat? 14. There is a price on every piece of equipment. 15. The enemy was on the beach. LINE: on may have reference to a line. 1. There are trees on both sides of the wide street. 2. They have a little house on the river. 3. Our apartment is on Park Street. DAYS: on is always used with days. 1. Their flight was on Wednesday. 2. Their representative will be here on Thursday. DATES: on is always used with dates. 1. The German attack against Russia took place on June 22, 1941. 2. The US Constitution took effect on March 4, 1789. SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS 1. There was a good film on television last night. 2. The national news is on the radio every morning and evening. 3. Who was on the telephone? 4. There were many people on the bus. 5. They were on the airplane. 6. Did he get on the train okay? 7. There was a surprise party on board the ship. 8. Who put the lights on? Who put the lights off? 9. Please put the water on. Please put the water off. 10. The house was on fire. 11. The heavy equipment is on sale. 12. He is very dependent on his medicine. 13. The news had a great effect on everyone. 14. My grandfather went on and on about his time in military service. 15. I like the look of that berry pie, but, on the other hand, chocolate ice cream is also good. 16. Did she come to school on foot or by bicycle?81 in ≠ out of PLACE: When in has reference to a three dimensional enclosure the opposite is out of. 1. The airplane is in our area. The airplane is out of our area. 2. The piece of silver is in his pocket. The piece of silver is out of his pocket. 3. We put our money in the bank. We took our money out of the bank. 4. She put the film in the box. She took the film out of the box. 5. They put the animals in the barn. They took the animals out of the barn. 6. She put something in his drink. She took something out of a bottle. 7. He put a new sink in the kitchen. He took the old sink out of the kitchen. 8. The doctor put blood in my arm. The doctor took blood out of my arm. 9. I put information in my computer. I get information out of my computer. 10. He put a bucket down in the well. He got the bucket up out of the well. 11. They got up in the tall tree. They got down out of the tall tree. 12. He put all his money in his business. 13. She put strange ideas in his head. 14. How much sugar do you put in your coffee? 15. I put the plant in an old flower pot. 16. The factory put many chemicals in the lake. 17. He went in the army when he was a boy of 18. 18. The children were in bed before 9:00 last night. 19. They were in love until the end of his life. 20. He was in office for twenty years. MONTH: in is always used with months. 1. They came in September. 2. The new manager got his job in July. YEARS: in is always used with years. 1. They got married in 1987. 2. The company's greatest loss was in 1990. FUTURE: in may show future time. 1. The officer will be back in five minutes. 2. The tax office will be open in an hour. 3. We'll be there in two or three days. 4. He'll know the outcome of all the medical tests in less than a week. SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS 1. In the morning, our teacher gave us a little talk. 2. In the afternoon ,we took a look at the new training system. 3. In the evening, we went to the political meeting. 4. In the past, those kinds of things never took place. 5. In the future, I want you to give me a call before you come to my house! 6. Why is a policeman in front of that building? 7. Three policemen were in back of the house. 8. He does not have any interest in our new international policy. 9. I am in full agreement with you about his plan of action. 10. In answer to your question, I want to give you a few pieces of information. 11. In my eyes, he was not the man for that kind of job. 12. In the eyes of many people, Roosevelt was the best President in American history.82 PRESENT to see (+) to see (-) I see we see I do not see we do not see you see you see you do not see you do not see he sees they see he does not see they do not see she sees she does not see it sees it does not see I see who they are. I don't see who they are. He sees what she wants. He doesn't see what she wants. She sees when the list must be ready. She doesn't see when the list must be ready. We see where the sign is. We don't see where the sign is. to see (+?) to see (-?) do I see? do we see? don't I see? don't we see? do you see? do you see? don't you see? don't you see? does he see? do they see? doesn't he see? don't they see? does she see? doesn't she see? does it see? doesn't it see? Do you see the stones under the water? Don't you see the stones under the water? Does he see the hole in the pipe? Doesn't he see the hole in the pipe? Do they see the real reason for our contact? Don't they see the real reason for our contact? Do you see where the noise came from? Don't you see where the noise came from? do is used to indicate a general, repetitive action that is clear from the general situation. Do not confuse this with make used to indicate creation or the bringing into existence of something new. to do (+) to do (-) I do we do I do not do we do not do you do you do you do not do you do not do he does they do he does not do they do not do she does she does not do it does it does not do I do my carpets every week. I don't do my carpets every week. You do the floor every evening. You don't do the floor every evening. She does her hair every morning. She doesn't do her hair every morning. We do our shoes before we go to church. We don't do our shoes before we go to church. to do (+?) to do (-?) do I do? do we do? don't I do? don't we do? do you do? do you do? don't you do? don't you do? does he do? do they do? doesn't he do? don't they do? does she do? doesn't she do? does it do? doesn't it do? Do we do all the mathematics problems? Don't we do all the mathematics problems? Does he do his homework every night? Doesn't he do his homework every night? Does she do anything for her mother? Doesn't she do anything for her mother? Do they do their dishes after every meal? Don't they do their dishes after every meal?83 A STUDENT'S STUDY At present, Katherine is a second year student at the University of Florida. She has her own little apartment, in a nice quiet area, only about a five minute bicycle ride from the university. She does all her own house work, for example, the carpets, the dishes, her clothes and even the bed clothes. It is easy for her to know what she has to do every day because she makes a list and puts it on the icebox door. Katherine got very good grades last year in all her classes, which made both her parents and grandparents very happy. She is quite serious about all her subjects and she always does her best. Sometimes, this puts a lot of pressure on her. But pressure is not always bad because some people don't know what to do without it. Pressure gives order, if not meaning, to their lives. Katherine is strong and can take it! I'm not worried about her. Maybe it is a sign of our times, but many American students can not go to university full-time. Students do not have to make a decision about their university studies right after high school. Those with good grades who want to go on* to university can, but there are many who want to go to work for a few years. This second group can go to university parttiime Part-timers take only one or two classes at a time. They often have a job and so can not give their full attention to their studies. One very good thing about the American university system is that it is open. People can go on with their studies when they are ready. Little-** go on (with): He doesn't know the meaning of stop, so he will go on with or without us. Though everything was ice cold, we went on with the dinner as if nothing were wrong. by-little, step-by-step, they can get the training they want. People go to university for different reasons. For some, their one and only reason is a better job. And there is nothing wrong with that! They see university as a way to more money and a better future. For others, for those who don't see money as the most important thing in life, university is the meeting place of past, present and future. It is where one can have direct contact with ideas and get help with understanding them. This year, Katherine has six different subjects: English, French, Mathematics, Art History, US Government, and Life Science. Six classes are normal for a full-time student. Everyone knows and likes Dr. Monroe, the Life Science teacher, though he can be very difficult at times. He wants all his students to do their best. If he sees that their work is not what it should be, he puts pressure on them to do better. The questions on his tests come straight out of the book and his class talks. So students must give attention to their reading outside of class as well as come to class everyday. Dr. Monroe gives a test about every three weeks. For her Life Science class, Katherine had to do a study** about honey bees. She did not want to do anything about flies, mosquitoes, or even butterflies, the other insect groups about which her teacher wanted studies. *** To do a study shows there is no new information for the world, so students do mathematics, history, reading, and so on. To make a study shows the development of new information. For example, Nicholas Copernicus made a study of the earth and the sun. Napoleon Bonaparte made history.84 Katherine got an "A" on her ten-page paper. But that was no surprise because she always puts her heart into her work and does her best. She also got As and Bs on all her tests. And, though she had a little problem when she gave her talk in front of the class, because of "butterflies in her stomach," her class grade was also an "A." An "A" is the highest grade a student can get at an American university. From her study, Katherine now knows that the honey bee is one of man's chief helpers in the insect world. The honey bee came to North America in 1620. There soon came to be so many of them that the Indians gave them the name "the White man's fly." Today there are about 5,000,000 honey bee colonies in the USA. No one knows the number of wild bee colonies because they make their homes in different places, for example, dead trees, empty barns and so on. From her study, Katherine knows that life in a bee colony is under very strong control, almost as if it were a military organization. She also knows that there are two big groups of bees in a colony: house bees and field bees. The house bees take care of what goes on inside the colony. Some house bees make sure it is clean. Some are responsible for temperature control. To do this they make use of their wings. Still other house bees are responsible for the colony's honey comb. The honey comb is the place where bees put their honey. It is their store of honey. Every hole in a honey comb has six sides. The field bees do their work outside, in nature. They are always on the lookout for wild flowers. If they make a sudden discovery of some new wild flowers, the field bees get back to the colony as fast as they can with the good news. These field bees make use of the sun to give the others directions and information about how to get to the wild flowers. They do a complex dance in which every little turn has a meaning. From this dance the other bees know both the distance and the direction to the wild flowers. When the workers have the necessary information, away they go! They may make as many as 1000 flights a day between their bee colony and the wild flowers. A normal size bee colony can make as much as 15 pounds (6.8 kilograms) of honey a day. That piece of information was a real surprise for me. I had no idea that bees can do that much work.85 When the honey bee goes from flower to flower, it does a real service for us people. Its actions make a chemical change in the flowers. This chemical change is necessary for the development of not only flowers, but also fruits. Thanks to the honey bee the beautiful flowers on apple trees in spring become delicious, juicy apples in fall. It is clear that honey bees do a very important service for us all. Without question, we are dependent, in part, on them. The queen bee has a longer body and bigger wings than the workers, but she does not have much of a future. She does not have much fun in life because her one and only reason for living, her life-long job is to make eggs. In the normal five-year life of a queen bee she makes millions and millions of eggs, which she with the help of some special workers puts in the empty holes of the honey comb. It is interesting that the development process from egg to bee takes only 21 days. What is strange is that on the 21st day a new worker bee comes into the world and is ready to go to work, right away, without any help, without any training. For about 20 days these new bees do all the necessary work to make sure their home is clean and safe. If there is an enemy attack from other insects, birds, or animals, these workers are ready to give their lives in defense of the colony, their queen and their store of honey. When the number of bees in a colony gets too big, a second queen bee takes about half the bees to a new place and makes a new colony. This is why we can not know for sure how many wild bee colonies there are in North America. Bees don't like wet, dirty places with loud noises. They like quiet places in the country, away from people. Because of her work on the honey bee, Katherine now has a much better understanding of not only bees, but insects in general. She knows how strange and wonderful the processes of nature are!86 PAST to see (+) to see (-) I saw we saw I did not see we did not see you saw you saw you did not see you did not see he saw they saw he did not see they did not see she saw she did not see it saw it did not see I saw that the well was almost dry. I didn't see that the well was almost dry. We saw that it was a very quiet place. We didn't see that it was a very quiet place. He saw that our talk was only empty words. He didn't see that our talk was only empty words. You saw that I was busy. You didn't see that I was busy. to see (+?) to see (-?) did I see? did we see? didn't I see? didn't we see? did you see? did you see? didn't you see? didn't you see? did he see? did they see? didn't he see? didn't they see? did she see? didn't she see? did it see? didn't it see? Did you see the look on his face? Didn't you see the look on his face? Did they see the effect of their action? Didn't they see the effect of their action? Did he see the change of dates? Didn't he see the change of dates? Did she see the reason for our new policy? Didn't she see the reason for our new policy? to do (+) to do (-) I did we did I did not do we did not do you did you did you did not do you did not do he did they did he did not do they did not do she did she did not do it did it did not do I did the floors yesterday. I didn't do the floors yesterday. He did the study without any help. He didn't do the study without any help. She did the dirty dishes. She didn't do the dirty dishes. It did the job okay. It didn't do the job okay. to do (+?) to do (-?) did I do? did we do? didn't I do? didn't we do? did you do? did you do? didn't you do? didn't you do? did he do? did they do? didn't he do? didn't they do? did she do? didn't she do? did it do? didn't it do? Did you do your homework last night? Didn't you do your homework last night? Did he do much business in Asia? Didn't he do much business in Asia? Did she do all the dirty clothes? Didn't she do all the dirty clothes? Did they do their military service? Didn't they do their military service?87 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION In the 169 years between 1607, when the first English colony in North America got its start at Jamestown, Virginia, and 1776, which was the start of the American Revolution, London's economic and political control of North America got weaker and weaker. This was not because Great Britain, as a nation, got weaker. No! Great Britain got much stronger in those years. They were the years of growth and development when Britain put together its Empire. But that was the problem -there was so much growth and in so many different parts of the world that Britain did not have enough time for or much interest in North American questions. Because of this the people of North America came to take a bigger part in the day-to-day work of their own governments. And so, through the years they got more and more experience in government. The outcome or end-effect of this political development was that after some time the American colonies became less dependent on the mother country. But at the same time some important political and economic changes in Great Britain made it much more dependent on North America! Until 1763, most people in North America were quite happy to be British. Britain was the strongest nation in the world and they were happy to be a part of it. But, in 1763, the government of King George III, who was the king of Britain then, made an important decision -a decision to get more money from the colonies in North America. In the eyes of some top British government policy-makers the chief reason, if not the only reason, to have North American colonies was profit. The British government saw only two ways to make money out of the Americans. The first was by the sale of goods and the control of business and trade. The second was by taxes. So, in 1763, King George III gave in to* political pressures and put his name on some new laws -laws which put new controls on * give in (to): He always gives in to his wife. She gave in and had some chocolate ice with us. American businesses and new taxes on the sale of hundreds of common, everyday things, from newspapers and glass to cards and tea. This sudden change of policy was a big mistake because it made many people angry. We now see that the policies, the decisions, the actions of 1763 were the start of the end -the end of Britain's control of North America. In the thirteen years between 1763 and 1776, many important Americans went to London. Though they went with the idea of round table talks with the decision-makers in the British government, they got nowhere. Their words had no more effect than drops of water on a hot stone. The people in back of** British government policy had little or no understanding of the effects of their decisions and actions. And all this time, the Americans got angrier and angrier. It should be clear to everyone with even a little interest in history that the problem of taxes was one of the chief reasons for the American Revolution and Britain's loss of most of her North American colonies. ** in back of: I don't know what is in back of their sudden interest in trade with Mexico. There is no gold in back of American money.88 Until 1776, fifteen colonies made up* British North America. They were New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Quebec and Nova Scotia. On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress, which was a meeting of thirteen colonies in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, gave its okay to a Declaration of Independence.** These thirteen colonies, which became the first thirteen states of the United States of America, then took up arms in defense of their ideas and made the Revolution. The other two colonies, Quebec and Nova Scotia, under very strong military control by the British, did not take part in the action. The American Revolution was a war against the strongest nation in the world, Great Britain. The war was seven years long, from 1776 to 1783. There were about 3,000,000 people in the thirteen colonies that took up arms against their king. About 30 percent of the people were for the idea of independence, about 10 percent were against it and the rest had little or no interest in the question. * make up: How many students make up our class? A few farmers made up our defense line. ** independence ≠ dependence (dependent) Among the supporters of the Revolution, there were businessmen, lawyers, land owners and farmers. Because many of them had to be ready for action at any minute of the day or night, they soon got the name "Minutemen." At the start of the war, the Americans had strong feelings, but almost no military training. So, the most important problem was how to make a real army out of simple farmers. That was the job of George Washington, a land owner from Virginia. George Washington was a tall, serious man, a man of both ideas and action. He got most of his own military training and experience at the time of the French and Indian War, 1755 -1763. Washington was the man responsible for much of the success of the American military force in the Revolution. Many men went into the army in answer to his "Call to arms." He was a man who always put his country first. Among the British people, there was not much real support for the idea of a war against their own kind, subjects of the king, supporters of free and responsible government, so the government of George III had to make use of Germans. The Germans that went into the British army had little or no understanding of the complex political and economic problems that were in back of the American Revolution. They had no real interest in the outcome of the war. They saw things in a quite different light. They had a job to do, and they did it for money. Everything was very clear and simple for most of them. Why get worried about all those political questions, things that had nothing to do with their lives or families? When British gold could no longer get all the necessary men from Germany, King George III went to Katherine the Great of Russia. He wanted the Russian Empress to give him 20,000 Russians for military service in America. But Katherine the Great was a woman with real political understanding and she saw right away that this was not in Russia's best interest. Her answer was simple and strong: "No! Not for all your British silver and gold!" Katherine's decision was, without question, a great help to the Americans.89 Thanks to years of work in Paris by Benjamin Franklin, a great man of science, the King of France, Louis XVI, gave the Americans a lot more support, real help -money, equipment, ships and, after 1777, even an army of more than 8,000 men. When France became a partner of the Americans, the war became a world war. Britain's control of not only the thirteen colonies but also Canada and many islands in the Caribbean Sea was in danger. The French king's reason was clear: As everyone knows, the enemy of my enemy is my friend. The Americans were at war with France's old enemy, so why not give them some help? The French government saw it as a good way to get back at* the British. The Americans saw Russia and France as supporters and backers, if not as real "friends." And, without question, this made them stronger. At last, when an important part of the British military force in North America gave up** at Yorktown in the fall of 1781, the peace process became serious. After many months of secret talks between Americans and British in Paris, the two sides came to an agreement. As part of the general peace agreement, they put a line across the face of the continent. To * get back at: After many years, I got back at him for all the terrible things he did to me. It may be a part of our nature to want to get back at those who do us wrong. ** give up The war was over when the enemy gave up. I know he will give up when he sees how strong we are. the north was Canada, made up of Quebec and Nova Scotia, and to the south were the United States. At the end of the war more than 100,000 American backers of the British went north across that line to Canada. These newcommer were greater in number than all the people in Canada before the war. All the one-time colonies became "states," and so, the new nation became the United States of America. But this change of name and the change of government system that came with the peace agreement were not answers to the many very real problems with which the Americans were face-to-face. People had very different political ideas. Some people wanted to give the new nation a strong central government. But at the same time a lot of people were afraid of a big, strong government that was not dependent on the people. They were afraid because of the lessons of history and their own political experience. When the "Fathers" of the United States, put their new government together, they did something very new in world history. In place of a king, they put a president, who was dependent on the people and responsible to them. The Americans made a new kind of government in which the people had the last word about government policies, decisions and actions. This kind of government is a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.90 FUTURE to see (+) to see (-) I will see we will see I will not see we will not see you will see you will see you will not see you will not see he will see they will see he will not see they will not see she will see she will not see it will see it will not see You'll see a sudden change of policy. You won't see a sudden change of policy. He'll see that their words are empty. He won't see that their words are empty. They'll see how many insects there are. They won't see how many insects there are. She'll see how much economic growth there was. She won't see how much economic growth there was. to see (+?) to see (-?) will I see? will we see? won't I see? won't we see? will you see? will you see? won't you see? won't you see? will he see? will they see? won't he see? won't they see? will she see? won't she see? will it see? won't it see? Will they see what turn to take? Won't they see what turn to take? Will we see where the gold is? Won't we see where the gold is? Will he see what kind of insect it is? Won't he see what kind of insect it is? Will she see how to put the chemicals together? Won't she see how to put the chemicals together? to do (+) to do (-) I will do we will do I will not do we will not do you will do you will do you will not do you will not do he will do they will do he will not do they will not do she will do she will not do it will do it will not do I will do your job for you. I won't do your job for you. We will do everything he does. We won't do everything he does. He will do something for her. He won't do anything for her. They will do the work on page 15. They won't do the work on page 15. to do (+?) to do (-?) will I do? will we do? won't I do? won't we do? will you do? will you do? won't you do? won't you do? will he do? will they do? won't he do? won't they do? will she do? won't she do? will it do? won't it do? Will you do this for me? Won't you do this for me? Will he do all the reading? Won't he do all the reading? Will she do the dance for us? Won't she do the dance for us? Will they do anything tomorrow? Won't they do anything tomorrow?91 A GOOD TIME IN ALASKA I have a good job with an oil company. I am a manager, responsible for much of the work on the pipeline that takes oil from the far north of Alaska to the harbor at Valdez. This oil pipeline is very important to the chemical industries of the United States. My job is to make sure that the men who do the work on the pipeline have everything necessary for their jobs. Our company has many oil wells on the north side of the Brooks Mountains. Some of our wells go down 10 miles (16 kilometers) or more to bodies of oil that can be the size of lakes. The president of our oil company made me responsible for all our well and pipeline operations in Alaska. Without question, this is an important step up for me in our organization. I like the way our president does things. He knows, in general, what he wants to do, but he doesn't always know how to do it. So, his policy is to give an order, and then it is up to* every manager how to do it. For example, he gave me a call a short time ago. He would like me to take some special equipment up to our oil fields next week. You can be sure that I will do everything necessary to make my trip a success. My secretary, Miss Hayes, will make my flight reservations and get my round trip tickets on American Airlines. I should know my flight number this afternoon or tomorrow, at the latest. Miss Hayes already made a list of * up to: It is up to you to get to school before the teacher. What we have for dinner is up to my mother. everything I have to do before I can go. You see I will be quite busy for the next few days. This will be my fourth trip to Alaska. Every time I go there for business, I take a four or five day vacation. This time, I would like to go up river after** some of Alaska's big fish. It is no secret that I am a good fisherman, a real good fisherman. I will see my close friend, James Van Buren, who has a little place in the backwoods, miles from nowhere. His place is mid-way between two little lakes that together make the headwater of one of Alaska's chief rivers. There are only three ways to get to James' place: by foot, by horse, or by airplane. Airplanes are the buses and taxis of Alaska. People take them almost everywhere. I'm sure that my friend will know where we should go for those big, delicious, fresh-water fish. I'm sure it will be a simple process: we will put our fish lines in the water and, after only a two or three minute wait, take out a few fish. James is a good cook and knows how to make a good fire, so it will be my business to get those beautiful fish ready for dinner. Because it's not my every day kind of work, I'll be happy to take out their insides and get them clean. Then, together with some fresh tomatoes, onions and potatoes from John's garden and a pot of strong coffee, we will soon have a good Alaskan backwoods fish dinner. The great outdoors has a very special effect on me. It gives me back that real feeling of who I am. ** go after: Dogs go after cats. He went after a new job.92 James is now a woodcutter. His hands are big and his muscles are as hard as stone. He is a real Alaskan! He went to Alaska a few years ago to be a truck driver. He went because the money was very good. But, then, there was a strange turn in his life. In a very short time James was in love with the area. The land -with its lakes, rivers, mountains, valleys and woods -got under his skin. He gave up his job as a truck driver and went into the backcountry, far away from everyone. He came across a beautiful little piece of land that he wanted for his own as soon as he saw it. Though the price was high, he still got it. He put up a little house, got a new wife and made a new life. James has a pocket full of stories about his early years in Alaska. Living in the Alaskan backcountry, away from people, is not always easy for my friend and his wife, Martha. They have a very simple life. They do not have beautiful china dishes or expensive silver knives, forks, and spoons. They do not get any calls, because they don't even have a telephone. As you see, they are country people. They get up with the sun. They are close to the earth and the forces of nature. They know many of nature's secrets. They have to do many things by hand, but that is okay with them because they do not want to be dependent on others. They like to be free. Their kind of life gives them both a great feeling of peace. They have time to take a look at life, at the flowers and trees, at the birds and bees. Things that, I am sorry, I do not always have time for in my busy life. Life in Alaska can be hard, so, when necessary, a neighbor is always ready to give a hand. In a real emergency, James and Martha can make use of their radio to get a "sky-taxi" to come in and take them out. The process is quite simple. But it is only if a serious problem comes up,* for example, one of them gets very sick, or the river comes up higher than normal and goes over its sides. They are not afraid or worried because they know that help is only a radio call away. Their closest neighbor is about 10 miles down river from their place. That is a very short distance in Alaska. Their kind of life is not for everyone. It takes a special kind of person, a person who is strong inside and outside, a person who is at peace with the world as it is and does not want too many changes or physical things. Living like that may be easier in Alaska than other places, because it is one of the most beautiful places on earth. It has the highest mountain on the North American continent, Mount McKinley. It also has some of the biggest animals on the continent. In the spring, there are wild flowers everywhere. In the summer only the highest mountains have snow. The only real problem is insects. There are flies and mosquitoes, as big as horses, together with other insects everywhere. And Alaskan insects are always hungry. One kind of insect that is never a problem is the butterfly. Butterflies with their wings of many colors may be the most beautiful insects in all the world. Alaskan summer days are hot and almost without end because the sun never goes down for more than a short time. It is from these "white nights" that Alaska gets its other name -Land of the Midnight Sun. In the fall, the woods put on coats of many colors. It is as if someone made the perfect picture of nature. The winters are hard, but they are beautiful in their own way. The days are short, the wind is icy, and the land has a coat of snow everywhere. But then the "Northern Lights," as if a gift to those who are strong enough to take a winter in the Far North, come out and do their dance of many colors across the black sky. The effect is out of this world. * come up: Flowers come up every spring. Problems come up now and then.93 As you may know, at one time there was a land-bridge between Alaska and Asia, which the great, great, great grandparents of the North American Indians and Eskimos came across. Now there is no longer that landbriidge but at one place Alaska is less than three miles (4.8 kilometers) from Russia. This short distance is one reason Alaska is so very, very important to both the United States and Russia. Vitus Bering, from Denmark, made the European discovery of Alaska in 1741. At that time he was in the service of the Russian Emperor, so Alaska became a part of the Russian Empire. For many years it was under the control of a company: The Russian-American Company, which was a kind of halfbusiines and half-government organization. Most of its interest was in fish and animal skins. Today, there are still many Russian place names on the map of Alaska and in the cities of Sitka and Juneau there are beautiful Russian Orthodox churches. The United States got Alaska from Russia in October 1867 for $7,200,000. At that price, it was less a purchase than a gift. The Russian government made the sale because it was afraid that England was ready to take the land by force and make it part of British North America, which we know today as Canada. The discovery of gold in the Klondike was the reason thousands and thousands of people went North in 1898. Some of Jack London's books, for example, Call of the Wild, are about this time in the area's history. In the years before World War II, people did not know much about Alaska, not because it was a secret, but because most people didn't have much interest in the place. But after the war, more and more people went North. They went for different reasons. Many went to get away from the problems of city life. Some went to get a new start in life. There was, at this time, a real upturn in Alaska's growth. Today, Alaska is first, among the 50 states which make up the USA, in land, but last in number of people. About 2/3s of its over 600,000 people make their homes in only three cities. In a few years, it may also be one of the nation's richest states. Alaska is now so rich that its government did away with the state's income tax in 1979. It is one of the few states without a sales tax. Today, the state gets most of its money from the profits of the oil industry. Oil is Alaska's number one money-maker. It is, without question, the state's economic backbone. After oil comes the seafood and wood industries. Gold and silver are even farther down the list of income makers. The discovery of oil, or "black gold," made an economic revolution in the state. Everyone knew for many years that there was oil in the Far North, but no one knew how to get down to it or how to get it out to customers. The development of new and better oil equipment in the late 1960s was the answer to the first problem. The answer to the second came in the early 1970s, when some big oil companies made the decision to put a pipeline across the state. It took them three years and $4.5 billion to put down an 800 mile (1280 kilometer), 48 inch (120 centimeter) hot oil pipeline. The first drops of oil came through the line to Valdez harbor in 1977. From Valdez, big oil ships take it south to factories in the lower 48 states where different chemical industries make many things out of it. But to do business this way is very expensive, so the American and Canadian governments made an agreement in 1979 to put a pipeline across Canada. When it is ready, the pipeline will take the place of today's big ships. An economic downturn put this great building plan on ice for a few years. But there is still talk about it. Maybe, someday, they will do it. Who knows?94 Please put your answers on the line. 1. The bites of insects are _ insect_ bites. 2. Houses for birds are ________ houses. 3. Colonies of bees are _________ colonies. 4. A tax on income is an ________ tax. 5. A talk that is 10 minutes long is a _______________ talk. 6. A tax of five dollars is a _________________ tax. 7. A mountain that is two miles high is a _______________ high mountain. 8. A study that is three months long is a _______________ long study. 1. I want to take the next step. I would like to take the next step. 2. He wants to see the secret papers. _________________________________________ . 3. They want to put up a new sign. _________________________________________ . 4. What do you want to do on Saturday? _________________________________________ . 5. When do you want to go for a ride? _________________________________________ . 6. Why do you want to go by train? _________________________________________ . 1. What is the effect? What the effect is! 2. Who is the driver? _________________________________________ ! 3. When was the revolution? _________________________________________ ! 4. Where was the dish? _________________________________________ ! 5. Why will there be a change of policy? _________________________________________ ! 6. How much growth will there be? _________________________________________ ! 1. I got no attention from them. I didn't get any attention from them. 2. She has no future. _________________________________________ . 3. He wants no industry in his town. _________________________________________ . 4. They make no chemicals in that factory. _________________________________________ . 5. I had no enemies. _________________________________________ . 6. We gave no defense for our actions. _________________________________________ . 7. Our words had no effect on his decision. _________________________________________ . 8. There will be no change of policy. _________________________________________ . 9. There was no agreement between us. _________________________________________ . 10. There is no wall in Berlin. _________________________________________ . √ to be to see to go to do to get to have to know made give take wants are put come 1. To be or not to be , that is the question. 2. I have ____________ to the training center before 6:00 3. I want ____________ your first and last name. 4. He is too sick ___________ to the doctor without my help. 5. He knows how ____________ many things. 6. She would like ______________ dinner with him this weekend. 7. She doesn't want ______________ him again. 8. Who ___________ you? 9. Where do you ____________ from? 10. He ____________ a big mistake when he didn't go into the air force. 11. She knows what she ____________ and she will get it. 12. Please ___________ me a call tomorrow morning. 13. If we __________ our heads together, I'm sure we can come up with the right answer. 14. ___________ all the time you want, but don't make any mistakes.95 The American Government96 LESSON 5 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. soldier _______________ square _______________ officer _______________ poison _______________ gun _______________ camera _______________ ____________ uniform The soldier has on an American uniform. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ shock The news of his accident was a shock to us all. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ member Is she a member of our organization? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ battle There was a great battle at Waterloo in 1815. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ education Where did you get your education? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ space Yuri Gagarin, a Russian, was the first person in space. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ program Who put this political program together? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ court Was it necessary to take the problem to court? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ argument What was their big argument about? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ explosion There was a great fireball after the explosion. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ heat The doctor wants me to put heat on my shoulder. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ technology Computers are an important part of today's high technology. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ relation There is a close relation between his political and economic ideas. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ constitution 55 men made the American Constitution in 1787. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ museum When do you want to go to the Museum of Science and Industry? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ right He has no right to do that without the president's okay. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ division They made a division of the work. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ fight Why did the boys have a fight? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ opinion What is your friend's opinion about our new teacher? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ limit Does space have a limit? _____________________________________________________________97 ____________ damage The explosion did a lot of damage. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ fact The police want facts, not opinions, for their report. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ representative Who is the European representative of your company? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ lead The leader took the lead when there was danger. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ visit The visitor made a five day visit to Florida. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ republic A republic has no king or queen. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ monarchy Monarchy in Britain is more than a thousand years old. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ democracy The idea of democracy is as old as Greece. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ level His level of education was very low. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ power How did he get so much power? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ election When is the next election for president? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ vote He didn't get my vote in the last election. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ nuclear Much of their defense is dependent on nuclear arms. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ basic Potatoes are a basic food for millions of people round the world. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ national Washington, D.C. is the national capital of the USA. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ separate I put your books and my books in a separate places. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ natural What is the natural color of her hair? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ wide There is a new bridge across the wide river. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ narrow There are many narrow streets in the old parts of the city. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ complete What is the price of a complete dinner? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ private She is the private secretary of the president. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ public Where is the closest public telephone? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ executive It was an executive decision. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ legislative The British legislative branch is the House of Commons. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ judicial A lawyer is necessary for most judicial questions. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ well This is a good piece of work and you did it very well. _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to think What do you think about our agreement? _____________________________________________________________ ____________ to say Please say this word again. _____________________________________________________________98TO DO A. do is used to make the negative form of verbs. 1. I do not have enough facts to make a good decision. 2. He does not see the level of power that she has. 3. She does not like his judicial opinions. 4. We did not know the way to the National Museum of Space Technology. 6. You did not go to the nuclear power station yesterday. 5. They did not want to know about the outcome of the election, because it has no meaning for them. B. do is used to make questions. 1. Do you have any insect poison? Don't you have any insect poison? 2. Does she want more heat? Doesn't she want more heat? 3. Did you see him take my computer program? Didn't you see him take my computer program? 4. Who do you know in Paris? 5. What do they want to see at the National Museum of Art? 6. Why did he put his old officer's uniform on? C. do is a verb showing general or daily actions. Diana: What do you want to do with the rest of your life? Charles: I want to do many things. I'm still a young man. Diana: What do you know how to do? Charles: What a question! I know how to do many things. I have a lot of know-how. Nicholas: Who does your hair? Alexandra: I have a very good hair dresser who does my hair at least two times a month. Nicholas: Do you have help to do your house? Alexandra: Yes, I have a woman who comes every Monday and every Friday to do my house. D. do is used to show emphasis. 1. I do have a camera! 2. We do like your ideas for the music program! 3. They do come for a visit very often! 4. I did take the gun away from the soldier! 5. She did get a terrible shock when she saw the test questions! 6. He did do a lot of work when he was an officer in our organization! E. do is used in place of another verb. Elizabeth: Do you want any chocolate ice cream? Katherine: Yes, I do. As you know, chocolate is my favorite. I can never get enough. Elizabeth: Did you want his opinion about the US free trade agreement with Canada and Mexico? Katherine: Yes, I did. I wanted to know how he sees the economic future of the continent. Andrew: Will you go into the river, if I do? Nathaniel: Yes, if you go into the river, I'll do the same. Andrew: What did you do when she took a seat at the head table? Nathaniel: I did the same. Why? What I did was quite normal.99 The verbs to make and to do are very different. To make gives the idea of creation, production. It is used to show something new comes into existence. To do gives the idea of a general, often repeated, noncreaativ action which is clear from the other words in the sentence. 1. After she made the poison, what did she do with it? 2. After the lawyer made his argument, what did he do? 3. After we made him our representative, he did a lot of work for us. 4. After I made the decision, the rest was easy to do. My mother makes our clothes. My mother does our clothes every Saturday. The shoemaker makes shoes. I do my shoes before I go to church. The factory makes both pots and pans. She does the pots and pans after dinner. They made a nice floor in the house. We do our floors when they get dirty. My grandmother made this rug. I did the rug in my living room yesterday. My grandfather made our dining table. I did our dining table with an old shirt. They want to make a special window. She wants to do her windows before her friend comes. They know how to make cheese. She knows how to do the flowers for important parties. They make paper out of wood. What will you do with all that paper? He makes a lot of work for his mother. He does a lot of work for his mother. The young man made a beautiful gold ring for his girlfriend. Did Mr. Jefferson make a lot of money as a wine trader? I want to know your opinion. Who made the world? Do you know what company makes underwater cameras? Without question, the Germans make the best beer. Why not make a big dinner for our friends this weekend? They make their own butter and sour cream at the farm. They want to make a spaceship, but they don't know how. There was some new information in the study that they made about bees. If you don't want war, you have to make peace right now! He wants to make a revolution, but not right now. It's too hot today. The president is the executive decision maker in the American government. You made a delicious dinner, so I will do the dishes. My mother made this shirt and I do it when it gets dirty. Rome wasn't made in a day! When in Rome do as the Romans! I do my teeth after every meal. She does her hair the same as her mother. Do your beds before you go to school. If you do the rice, I'll do the vegetables. He can do nice writing, if he wants to. She does a lot of reading, so she knows a lot of facts. How much work do you do at your office? What's the name of the man who does the evening news? The businessman does his own taxes. There was nothing new in the study they did on insects. What did you do for fun last weekend? What do you want to do on your next summer vacation? Do you know how to do this new dance? She does the books for the company every Tuesday. I have to do my flower garden tomorrow afternoon. Everyone has to do two years of military service. That's the law.100Well Ashley: Do you know Mr. and Mrs. Nixon? Natalie: Yes, I know them both very well. Ashley: Can you see without your glasses? Natalie: Yes, I can see, but I can't see well. Mr. Clinton: I see that you know how to take good pictures with that old camera. Mrs. Bush: I can do okay, but not as well as I would like. Mr. Clinton: How did your visit to Spain go? Mrs. Bush: It went very well. We had so much fun, we want to go again! Dr. Kennedy: That was a good question and you put it very well in court today. You're a natural lawyer. Ms. Harding: Thank you, but next time, I will do even better. You can be sure! Dr. Kennedy: How well did your political party do in the last election? Ms. Harding: It did quite well. We got over half the votes. Not too bad for a new group! ADJECTIVES Many adjectives can be made from nouns by adding "ful" or "less" at the end. 1. A party full of color is a colorful party. 2. A night full of rest is a restful night. 3. A sign full of hope is a hopeful sign. 4. A machine full of use is a useful machine. 5. A nurse full of care is a careful nurse. 6. An injury full of pain is a painful injury. 7. An afternoon full of peace is a peaceful afternoon. 8. An idea full of help is a helpful idea. 9. People full of success are successful people. 10. Actions full of meaning are meaningful actions. 1. The opposite of a colorful party is a colorless one. 2. The opposite of a restful night is a restless one. 3. The opposite of a hopeful sign is a hopeless one. 4. The opposite of a useful machine is a useless one. 5. The opposite of a careful nurse is a careless one. 6. A problem with no end is an endless problem. 7. A body with no life is a lifeless body. 8. A revolution with no blood is a bloodless revolution. 9. A nation with no law is a lawless nation. 10. A winter with no snow is a snowless winter. + -colorful colorless restful restless hopeful hopeless useful useless careful careless tasteful tasteless thankful thankless powerful powerless meaningful meaningless101into MOVEMENT: "into" shows movement, not place. 1. She went into the museum at 10:10. She came out of the museum at 12:27. 2. The officer came into the classroom. The officer went out of the classroom. 3. When did he go into the navy? When did he get out of the navy? 4. After the explosion no one could go into the area. 5. The man went into shock a short time after he had a heart attack. 6. The boys went into the water without any clothes on. SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS 1. He went into the army when he was 18 years old. 2. The army went into action. 3. The law will go into effect on January 1. at POINT: at may show a point of time. 1. The bus will be here at 9:30. 2. The explosion took place at 5:45. 3. They went into the court room at 10:00. 4. Who was president at that time? 5. I went to bed at midnight. 6. We had lunch at noon. PLACE: at may show a "geographic" or focal point. 1. My book is at the corner of the table. 2. Who is at the door? 3. The party will be at my house. 4. His hands are at his sides. 5. The dog came at me with its mouth open. 6. Did you take a look at the price of that computer? at may also be used when the action is more important than the place. 1. I was at work all day. 2. The children were at school until 4 o'clock. 3. We were at the theater yesterday? 4. He was at Oxford University for four years. SPECIAL EXPRESSIONS 1. The officers may be at breakfast/lunch/dinner when you come. 2. I was at a loss for words. 3. I know that at one time he was in England, but I'm not sure where he is at present. 4. He came home late at night. 5. Nathaniel is good at football. 6. Elizabeth is not too good at higher mathematics. 7. There were at most 50 people in the area. 8. He never goes anywhere without at least $10 pocket money. 9. The USA was at war in Europe from December 1941 until May 1945. 10. When will the nations of the world be at peace? 11. At first, I did not see her. 12. Help came at last!102about CONCERNING 1. This book is about English. 2. That film was about political problems in the Republic of South Africa. 3. I know all about you, my sweet. 4. They had an all-night argument about the different meanings of democracy. 5. Does he know anything about the political history of French monarchy? APPROXIMATELY: more or less. 1. The seaman is about 25 years old. 2. The air force officer was about 6 feet (185 centimeters) tall. 3. The safe area is about 2 miles (3.2 kilometers) from here. READY 1. We were about to go. 2. They are about to have dinner. 3. I was about to give you a call. ROUND: here and there. 1. She put flowers about the room. 2. We went for a walk about the city. 3. He went about his apartment with one shoe on and one shoe off. through OTHER SIDE: through may give the idea -from one side to the other side. 1. The sunlight came through my window. 2. They went through miles and miles of woods. 3. The oil goes through the pipe. 4. The rain came through the roof. 5. There is a hole through the bottom of his shoe. 6. I could see her through the fog. END/FINISH: through may give the idea of end. 1. What time will the film be through? 2. I got through my work with the help of a computer. 3. Our class went through the book in only one month. 4. He came through the battle without any injury. 5. She went through his money in a very short time. 6. Now she is through with him. BECAUSE OF: through may give the idea of from or because of. 1. He got the information through reading. 2. She got rich through much hard work. 3. Soldiers know about guns through their training. 4. He got that job through his uncle.103 by VERY CLOSE: by may give the idea of close to something. 1. Why is that man by your car? 2. He has a gun by the door. 3. Who put the bottle of poison by my bottle of medicine? TRANSPORT: by may be used with all forms of transport. 1. They came by airplane. 2. He came to school by car. 3. Do you want to go to the store by foot or by bicycle? MEANS: by may show the person or thing through which something is done. 1. War and Peace is by Tolstoy. 2. She did it by mistake. 3. I got the information by accident. NOT LATER THAN: 1. Please be here by 8:00. 2. It will be ready by Saturday. 3. We have to get there by the start of the meeting.over PLACE: over ≠ under 1. A branch of the tree was over the roof of our house. 2. The soldier went over the stone wall. 3. The water went over the side of the pot. END: over may indicate end or finish. 1. The film will be over at 8:45. 2. Do you know why our science class was over early today? 3. Mr Adam's business meeting will be over by 4 o'clock. MORE: over may indicate more than. 1. The meeting was over three hours long. 2. He is over six feet tall. 3. She is over 21 years old. AGAIN: over may have the meaning of again. 1. You must do this work over. 2. Do this report over and give it to me in the morning. 3. Go over pages 30 to 40 and be ready for a test on Tuesday. ABOUT: over may sometimes have the same meaning as about. 1. They had a fight over money. 2. Their argument was over what direction the space program should take. 3. The court battle was over who was responsible for the car accident.104 PRESENT to think (+) to think (-) I think we think I do not think we do not think you think you think you do not think you do not think he thinks they think he does not think they to not think she thinks she does not think it thinks it does not think I think about my future. I don't think about my future. He thinks about the meaning of life. He doesn't think about the meaning of life. She thinks about him all the time. She doesn't think about him all the time. They think about future technology. They don't think about future technology. to think (+?) to think (-?) do I think? do we think? don't I think? don't we think? do you think? do you think? don't you think? don't you think? does he think? do they think? doesn't he think? don't they think? does she think? doesn't she think? does it think? doesn't it think? Do you think that he went to the museum? Don't you think that he went to the museum? Do they think that he is a secret service officer? Don't they think that he is a secret service officer? Does he think that we have natural rights? Doesn't he think that we have natural rights? Does she think that they have enough facts? Doesn't she think that they have enough facts? to say (+) to say (-) I say we say I do not say we do not say you say you say you do not say you do not say he says they say he does not say they do not say she says she does not say it says it does not say I say the words over and over. I don't say the words over and over. He says the words well. He doesn't say the words well. She says his name often. She doesn't say his name often. They say it a different way in the South. They don't say it a different way in the South. to say (+?) to say (-?) do I say? do we say? don't I say? don't we say? do you say? do you say? don't you say? don't you say? does he say? do they say? doesn't he say? don't they say? does she say? doesn't she say? does it say? doesn't it say? Does it say who did it? Doesn't it say who did it? Does it say what they did it? Doesn't it say what they did it? Does it say why they did it? Doesn't it say why they did it? Does it say how they did it? Doesn't it say how they did it?105 A SOLDIER IN THE FAMILY Many men in our family went into military service. My uncle was a seaman in the last war. He was on a big battleship. We have a picture of him in his seaman's uniform. His ship went down with a great loss of life. He was on board at the time and was lucky to get away with the clothes on his back. My father was an airman. He went to Officer Training School and became an air force officer. His high level of training made him a natural leader. He took part in some important air operations, attacks against enemy airfields, and so on. Early in the war, he got a bad leg injury and the doctors had to take off the lower half of his right leg. After many weeks in a military hospital, the air force gave him an office job away from the action of the front line. For the rest of the war, he was an executive officer, responsible for the air defense of an area about 6000 square miles (9600 square kilometers). It was an interesting and important time in his life. He likes for people to know about his w a r t i m e experiences. He likes to think about, as he says, "the good old days." Sometimes, he gets angry with war films, that are often on television. He says that war is much different from the films: the good against the bad. He says it is a big mistake to get the idea that one's enemy is not too bright. He says, in fact, sometimes it is only a question of which side is luckier. In his opinion the people who know the real nature of war, who have firsthand experience, are the strongest supporters of peace. My father's deep feeling is that the best way for our way of life, our democracy, to be safe is for our nation to be strong and ready for action. He thinks there should be a national system of military training for both men and women, who are 18 years or over. He says that the danger of war is less, when our nation is strong. I don't know if I am in complete agreement with all his ideas, but there is no question for me -our nation should have strong defense forces. There is no argument between us, when he says that there is a price to be free in a world full of danger. My cousin, William, became a soldier not too long ago. He went into the army a few days after his 18th birthday. His mother was a little worried, but that's the way of all mothers. For his first six weeks in the army, he went through basic training about 50 miles (83 kilometers) from his home. After he got through his six weeks of basic military training, he had the right to come home for a two-day rest. When we got the news that he was back, all the family got together for a big party at his parents' home. I must say that I had quite a shock when I saw him!106 The boy of six weeks ago is now a man, a real man! He has a very short haircut. His back is straight, his shoulders are wider and his stomach is as hard as stone. He is in perfect physical condition. His soldier's uniform gives him a very important look. He likes the cut of his uniform a lot. He says that he likes military life so much that he wants to become an officer. His plan is to go to Officer Training School. I know William very well and these are not empty words. He is very serious about this. I think that if this is what he wants, he has a bright future before him. Who knows, maybe someday he will get to the highest level and become a general. At present, William is a member of a special forces group that has to be ready to do anything, anywhere, anytime. Their training program is very hard. He now has much more than the basic know-how of a soldier. William is very bright and likes to take the lead, so it was quite natural for him to become the leader of his group. He makes sure that there are no big problems among the members of his group. To do their job, they have to get along with* one another. He is happy about the good relations among his men. He says that they almost never get into arguments or fights with one another. * get along: If he wants to be president the has to get along with everyone. How does she get along at school? He says that he is ready for military life because he got a good basic education at school. He is happy that he knows higher mathematics very well. It was one of his favorite subjects in high school. Before he went into the army, he knew all about computers. He says that in today's army much of the equipment is dependent on computers. Soldiers have to know about them, because computers are at the heart of almost every arms system. In William's opinion, success in a little fire fight or a big battle is dependent on technology. William says that this is the big change in war from 30 or 40 years ago. William gave us an example of today's high technology in action. He says that there are cameras up in space that can take very clear pictures of everything that goes on down here on earth. I am sure that their real interest is not football or basketball, but everything that takes place in the military areas of an enemy or would-be enemy nation. These space cameras are only a part of the high technology systems that make our nation safe and make up an important part of our first line of defense against any kind of surprise attack. Because of his training, William knows about different kinds of arms -everything from knives and guns to nuclear warheads. He says that all the soldiers in his group had to go to a training film about nuclear war. It was a real shock for them to get a close look at and to know what nuclear arms can do.107 He says that in the film there was an explosion of a nuclear warhead over a city. First, there was a great fireball, as bright as the sun or maybe even brighter. Second, there was a terrible heat wave, when the temperature got much hotter than the hottest summer day. Third, there was a shock wave which came with the force of 100 thunder storms. The shock wave, which came a short time after the explosion, did a lot of damage to almost everything within an area of 50 square miles (80 square kilometers). William says that the worst effect of an nuclear explosion is not the damage to things, not even the number of dead or the terrible burns that people get. The worst thing about a nuclear explosion is the poison that it puts into the air. This poison, which has a special name -Nuclear Fallout, comes down from the nuclear cloud and gets into our water and food systems. There is no way to get it out. It has a terrible long-time effect on people's health for many years. William says it is necessary to make sure that we never, never put our nuclear arms to use. He thinks that a good way to make sure of this is to get the leaders and representatives of all the nations together every four or five years at the United Nations and give them the experience of a real nuclear explosion. If they know, firsthand, about the fireball, the heat and shock waves, they will never want to see their people go through a nuclear war. This kind of "education" may be the only way to get an nuclear arms control agreement that puts real limits on nuclear power. Even if the Cold War is over, there is still a nuclear danger. Some think the danger is even greater now than before. Before nuclear arms were under strong military control. Governments were more or less responsible for their use. For many years, only governments had the necessary know-how and technology. Today, we see not only governments, but also some political groups and organizations, both left and right wing, who say they have what it takes and are quite ready to make use of nuclear arms. I am afraid that with so many groups of this kind, it is only a question of time before there is a terrible nuclear accident. I don't know what to do about this new danger. But people say that two heads are better than one, so I'm hopeful that if you and I put our heads together, we can come up with* something to put a stop to this new nuclear danger. What do you think? * come up with: They came up with a new chemical after many years of work. I'm not worried because John always comes up with a good answer.108 PAST to think (+) to think (-) I thought we thought I did not think we did not think you thought you thought you did not think you did not think he thought they thought he did not think they did not think she thought she did not think it thought it did not think I thought about her last visit. I didn't think about her last visit. He thought about the space program. He didn't think about the space program. She thought about how many votes she got. She didn't think about how many votes she got. They thought about the court's decision. They didn't think about the court's decision. to think (+?) to think (-?) did I think? did we think? didn't I think? didn't we think? did you think? did you think? didn't you think? didn't you think? did he think? did they think? didn't he think? didn't they think? did she think? didn't she think? did it think? didn't it think? Did you think the explosion was an accident? Didn't you think the explosion was an accident? Did he think the changes were necessary? Didn't he think the changes were necessary? Did she think that our plan of action is okay? Didn't she think that our plan of action is okay? Did they think that his opinion was wrong? Didn't they think that his opinion was wrong? to say (+) to say (-) I said we said I did not say we did not say you said you said you did not say you did not say he said they said he did not say they did not say she said she did not say it said it did not say I said something to her. I didn't say anything to her. You said hello to her first. You didn't say hello to her first. He said that he had a high level of education. He didn't say that he had a high level of education. We said that it was too late to go to the film. We didn't say that it was too late to go to the film. to say (+?) to say (-?) did I say? did we say? didn't I say? didn't we say? did you say? did you say? didn't you say? didn't you say? did he say? did they say? didn't he say? didn't they say? did she say? didn't she say? did it say? didn't it say? Did you say anything about the election? Didn't you say anything about the election? Did you say anything about his fight with me? Didn't you say anything about his fight with me? Did you say anything against him? Didn't you say anything against him? Did you say anything in his name? Didn't you say anything in his name?109 THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION At the end of the American Revolution in 1783, the United States of America were states united in name only. The war was what made the states united. When the war was over, they soon went their separate ways. They were free to do what they wanted. Relations among them went from bad to worse. In fact, people said their general economic and political conditions could not get worse. There were problems, arguments and fights everywhere. Most people were tired of it, but they did not know what to do. Many of the problems came from the fact that the first national government of the US (1781 -1788) was little more than a general organization of states, an umbrella organization, made up of representatives from the states. Someone said that "it was a body without a head," because there was no head of government. There was no one to take the lead, no one to make decisions. There were no courts, because the central government could not make any laws. Without any tax power of its own, this "national government" was quite dependent on the states for both its money and military force. The money and men that the states did give the central government were "gifts" because the states were free to give or not to give. After a few years of living under this kind of less than perfect political system, many people said, "Enough is enough!" They were ready for a change, a real change, a basic change. This is why 55 men got together in the city of Philadelphia, in May 1787. They came from twelve of the thirteen states that made up the United States of America at that time. Most of them were landowners, businessmen and/or lawyers, but they had one thing in common: they were all very worried about the future of their new nation. In the opinion of most of these men, the only real answer to the nation's problems was a new system of government. They knew, more or less, what they did not like, but they were not quite sure about what they should do. As a first step, so their talks could be free, open and direct, the men who went to Philadelphia made the decision to have only closed door meetings. They gave their word to one another not to say anything to the newspapers until the end of their work. After many arguments, in the heat of that long summer, their plan for a new system of government was ready, at last, on September 17, 1787. Their plan of government became the United States Constitution that we know so well today. But, it was clear from the very start that not everyone was happy with it. In fact, only 39 out of the 55 representatives put their names on it. Because of their great service to the nation, those men have the name in American history of "Fathers of the Constitution." Their plan was for a new kind of government, a representative democracy, which in the words of Abraham Lincoln is "a government of the people, by the people and for the people." In the American system of government, the states are very powerful. Their great power comes, in part, from the fact that at the writing of the Constitution most of them were already very old. Massachusetts, for example, was over 150 years old. Virginia was even older. Every state had its own constitution and system of government already in place at the time. These states had little or no interest in a strong, central government. Most of them thought that a real national government would be a danger to their power.104 There was no living example of the kind of government they wanted to make, so the writers of the American Constitution had to go back in history more than a thousand years, all the way back to the Roman Republic. From the fall of the Roman Republic in 476 A.D. until the writing of the US Constitution, the world knew only monarchies. But, because of their experience with the king of England, George III, the Fathers of the American Constitution did not want a monarchy. They did not want a king at the head of their system. Their decision not to have a monarchy made the American political system different from all others. America became the only nation in the world, at that time, without a king or queen. When the Fathers of the American Constitution took a look at the British political system, they made a mistake. They thought they saw three separate parts: the king, the law-makers and the courts or, as we say today, executive, legislative and judicial branches of government. This was a mistake in the fact that no Englishman thought his government had this three-part division. The idea that government should have three branches got its start in the writings of a French thinker, Montesquieu. Because of Montesquieu's study and understanding of the British system, the Fathers of the Constitution said a division of powers was necessary if people wanted to be free. This was why they made a division of powers. In the American system of government, there is a clear-cut division among its executive, legislative and judicial branches. From their own experiences in the Revolution or War for Independence1, the Fathers of the American Constitution knew very well the problems of a government with a weak executive or a too strong legislative branch. They knew that it was necessary to have a central decision-maker, one person who was responsible for government action. So, in place of a king, they put a president! 1 independence ≠ dependence (dependent) In the American political system, the president is both the head of the government and the leader of the nation. He is the number one decision-maker with control of all the military services on land, on sea and in the air, that is, the army, the navy and the air force. He is responsible for the nation's political and economic relations with other countries. It is he who must give direction to the nation for the four years that he is in office. The US Constitution gives the president great powers, almost as great as those of a king. But he is not free to do anything and everything that he wants. There are controls and real limits on his powers. For example, to get the money to put his plans into action, the president has to have the agreement of the legislative branch, the law-makers, the representatives of the people, that is, Congress. If Congress is against him, a president can do very little. The American Congress, the legislative branch, has two parts or, as Americans say, "houses," an upper house -the Senate, and a lower house -the House of Representatives. The Constitution gives every state two Senators, so today, there are, all together, 100 Senators. The House of Representatives, on the other hand, has 435 members2. The number of Representatives from a state is dependent on the number of people in that state. For example, California with about 32 million people has 52 Representatives. So, you see, there is one Representative for every 600,000 people. Because Alaska has fewer than 600,000 people, it has only one Representative, but it still has two Senators. The Constitution gives the legislative branch a lot of power. Congress can and often does say "No" to the ideas of a president. All ideas for a new law must get an okay from both the House of Representatives and the Senate. If one of them says "No," the idea is dead! This is the reason Americans say "Our Senators and Representatives are our national lawmakeers. 2 The Constitution gives Washington D.C. three seats in Congress, but none of them has a vote. Puerto Rico also has a Representative without a vote.105 The courts make up the judicial or third branch of government. The name of the highest court in the American system is the Supreme Court3. The American court system is very complex. There are city courts, state courts and national courts. Every one of them has its own separate system of operation. Maybe, this is why lawyers are so important in the United States. They are necessary at every turn of life. American courts can not do anything until someone comes to them with a problem. Maybe, the meaning of a law is not quite clear, so a person, or a group of people or a company takes the question to court. The job of the court is then to see if there is a direct relation between that law and the actions of that person or group. American courts have a power that almost no other courts in the world have, and that is the power to say Congress and the president are wrong. In other words, American courts can say that the direct representatives of the people made a mistake! American courts can say that a law or an action of the president is against the Constitution. This puts a real limit on what the executive and legislative branches of the American government can do. Among the greatest limits on government power, in general, are the rights of the people. The Constitution says the people have a long list of basic rights, The Bill of Rights, without which a people can not be free. Among these are the right to take part in government, the right to know what goes on* in government, the right to say what one thinks or give one's opinion, the right to information, the right to a lawyer, the right to have political meetings, the right to become a member of a political party, the right to come and go as one wants, the right to go to the church of one's own choice, the right to make one's own choices about work, family, and other private interests, in other words, the right to a life without government control. Americans say that these are the natural rights of all people, and that is why they are in the US Constitution. 3 supreme = highest * go on: What went on at the meeting? The teacher knows everything that goes on even when she is out of the room. Elections are an important part of the American system of government. There are elections for the president every four years, for example 1988, 1992, 1996 and so on. Elections for the House of Representatives take place every two years. Elections for the Senate are every six years. All these are secret elections in which the voters make their choices for the different political offices. In a system of direct elections every vote is important. Elections are important only if voters have a choice. If there is no choice, then it is not a real election. To give voters a choice is the work of political parties. A political party, which is a group of people with more or less the same opinion about a number of different questions, puts together its political program at election time with the hope that if voters know the program they will give their support to the party. Though the American Constitution does not say one word about them, the US has two national political parties: the Democrats and the Republicans. Both the Democratic and Republican parties have their left and right wings. In general, the l e f t wants the government to do more and take on more responsibilities: education, health, help for the poor and so on. The r i g h t , on the other hand, sees government, in general, as a problem-maker and tax-taker. The right says people should be responsible for their own lives. They should not be dependent on government. So, in the US, the right wants a cut in government programs. It wants less government. The right wings of both the Democratic and Republican parties say the government already does too much; it should do less; it should get out of people's lives. Because most Americans are against the idea of an a l l -p o w e r f u l government, their arguments are often about what the national and state governments should or should not do. The American republic is a representative democracy. America is a republic because it has no king. It is a representative government because the people's representatives make all the decisions. It is a democracy because the people have a number of important rights that put limits on both what government does and the way it does it.106 FUTURE to think (+) to think (-) I will think we will think I will not think we will not think you will think you will think you will not think you will not think he will think they will think he will not think they will not think she will think she will not think it will think it will not think I'll think about his problem. I won't think about his problem. She'll think about the facts. She won't think about the facts. He'll think that he is our big leader. He won't think that he is our big leader. They'll think that the court's decision was wrong. They won't think that the court's decision was wrong. to think (+?) to think (-?) will I think? will we think? won't I think? won't we think? will you think? will you think? won't you think? won't you think? will he think? will they think? won't he think? won't they think? will she think? won't she think? will it think? won't it think? Will you please think about what I said? Won't you please think about what I said? Will she think that the area is too little? Won't she think that the area is too little? Will he think that the fight is over? Won't he think that the fight is over? Will they think that he did the right thing? Won't they think that he did the right thing? to say (+) to say (-) I will say we will say I will not say we will not say you will say you will say you will not say you will not say he will say they will say he will not say they will not say she will say she will not say it will say it will not say I'll say the word again for you. I won't say the word again for you. He'll say the number of votes again. He won't say the number of votes again. She'll say that she was at work all day. She won't say that she was at work all day. They''ll say that the camera was already broken. They won't say that the camera was already broken. to say (+?) to say (-?) will I say? will we say? won't I say? won't we say? will you say? will you say? won't you say? won't you say? will he say? will they say? won't he say? won't they say? will she say? won't she say? will it say? won't it say? Will you please say those beautiful words again? Won't you please say those beautiful words again? Will he say what he thinks? Won't he say what he thinks? Will she say how she did it? Won't she say how she did it? Will it say what time the explosion took place? Won't it say what time the explosion took place?107 A GOOD TIME IN WASHINGTON, D.C. My family and I will go to Washington, D.C. next month because we want to take a look at some of its many monuments and places of interest. We already have our airplane tickets and our room reservations at one of the big name hotels close to the center of the city. Washington has two airports. We should get into National Airport at 6:30 in the evening. After we get our bags, we will take a taxi to our hotel. The complete trip from the airport to the hotel will take about 45 minutes, so we should be in our rooms by 7:30, at the latest. We will put our clothes away, take a shower, have a short rest, and then go down for dinner about 9 o'clock. After dinner we may go for a little walk before bedtime. We want to be ready for our first full day in Washington, D.C. because there are so many things in America's capital to see and do. I made a timetable of where to go and what to see. This way there will be no arguments or fights about what we should do. We will go to the Capitol1 Building, where the Congress2 of the United States has its meetings, the Supreme3 Court Building, and the Library of Congress, which is one of the biggest, if not the biggest library in the world. These buildings are not too far from one another, so we can see all three in one day. We also want to take a look at the White House, the home of every president, but George Washington, the nation's first president. 1 Capitol is the name of the building where the US Congress has its meetings. Capital is the city where the national government is. 2 Congress is the name of that part of the US government which makes the laws. 3 supreme = highest We want to see the beautiful monuments to three of America's greatest presidents: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln. I think we will have time to go across the Potomac River to Arlington National Cemetery,4 where there are more than 60,000 war dead and the Tomb5 of the Unknown6 Soldier. It is a beautiful monument to those who gave their lives in wartime service to our nation. Another important place we want to be sure to see is Washington, D.C.'s newest war monument, the monument to the loss of more than 54,000 U.S. servicemen and servicewomen in Vietnam. People say that the monument, with all those names on its long walls of black stone, gives them a strange, quiet feeling. It makes a person think. My family and I like the theater, so one or two evenings we will go to the John F. Kennedy Center, which is the home of both the National Symphony7 Orchestra8 and the American National Ballet9 Theater. I do not know if we can get tickets, but I will do my best. I want very much to go to both the Symphony and the Ballet because I like music and dance and everyone says that they are among the very best in America. 4 cemetery is a special area where we put our dead. 5 tomb is a stone place for a dead body. 6 unknown ≠ known (know, knew, known) 7 symphony is a long piece of music. 8 orchestra is a group of musicians. 9 ballet is a kind of "toe dance" that came from France.108 People also say that we will like the National Air and SpacwAir and Space Museum, the Museum of Natural History, and the Museum of History and Technology. My understanding is that they are all close to one another. I know that it will take one full day, or maybe more, to go through them. There are also many art museums that we will want to put our heads into for a few minutes. As they say, a short visit is better than none. Another place of great interest to visitors is the National Archives10 with its many important papers from American history. Without question, the two most important papers in the National Archives are the Declaration11 of Independence12 (1776) and the Constitution (1787). Visitors to the Archives can take a look at these and many other papers that are important to American history, almost every day of the year. To get ready for our trip, I did some reading about the history of Washington, D.C. One of the books said that after 1775 there were eight different cities that were home to the American government. At last, in 1790, Congress made the decision to put the nation's capital in a special area, separate from all the states, and close to the middle of the country. George Washington wanted it to be on a beautiful piece of farmland along the Potomac river, not very far from his own home. This is 1 0 archive is a safe place for important papers. 1 1 declaration = something that we say with feeling. 1 2 independence ≠ dependence (dependent) why the state of Maryland gave 67 square miles (174 square kilometers) of land to the national government in 1791. This big piece of land got its name, District13 of Columbia, from Christopher Columbus, the European discoverer of America. Inside the District of Columbia was the city of Washington, which got its name from George Washington. People said he was "First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." For many, many years the city of Washington was much littler than the District of Columbia. But now, after many years of growth, the city is much bigger than the District. Today "Greater Washington" takes in an area of more than 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers). Today, parts of both Maryland and Virginia make up the Greater Washington area. Government is its only industry. Washington, D.C. is different from most other cities because it had a plan for its development from the very start. The man who made the plan was a French army officer, Pierre L'Enfant. He came to the New World in 1775. Like many other Frenchmen, he wanted to be of help to the Americans in their War of Independence. L'Enfant became an officer in the army and a close friend of George Washington. After the revolution, when the government made the decision to make a new capital city, separate from all other cities of that time, L'Enfant got the job of city planner. 1 3 district = area109 It should come as no surprise that in the opinion of Pierre L'Enfant the most beautiful city in the world was Paris. This is why he took it as his example of how the city of Washington should be. In other words, he wanted to make the new capital city of the United States along the lines of Paris. When he put together his plan for the city he was very clear about two things that came out of his own experience. The first was that the new capital should be an open city with space, long, straight, wide streets, beautiful squares with monuments, and trees and parks everywhere, the same as Paris. He wanted the great government buildings of the Republic to have Greek and Roman lines. The second thing was more political. He did not like at all the outcome of the French Revolution of 1789. As an army officer, he knew that the military force of Louis XVI, King of France, could not put down the revolution because the soldiers could not get through the little, narrow, back streets of Paris with their big guns and battlefield equipment. So, L'Enfant's plan for the city of Washington had a serious military side. He was afraid of revolution. He wanted to make sure that the American army could put down any street fight before it became a revolution. This is the reason he put the Capitol Building at the center of the city. The straight, wide streets that went out from it in many directions would give the army complete control of the city. L'Enfant had many arguments and fights about money and his big plans for "his city" with those round him who had little or no understanding of what he wanted to do. They saw only the bottom line and the price was high, too high in the opinion of many of them. L'Enfant knew how to make a capital city, but he did not know how to get along with* some of the important people in the government. He was not a political person, but an army officer. Because he said "No!" to all their ideas for change, L'Enfant made many enemies among the powers of that time. In the end, the American government said "Enough!" "Stop!" When L'Enfant went away, he took all his papers and plans with him. He did not want others to make use of his ideas. It is sad that this great city planner and builder, Pierre L'Enfant, got no money for all his work. L'Enfant took the government to court.** But, after a long judicial battle, the court said that he did not have the right to take the US government to court, in the first place. Sometime later, the US Congress said it was ready to give him $3000, but L'Enfant's answer was "No! Never!" L'Enfant said that he should get $95,000 for all the work he put into building America's capital city. Why was the American government so heartless? Why was the public not thankful to him? The two sides in this argument could not come to an agreement so L'Enfant got nothing. In the end, he went to his Maker with empty pockets and few friends. It was not until 1909 that Congress made the decision to put the body of Pierre L'Enfant, together with those of others who gave great service to the American nation, in Arlington National Cemetery, across the Potomac River from the capital city. His simple headstone says that he was the man responsible for the plan of Washington, D.C. The city is his real monument. L'Enfant's life is a perfect example of the fact that no one knows what public opinion will say or think about us in a hundred or two hundred years. *get along with: He gets along with his brother very well. Cats and dogs don't get along at all. **take to court: I took him to court after the accident. If I must take them to court, I will.110 Please put your answers on the lines. 1. The opposite of a powerful government is a powerless one. 2. The opposite of a tasteless film is a ________________________________ one. 3. The opposite of a meaningful gift is a _______________________________ one. 4. The opposite of a hopeful battle is a ________________________________ one. 5. The opposite of a careful student is a _______________________________ one. Please put do or make on the lines 1. She makes all her own dresses. 2. She _____________ a big dinner on Sundays. 3. She _____________ her husband's shirts every Monday. 4. She _____________ as much work as she can every day. 5. She _____________ a square cake with an airplane on top. 6. She _____________ an important job for the manager. 7. She will __________ some more tomorrow. 8. She will __________ a visit to Portugal some time next year. into at by about through over 1. The officer went into the court room. 2. The officer was ____________ our present president. 3. The start of the music program was _________ 7:30 4. I'll be ___________ museum before noon. 5. Please see who is ____________ the door. 6. In the last election, he got __________ most 52% of the votes. 7. I'll see you ___________ lunch. 8. When did the law go _____________ effect? 9. They had a terrible argument _____________ the many meanings of democracy. 10. My study on the fire power of battleships is _____________ complete. 11. A street fight was ____________ to take place when the police came. 12. We went for a walk ____________ the public square in Venice. 13. His opinion came ________________ to us loud and clear. 14. He'll be _____________ with his university education next year. 15. The chemical change takes place ______________ heat. 16. Your English gets better day _________ day. 17. The enemy force got across the river _________ boats. 18. I don't know if they did it ________ machine or _________ hand. 19. Everything will be ready for your visit _____________ Wednesday. 20. There is a beautiful picture on the wall _____________ her bed. 21. The election will be ______________ tomorrow. 22. Our private meeting with the church leaders was ____________ two hours long. 23. I'm sure their fight was ____________ a girl. 24. We did it ___________ and __________, until we got it right. in the first place get along take to court at all 25. How did he get along in the army? 26. The Constitution gave him too much power __________________. 27. If I don't get my money by Friday, I'll _________ you ______________________. 28. Why can't she _____________________ with anyone? 29. Children shouldn't have poison ___________________. 30. Because the king can do no wrong, you can not _________ him _______________. 31. He didn't take part in the battle __________________. 32. __________________________, he had no right to take my things.111 APPENDIX112 to be Her hair is black. Her eyes are brown. Her lips are red. Her ears are little. Her skin is soft. Her nose is short. His feet are big. His nose is long. His muscles are hard. His teeth are white. His arms are strong. His heart is okay. It was on the ship. It was in the report. It was under the train. It was by the truck. It was among my papers. It was from the king. It is under control. It is at the end of my tongue. It is against law. It is for your pleasure. It is after the fact. It is out of the question. I am sad. I am angry. I am cold. I am hot. I am wet. I am poor. I will be a student. I will be a doctor. I will be a farmer. I will be a businessman. I will be a secretary. I will be an executive. Be good ! Be happy! Be safe! Be ready! Be soft! Be simple! Don't be late! Don't be sick! Don't be bad! Don't be difficult! Don't be angry! Don't be afraid!113 to have I have a problem. I have a plan. I have a question. I have a secret. I have an idea. I have a reason. He has no time. He has no money. He has no work. He has no understanding. He has no interest. He has no experience. She had a beautiful smile. She had a bad cough. She had a long talk with Mary. She had an argument with John. She had a lot of pleasure. She had a lot of taste. She had work to do. She had people to see. She had places to go. She had something to say. She had a decision to make. She had a right to know. We had some rice and fish. We had some orange ice cream. We had breakfast together. She had a drink of my coffee. She had a bite of my chicken salad. She had dinner at a restaurant. I have to go to the bank. I have to see you tomorrow. I had to get up at 7:00. I had to do my own work. I will have to think about your idea. I will have to give her some more money. What do you have under your arm? What do you have on your face? What do you have round your neck? What do you have over your shoulders? What do you have for me? What do you have against me? The girl has her coat on. The boy has his shoes off. The cook has the gas on. The cook has the water off. The USA has a president. The USA has 50 states.114 to go I went to Brazil. I went to Rome. I went to Asia. I go to school. I go to class. I go to church. I will go to the book shelf. I will go to the king. I will go to the company. I will go to the tax office. I will go to the department store. She went for milk. She went for pleasure. She went from table to table. She went from page 1 to page 10. She went by ship. She went by train. She went into the court room. She went into the army. She went with her pots and pans. She went without her checkbook. She went along the wall. She went back along the river. He went away angry. He went away poor. He will go before the court. He will go before the people. The street goes across the city. The bridge goes across the river. The fire went through the house. The students went through the book in less than six weeks. The price of gold went up. The sun went down at 6:14. The cat went after the chickens. The dog went under the chair. All the pain went away. The legislative group went to work. He went on with the story after our visitors took their seats. The store went out of business after only six months. The nations went to war. The wine went to her head. The navy went into action. Her shoes did not go with her dress. The students went over their lessons before the test. The sugar went to the bottom of my coffee. New car sales went up. The light went off. The fire went out. What went on after I went home?115 to come I come from Bolivia. My coat comes from France. Milk comes from cows. Beef comes from cows also. Pork comes from pigs. Eggs come from chickens. Fish come from the ocean. Bananas come from trees. A comes before B. 4 comes before 5. May comes after April. Summer comes after spring. Please come here. Please come again. Please come at 7:30. Please come to my house. Please come with me. Please come in my car. Please come down from the tree. Please come out of the water. Please come across the street. Please come through the other door. Please come away from the dog. Please come back to me. She will come to school. She will come by bus. She will come at 9:00. She will come through the door. She will come with her books. She will come for English. He came to be the head of the committee. She came to want only red flowers. He came to have a lot of money. They came to be very good friends. They came to say the words without any problem. They came to see the light! A lot of rain came down. The flowers came up. The stars came out. A strong wind came from the West. The water came up to my knees. The street lights came on when the sun went down. An idea came to me in the middle of the night. I came across the bridge on my way home. I came across an important book at the library. My shoe came apart. The sun came up at 5:58. Nothing good came out of the war. He came up with a very good idea.116 to put I put my shirt on. I put my pants on. I put my new shoes on. I put my raincoat on. I put my books on the shelf. I put my answers on the paper. I put my name on the list. I put the price on the books. I put the sign on the door. I put the top on the box. I put the salt on the meat. I put the picture on the wall. He put his hand in his pocket. He put his money in the bank. He put his things in the car. He put his heart in his work. He put $1000 in the new company. He put his ideas in English. They put the ship in the water. They put eggs in the cake. They put their man in Congress. They put gold in his back teeth. They put a new heart in the sick woman. They put many problems in my way. Put your hands up! Put your chin out! Put your shoulders back! Put your stomach in! Put your feet apart! Put your fingers together! Put your pencils down! Put your books away! Put your shoes by the fire! Put your coat over the back of the chair! Put your shoulder against the door! Put your tongue between your teeth to say "th." They put buttons on the dress. They put a new bridge across the river. They put a new building up in three months. They put a new sink in the kitchen. They put the light on. They put the light off. They put the children in danger. They will put the car in good condition. They will put the army into action. They will put the revolution down. They will put their money together and get a new car. They will put their heads together and come up with a new plan. They will put their ideas down on paper.117 to take I take my coat off. I take my shoes off. I take my glasses off. I take my clothes off. I take the book off the table. I take the bottle off the shelf. I take the egg off the child's face. I take the sign off the window. I take the picture off the wall. I take the writing off the blackboard. I take the branch off the tree. I take the buttons off the shirt. He took his pen out of his pocket. He took his money out of the bank. He took his papers out of the box. He took the page out of the book. He took some blood out of my arm. He took the children out of danger. He took the pleasure out of the party. He took the medicine out of the bottle. He took the woman's bad tooth out. He took the woman's long hair off. He took the woman's bicycle apart. He took the woman's gold away. Take my hand! Take my book! Take some more potato salad! Take a cold shower! Take this medicine every three hours! She took her baby to the park. She took the shoes back to the store. It took a lot of work. It took a long time. He will take my picture. The medicine will take effect in five minutes. The law will take effect in two months. The discovery of gold took place in 1848. The American revolution took place more than 200 years ago. Many people took part in the meeting. The president took part in the talks. The older children take care of the younger ones. Take care of your health. The farmers took in a lot of fruits. When do they take in the rice in Japan? The airplane took off at 8:20. The students will take the test on Thursday. She took him to be rich. I want to take him to court. Most dogs take to children.118 to give It gives me an idea. It gives me pleasure. It gives me stomach problems. It gives me a reason. It gives me experience. It gives me power. It gives me an example. It gives me a lot of ideas. It gives me the right to do what I want. It gives me the time of day. It gives me pain. It gives me help. She gave him her pencil. She gave him her book. She gave him her hand. She gave him her understanding. She gave him her decision. She gave him her address. She gave him a lot of problems. She gave him a lot of news. She gave him a lot of papers. She gave him a ride. She gave him a surprise. She gave him her heart. Give me a better understanding. Give me a new idea. Give me some hope. Give me some news. Give me some help. Give me some more money. Give her the use of your bicycle. Give her the control of the class. Give her the basic idea. Give her the good news. Give her the broken dish. Give her the box of candy. His work gave us a new medicine. She gave us a long answer. Sugar gives coffee a sweet taste. Salt gives food a good taste. The Constitution gives the President a lot of power. The election gave us a new president. The war gave the nation a new system of government. The insect gave me a bad bite. The doctor gave him a shot. I gave up when I saw his muscles. His wife always gives in to what he wants. The mother will give her baby a warm bath. His writings gave us a lot of pleasure.119 to get I get a new level of understanding. I get credit from the bank. I get a newspaper every evening. I get my money on Fridays. I get ideas from books. I get questions from the teacher. I get good service at the restaurant. I get medicine from the pharmacy. I get help from my friends. I get books from the library. I get money from my father. I get experience from my work. He got up at 6:00. He got his clothes on. He got the top off the box. He got over the garden wall. He got through the fire. He got away from the dogs. He got across the river. He got into his bed. He got to work late. He got down on his knees. He got under the car. He got back after midnight. The days will get longer. The nights will get warmer. The people will get angry. The animals will get free. The children will get dirty. The service will get better. The ideas will get complex. The questions will get difficult. The clothes will get dry. The muscles will get stronger. The company will get rich. The ice cream will get soft. Get out of my room ! Get out of my way! Get in the bus! Get off the grass! Get your hands off me! Get your head down! Get your fingers out of the cake! Get your eyes on your own paper! Don't get sick! Don't get wet! Will he get in before 8 o'clock? Do you want to get back at them for all the terrible things they did to you? How does he get along with his father?120 to do She does her hair. She does her eyes. She does her lips. She does her face. She does a lot of reading. She does a lot of writing. I did a lot of business last year. I did a lot of work yesterday. I did a lot of things today. They will do an Arabic dance. They will do the right thing. They will do the town on Saturday night. I do not want any more food. I do not know who to get to their house. I do not think you said the right thing. I did not have enough facts. We did not like the film. We did not give him our votes. We did not see any high level of economic development. We did not do all the windows. There are still some for you. Does he make big plans all the time? Does he put his sweater on when he goes out? Does he think about the feelings of other people? Does he give her flowers very often? Did she go to the national museum? Did she get two theater tickers? Did she do anything about the noise? Did she take her coat off? Who do you want to come to our party? What do you do after class? When do you have time for a rest? Where do you put your old newspapers? Why do you make those secret trips to Paris? How do you want your eggs, fried or boiled? I do like your new dress. I do want to see you again. I do think we should have dinner this weekend. She does give us all the juicy news. She does like him a lot. She does know much more than he. They did see us. They did say too much. They did know that it was against the law. They can do a lot of damage. How do you do?121 to make She makes good coffee. She makes good bread. She makes good cakes. She makes big plans. She makes a few mistakes. She makes a few problems. She makes a few changes. The factory makes big machines. A wood fire makes heat. A government makes laws. Courts make decisions. Businesses make profits. The wind made me cold. The fire made me warm. The smell made me sick. The news made me sad. The decision made me happy. The work made me dirty. Her food makes us strong. Her ideas make us angry. Her plans make us afraid. Her help made things easy. Her actions made us poor. Her discovery made us rich. The baby made me get up. The doctor made me go to bed. The teacher made me do the reading. The man made me put my hands up. Make him go away! Make him come here! Make him do the work! Make him give me some help! Your problem made me want to give you some help. Your words made me want to be with you. Your bright eyes made me want to see you again. Your sad eyes made me want to take you in my arms. The students will make good use of their time. The people will make good use of the public library. The doctor will make good use of the new medicine. The lawyer will make good use of our argument. The government will make good use of the tax money. The soldiers will make good use of their training. How can we make use of her experience? How can we make use of their information? How can we make the best use of these machines? How can we make the best use of the sun's heat? Five people make up our study group. Fifty states make up the United States of America. How many people make up your family?122 to think I think that she is beautiful. I think that he does good work. I think that the facts are on our side. I think that you are the right person for this job. I think that we should get a new camera. I think that they know who we are. Think of a waterfall. Think of the last time you were happy. Think of her in a short red dress. Think of him without his uniform. Think of the fun we will have. Think of the profit we will make. He thought about her all the time. He thought about the future. He thought about public opinion. He thought about our training program. He thought about which medicine to give her. He thought about the best way to say what he had to say. Think, what should we do next? Think, where could the money be? Think, who would want to take our defense secrets? Think, when did you see him last? Think, why did they make that decision? Think, how can we get out of here? I think that I'll be back about 11 o'clock. I think that he took your bicycle. I think that she knows much more than she says. I think that there will be an election before the end of the year. I think that I saw her yesterday in the courtroom. I think that I know who did it. You didn't think through your decision. You didn't think through their answer. You didn't think through the changes that you made. You didn't think through the nature of their defense. You didn't think through the economic program. You didn't think through the control system. I have to think up a new story, before the police get here. I have to think up a way to get him out of the picture. I have to think up a better argument for my next step. I have to think up a new plan of attack. I have to think up another example. I have to think up a different computer program. What do you think of Peter? What do you think I should do now? Who do you think you are to say those terrible things to me? I like to think back to when I was a child. I want some more time to think over your ideas. I can't think why not. I think so!123 to say What did your father say about our plans? What did your mother say about your report? What did your teacher say about your homework? What did the officer say to the soldier? What did the policeman say to you? What did the president say to our representative? The newspaper says that we will have rain on Saturday. The radio says that the storm did a lot of damage. The television news says that he is a member of a right wing political group. What will it say on the monument? The agreement says that the price to us will be 10% less than to other companies. The constitution says that we all have basic political rights. The order says that you must be in court next Wednesday at 10 o'clock. The clock says 10:15. That picture doesn't say anything to me. What does his business card say? They say that this winter will be very cold. They say that he was a great dancer in his younger days. They say that there will be very few voters in this year's election. He said no to my ideas. He said no to any change. He said no to our training program. How do you say this word? How do you say your name? How do you say "hello" in French? Who said, "To be or not to be, that is the question"? Who said, "There is a time and place for everything"? Who said, "My country, right or wrong"? Say, don't I know you? Say, aren't you a film star? Say, didn't I see you at John's party? Say, why don't we have dinner on Saturday? Say, where can I get a good meal in this town? Say, when is the next flight to Rome? Say it one more time, but louder! If you say that one more time, you'll never see me again. Please say a few words to our group about your meeting with the president. Please say something to him about those loud noises he makes at the dinner table. I can't say that I liked her new dress. I can't say that he was the best man for the job. I can't say no to another piece of your chocolate cake. I couldn't say no to those beautiful eyes. It's cold outside, that is to say, don't go out without your coat. It's too expensive for me, that is to say, I can't go. I have nothing to say to the newspaper reporters about the change of our foreign policy. The police have nothing to say about the explosion at this time.124 to see Do you see that officer with the big overcoat? Do you see the big sign that says "Hotel"? Do you see how much damage the explosion did? Can you see without your glasses? Can you see that big house with the blue roof? Can you see where they went? I see that you know one another. I see that you are already old friends. I see that he is very hungry. I see that he did a lot of work today. I see that she made one of her special cakes. I see that she came to the party with her new husband. I don't see what the problem is. I don't see why he came here. I don't see how he did that. I see what kind of person he is. I see the meaning in back of everything he does. I see now what I didn't see before. See that your room is clean before you go to the park. See that all the books are put back on the shelves after class. See that the windows are closed before you go home. I have to see that the dog has water and food every day. I have to see that the pressure is always between 15 and 20. I have to see that my uniform is clear and in good condition. I saw in the newspaper that we will have rain tomorrow. I saw in the report that she wants to put more money into new equipment. I saw in the business plan that you want to have three offices. I will see about your problem before I go home today. I will see about his trip to the museum after lunch. I will see what I can do about the broken water pipe as soon as I am free. She saw what she could do for the children and did it. I see that there is nothing more you can or will do for me. Will you see what you can do for my sister and her family. See how I do it. See where he goes. See why the children are so quiet. I will see you to the door. I will see him to the airport. I will see her to the train station. Come and see us again. Come and see us on Saturday afternoon. Come and see me when you are in town. See you soon. See you on Wednesday. See you tomorrow, same time, same place.125 to know I know that man. I know this word. I know your name. I don't know the price of this car. I don't know the time of the meeting. I don't know the place of the party. The police know who did it. The police know what he did. The police know when the fight took place. The police know where he will be. The police know why he is afraid. The police know how to get him. I know that you like chocolate ice cream. I know that he will be the next president. I know that she was the leader of your group. I don't know why he did that. I don't know why he got angry. I don't know why I am so tired. Do you know how to do that? Do you know how to come to my house? Do you know how to get theater tickets? He didn't even know how to give a shot. He didn't even know how to say the easy words. He didn't even know how to make tea. I knew there would be trouble. I knew there would be a war. I knew there would be a fight. I knew that he would be back, so I got my gun. I knew that she would give me her telephone number. I knew that they would see us again.126 to like He likes football. He likes red meat. He likes fast cars. She likes soft music. She likes quiet little restaurants. She likes long walks by the ocean. We like to make things with our hands. We like to get up early. We like to do things together. They like to be with their friends. They like to go to new places. They like to have wild parties. She likes the red dress. She likes the shoes with high heels. She likes the gold earrings. He liked the brown cowboy boots. He liked the silk tie. He liked the business suit. I would like a glass of ice water. I would like a green salad. I would like some chicken with rice. Would you like any more coffee? Would you like any more potato salad? Would you like any more apple pie? How would you like to have dinner with me tomorrow? How would you like to see a film on Saturday night? How would you like to go with me to Paris next week? How would you like to make me happy? How would you like to do it all again? How would you like to get me another cup of coffee? How would you like to make breakfast for us? I like you. I like horses. I like the effect of sunlight on water. I don't like John. I don't like his long nose. I don't like the smell of his dirty clothes.127 to want I want some ice cream. I want a drink of water. I want a good education for my children. I want better care for sick people. I want less government in my life. I want more money. He wants to go with you. He wants to say something to you in English. He wants to give you a little gift. She wants to know more about the process. She wants to see it again. She wants to think about it some more. They wanted two tickets to Rio. They wanted a bigger boat. They wanted a better defense lawyer. They wanted more medicine, but the doctor said no. They wanted more time, but the teacher said no. They wanted more money, but I said no. I want you here at 7:45 every morning. I want you off the telephone. I want you out of my life! I want him to come to my party. I want him to get some bananas when he goes to the market. I want him to be straight with me.128 to keep I keep my coat on in the summer. I keep my shoes on at the ocean. I keep my hair dry in the shower. I keep my money at the bank. I keep my attention on the problem. I keep my car in good condition. I keep my room clean. I keep the medicine on a high shelf. I keep the cows out of the garden. I keep the baby happy. I keep the soup hot. I keep the dog away from the cat. He kept his money under the bed. He kept his back against the wall. He kept his arm round my shoulders. He kept the meat in the ice box. He kept her letters in a box. He kept her picture on his writing table. They will keep the army strong. They will keep the navy ready. They will keep the prices high. They will keep the snow off the streets. They will keep the children out of danger. They will keep the old ways. Keep your body strong. Keep your teeth clean. Keep your hair short. Keep your feet dry. Keep your skin soft. Keep your shoulders back. Keep your head up. Keep your arms out. Keep your feet together. Keep your stomach in. Keep your eyes open. Keep your mouth closed. Get off the grass and keep off it. Put your sweater on and keep it on. Take your hands out of your pockets and keep them out. Get out of my way and keep out of it. Put your hands up and keep them up. Take some air in your lungs and keep it in. Let the air out of your lungs and keep it out. Make some soup and keep it hot for me. Don't keep the door open. Don't keep the window closed. Don't keep the lights on. Don't keep the children up.129 to let She let her arms down. She let her stomach out. She let her mouth open. She let her hair down. She let the ice cream get soft. She let the bread get hard. She let the tea get cold. She let the meat get old. She let the stove get dirty. She let the plants get dry. She let the fire get low. She let the dog get sick. I let the dog come in. I let the fish get away. I let the boy take the book. I let the girl keep my watch. I let the students see the picture. I let the man do the work. I let them go to the park. I let them go into the deep water. I let them make a cake. I let them keep the money. I let them put their new shoes on. I let them go by themselves. Please, let me (come) in. Please, let me (go) through. Please, let me (go) out. Please, let me have some food. Please, let me have a drink. Please, let me see the package. Please, let me keep this book. Please, let the children come with us. Please, let the children have some cake. Please, let the children keep the cat. Please, let the children get on the horse. Please, let the children put their new clothes on. He let the horse get out of control. He let the profits go down. He let the machine come apart. He let the fire go out. He let the pain get worse. He let the cows get in the garden. He let the floor get wet. He let the dinner get cold. He let the flowers get dry. He let the cat get sick. He let the milk get warm. He let the bananas get brown. He let the food get cold.130 SOME PREPOSITIONS AND THEIR EXPANSIONS on ≠ off A book is on the table. (surface) A button is off my coat. She put on a happy face. (line) They have a house on the river. (day) They will be here on Saturday. (date) There are no classes on July 4. (continuation) He went on with his work. in ≠ out He is in the room. (3 dimensions) His tongue is out. (month) Will you be here in April? (year) Where were you in 1998? (future point of time) We will be there in a week. under ≠ over A dog is under the table. A light is over the table. (end) My class will be over at 9:00. (repeat) I went over the lesson again before the test. by (very close) A tree is by my window. (transport) She went to school by bicycle. (not after) You must be back by October 1. (instrument) I made this by hand. against A table was against the wall. It is against the law to do that. at (a point in time) She will be there at 8:15. (a point in space) She was at the blackboard. (action is more important than place) I am at work five days a week. to (end point) ≠ They went to New York. from (starting point) They came from Los Angeles. That is a good place to be from. up ≠ down Hands up. Head down. They had some ups and downs in their life together. through (side to side) The rain came through the roof. (start to end) We went through the book. He went through a lot to get here. (end) I will be through at 4:30 today. round The world goes round the sun. She had him round her little finger. about (concerning) This book is about English. (more or less) It was about 5:00 in the afternoon. (ready) We are about to have dinner. (here and there) There were clothes about the room. of (organic connection) Blue is the color of the sky. (partive) That is a piece of paper. for (connection) This beautiful ring is for you. (purpose) I went to the airport for my friend. Some were for him and others were against him. (period of time) They were in Japan for five years.