i Lane's English as a Second Language b y Richard R. Lane, Ph.D. Illustrations b y Stefan Munteanu and Leon Samoilovich Book 2ii Copyright © 1977; revised 1988, 2000, 2009 by Richard R. Lane All rights reserved. No part of this book may be changed without written permission from the publisher. The world’s most efficacious ESL series is given freely to all students and teachers of English by-Lane Press P.O. Box 17822 Stanford, CA 94305 USAiii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Foreword Lesson 1 -Family.................................................................................................................. 1 before/after, ago, almost, still, among, until, long with things and time, in with months and years, on with days and dates, "to be" questions, family relations, "How old?", time: today/tonight, tomorrow/tomorrow night, the day after tomorrow, yesterday/last night, the day before yesterday. Lesson 2 -City....................................................................................................................... 13 now/then, for, one, across, together/apart, up/down, contractions, both, MUST, numbers. Lesson 3 -House.................................................................................................................. 27 about, so (outcome), own against, by (close to), which?, along, away, over/under, SHOULD, to have. Lesson 4 -Farm..................................................................................................................... 47 time (period), through, more, Prepositions, to have (food and drink), a/one, but (exception), that (relative pronoun), CAN/COULD, to go/to come. Lesson 5 -Weather............................................................................................................... 67 by (transport), back, if, into, most, MAY, imperatives, Review of Prepositions, to put/to take. APPENDIX Prepositions.......................................................................................................................... 93 Modal Verbs: Will, Must, Should, Can/Could, May.................................................................. 97 Mathematics. ...................................................................................................................……. 98 More Prepositions................................................................................................................... 99iv Intentionally left blankv FOREWORD The English language is now closer to being the world's second language than any other since the dominance of Latin in Western civilization. Today, English is the official or first language of 23 nations with a combined population of about 500,000,000. In addition, it is a co-official or widely used second language in another 25 nations with more than 900,000,000. The best estimates are that 50,000,000 primary school students and 75,000,000 secondary school students are currently studying English as a second language. To this can be added millions more who are studying English at the adult and college/university levels. China alone is said to have more people (500,000,000) studying English than the combined populations of the UK (61,000,000). the USA (305,000,000), and Canada (33,000,000) among whom 75%-80% claim English as their mother tongue. As a student of English, you have a lot of company. You are part of a truly global enterprise. The fact that English is a key to many doors—technology, science, business, politics, culture—accounts in large measure for its present attractiveness. To any list of causes that might be offered for this widespread use, we should keep in mind that in sharp contrast to those who have made a near fetish out of their languages, native speakers of English have not fixed it within any standard, except intelligibility. The absence of any high authority to decide what is and what is not "English" has given the language a relatively unfettered line of development which is probably more dynamic today than ever before. English has never echoed to any call for "purity." Because it is not afraid of being “corrupted” and has such a high tolerance for new words and expressions, regardless of their origins, English is able to adapt to local conditions with ease. There have been many well-intentioned efforts directed at the needs of English learners. The traditional approaches were entirely grammar based. These were later supplemented by frequency word counts. Then came the communicative approach, which spawned audio-lingual methods seeking to teach the living language. A more recent development along this line has been Survival English. Looking at these approaches in terms of progress in the language against time and effort expended, the criteria of efficacy, we see that each is found seriously wanting. The grammatical approach to English was nothing more than an extension of the traditional teaching of Greek and Latin. Students had a very difficult time going from their passive knowledge to an active use of the language. Desiring to eliminate such useless sentences as "Lightning has struck my carriage," textbook writers turned to word counts only to discover that students needed a relatively large vocabulary before much of consequence could be said. Though the word count approach strengthened reading and writing abilities, it did little to get students to speak. Thus the door was opened for the communicative approach which demanded students be taught the spoken language in daily situations. But, if we were to teach what students are likely to hear, we would begin with a number of "four-letter" words and then graduate to "I ain't gonna" and "He done it." Since this is unacceptable to most people, teachers and material developers have concentrated on getting and giving information in a number of different situations: the post office, the bus stop, the doctor's office, job interview, etc. Unfortunately, natural conversations in these various situations require a rather extensive vocabulary and command of sophisticated grammatical structures as well as a plethora of idioms. Much of this material seems designed to keep the teacher's interest, rather than approach the problem of language acquisition from the student's perspective. The communicative approach can not be faulted for its goal. The problem lies with its lack of any apparent criteria for introducing vocabulary and structures. Beginning students do not need ten ways to say "Hello." In my own search for an alternative to these approaches to English, I have been attracted by various ideas of simplification, particularly those of C. K. Ogden, the developer of BASIC English. I see simplification as principally a controlled and ordered approach to the language. There is no doubt in my mind that more than 80% of the English language conforms to certain rules and patterns and if students can begin to see this underlying structure or logic, they can experience the joy of communication and gather the momentum to carry them through the rough, illogical parts. Lane's English as a Second Language is different because it offers the learner a step-by-step, cumulative approach that unlocks the logic of English. It consciously excludes idiomatic word usage until the learner is prepared to deal with it. By eliminating the capricious and/or arbitrary elements of English, the Lane approach presents the learner with a system, a reasonable, logical linguistic system that can be explained, and therefore understood and mastered. This approach is specifically designed for the learner who wants to know why and the teacher who sees English as more than an inexhaustible jumble of words and expressions best acquired with mother's milk.vi The total vocabulary of Lane's English as a Second Language is about 1200 words. By limiting the vocabulary, one of the major obstacles to learning English—its non-phonetic spelling—is skirted. With approximately 200 words to be learned in each book, students need not be burdened with spelling rules and their numerous exceptions. More than half of the words are only one syllable long, so they are easily mastered by speakers of languages that are not cognate to English. The 1200 words were selected on the basis of usefulness, not frequency. The choice was made in accordance with the linguistic tendency toward general and away from specific uses. This allows the vocabulary to be manipulated at various levels of sophistication. In the presentation of this vocabulary, the approach is first to establish the primary meaning of each word and then to expand its usage in a systematic manner. With this expanded usage the 1200 words actually give a learner a level of expressability many times greater. This may be seen graphically as follows (in regard to body parts): 1. BASIC MEANING: This is a hand. 2. Compound words: This is a shoulder bone. 3. Expanded usage: I am the head of my family. 4. Metaphoric: She has a big heart. 5. Set phrases. We came face-to-face with a problem. 6. Idioms (a): The walls have ears. 7. Idioms (b): He put his foot in his mouth. 8. Sayings: His eyes were bigger than his stomach. One of the primary advantages of this system is the development of a mind-set that causes learners to form their thoughts directly in English, rather than to think in their native languages and merely plug in English words. This is accomplished by concentrating on 12 verbs and 31 prepositions, which in combination give about 4,000 verb ideas. For instance, we are quite comfortable saying: I put my hand in my pocket; I put my money in the bank; I put $1000 in a company; I put my heart in my work; I put a new sink in the kitchen; I put my ideas in English. The typical student, however, is more likely to express these same ideas with the discrete verbs: insert, deposit, invest, concentrate, install and translate. The economy of time and effort in learning put in vs. six different verbs is obvious. What is not so obvious is the methodology that will enable the learner to manipulate verbs and prepositions like a native-speaker. This is achieved through the logical, controlled, sequential presentation of material. The approach of this text takes phrasal or two-word verbs out of the idiomatic category by showing an inner logic to their use. When the learner once grasps this inner-logic, he has a hard time going back to his native language to find equivalents and soon gives up the attempt. He thus makes the quantum leap to thinking in English. There is no attempt to limit students to the vocabulary of this series. In fact, I assume that learners will develop their own vocabularies according to individual needs and interests. I want to point out, however, that the 1200 words of the system represent a common core that all learners need to know and control. This stress on commonality is a conscious effort to counter the pernicious efforts of those pendants who for their own reasons want to emphasize and exaggerate the differences between American and British English. Imparting this common core is the first duty of all teachers. A very important and unique feature of this system is that it gives learners a complete system of communication. It is not an exaggeration to say that almost any thought or action can find expression within its 1200 words. The required specificity for even very technical or specialized fields may be had with the addition of only 60 to 100 words from a particular field. For students who wish to go on to university level studies, this series provides an excellent basis to study for entrance examinations, especially the TOEFL. The efficacy of this approach to English is beyond doubt. It offers students, regardless of their objectives, an extremely high rate of progress in relation to the time and effort they put into their studies. Because time is our most precious commodity, I offer this series to students and teachers around the world. Richard Lane1 FAMILY2 LESSON 1 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. ____________ name His name is James. _____________________________________________________ ____________ person* Who is the person in this picture? _____________________________________________________ ____________ family There are five people in my family. _____________________________________________________ ____________ father His father is 42 years old. _____________________________________________________ ____________ mother His mother is a very beautiful woman. _____________________________________________________ ____________ parent Another name for father or mother is parent. _____________________________________________________ ____________ child* I am the child of my parents. _____________________________________________________ ____________ grandfather The father of my father is my grandfather. _____________________________________________________ ____________ grandmother The mother of my mother is my grandmother. _____________________________________________________ ____________ husband My father is my mother's husband. _____________________________________________________ ____________ wife* My mother is my father's wife. _____________________________________________________ ____________ son A boy is the son of his parents. _____________________________________________________ ____________ daughter A girl is the daughter of her parents. _____________________________________________________ ____________ brother Two boys with the same parents are brothers. _____________________________________________________ ____________ sister Two girls with the same parents are sisters. _____________________________________________________ ____________ uncle My father's brother is my uncle. _____________________________________________________ ____________ aunt My uncle's wife is my aunt. _____________________________________________________ ____________ cousin My aunt and uncle's child is my cousin. _____________________________________________________ ____________________ * Singular Plural man men woman women person people child children wife wives3 ____________ night The party was at night. _____________________________________________________ ____________ day Today is the first day of our class. _____________________________________________________ ____________ week There are seven days in a week. _____________________________________________________ ____________ month There are four weeks in a month. _____________________________________________________ ____________ year There are twelve months in a year. _____________________________________________________ ____________ date The date was July 4, 1776. _____________________________________________________ ____________ birth The date of her birth is June 2, 1984. _____________________________________________________ ____________ place The place of his birth is Los Angeles, California. _____________________________________________________ ____________ dark My uncle's hair is dark brown. _____________________________________________________ ____________ light My aunt's dress is light green. _____________________________________________________ ____________ young She is a young woman, but he is an old man. _____________________________________________________ ____________ married Mrs. Taft was a married woman, but not now! _____________________________________________________ ____________ foreign English is a foreign language for him. _____________________________________________________ ____________ afraid of Why is that child afraid of that man? _____________________________________________________ ____________ special This is a very special place for me. _____________________________________________________ ____________ important My grandfather was an important man in our city. _____________________________________________________ ____________ interesting My grandmother is an interesting person. _____________________________________________________ ____________ early He was here very early yesterday morning. _____________________________________________________ ____________ late She will be here late tomorrow evening. _____________________________________________________ ____________ always Why are they always with one another. _____________________________________________________ ____________ never She was never married. _____________________________________________________ ____________ before Monday is before Tuesday. _____________________________________________________ ____________ after Friday is after Thursday. _____________________________________________________ ____________ next After November, the next month is December. _____________________________________________________ ____________ still She is still a child. _____________________________________________________ ____________ until I was at the party until 11 o'clock. _____________________________________________________ ____________ ago They were in Italy two years ago. _____________________________________________________ ____________ among The man was among the people. _____________________________________________________ ____________ almost These pictures are almost 20 years old. _____________________________________________________4 before ≠ after before and after may be used for time and place. (time) 1. Monday is before Tuesday. 2. April is always before May. 3. My son's birthday is before your cousin's birthday. 4. Wednesday is after Tuesday. 5. October is always after September. 6. They were married a short time after her 21st birthday. (place) 1. A is before B. 2. 7 is before 8. 3. Women are always before men. 4. T is after S. 5. 5 is after 4. 6. After me, you are first! long long is used for things. Philip: How long is Katherine's beautiful, light blue dress? Nathaniel: Her beautiful, light blue dress is to her knees. Philip: What color is her hair and how long is it? Nathaniel: Her hair is dark brown and it is short, only to her shoulders. Arthur: How long were the questions on your science test? Henry: The first three questions were not very long. Arthur: Were your answers long? Henry: Some of them were long, but others were short, only one or two words. long may be used for time. Ashley: How long is a week? John: A week is 7 days. Ashley: How long is a year? John: A year is 12 months. Natalie: How long were you in London? Katherine: I was in London for two years, from 1989 to 1991. Natalie: How long were you on the big island of Hawaii? Katherine: I was on the big island of Hawaii for six months, from January to June, last year. Anthony: How long will you be at the library? Ruth: I will be there from 10:00 to 3:00. Anthony: How long will you be with Dr. Johnson? Ruth: I will be with him a long time. Is there any problem with that?5 ago 1. I was in New York two days ago. 2. My cousin, who is a foreign language teacher, was in Europe six years ago. 3. Mary was in San Francisco only three months ago. 4. I am sure that those people at the next table were at my sister's party a week ago. 5. The two sisters, Lisa and Ruth, who were here a few days ago, are never late. 6. One cold, dark night, many long years ago, an old man with white hair was .... almost Susan: When were they married? Richard: They were married almost eight months ago. Susan: Where is their new place? Richard: It is almost in the middle of the city. William: What time is it? Elizabeth: It is almost 7 o'clock. William: What time will Helen be at school? Elizabeth: She is almost always there before 8:15. still 1. John is still a little boy. 2. The child is still very afraid of the dark. 3. I am afraid because it is almost dark and my brother is still not here. 4. Are any of the foreign students still in your special science class? 5. There is still not any hot water. Why? 6. Your beautiful cousin is still not married. Why? What is the problem? among among gives the idea of being in the middle of many. Matthew: Where am I? Victoria: Don't be afraid, you are among friends. Matthew: Where is my brother? Victoria: There is no problem. He is there, among those school girls. Diana: Where is my light pink party dress? Charles: It is here, among your many other beautiful dresses. Diana: Where are our family pictures? Charles: They are among all those things on top of that table. until 1. He was at my place until 10:45. 2. Your sister, who is here from Chicago, will be with you until the end of next month. Right? 3. My brother, who was not married until he was almost 24 years old, will be here tomorrow. 4. Are you sure that they will not be at the party until after 9 o'clock? 5. Paul and Helen were students at our school until last week. 6. That is all for today. Until tomorrow. Good-bye, my friends.6 QUESTIONS with "TO BE" PRESENT Nicholas: Who is that man in the dark blue suit? Alexandra: That is Edward. He is an old family friend. Nicholas: What is he? Alexandra: He is an American history teacher. Mary: When are you at school? Ashley: I am at school every day, between 8 and 4 o'clock. Mary: Where are you in your mathematics book? Ashley We are only on page 47 and it is a big book. Peter: Why are those same girls always at your parties? Paul: Because they are my very close friends. They are special to me. Peter: How many people are there at tonight's party? Paul: There are already almost 50 people. And there will be more. PAST Lisa: Who was that beautiful woman with? Helen: She was with her husband. She is never without him. Lisa: What was she before she was married? Helen: She was a Spanish language teacher. She is from Cuba. Nathaniel: When were you in China? Richard: I was in China until only a few weeks ago. Nathaniel: Where were you in China? Beijing? Shanghai? Richard: I was in different Chinese cities, Beijing, Shanghai and others. Elizabeth: Why was that little baby afraid? Katherine: He was afraid because his parents were not with him. Elizabeth: How many questions were there on the science test? Katherine: There were between 20 and 25 questions. FUTURE David: Who will be at your next party? Martha: Many interesting people will be there. David: What will the date be? Martha: It will be October 21. Susan: When will your birthday party be? Martha: It will be next Friday evening, at 7:00. Susan: Where will the party be? Martha: It will be at my parents' place. Eugene: Why will there be a party? Martha: Because it will be my birthday. Eugene: How many people will be there? Martha: All my family and friends, close to 50 people, will be there.7 in in is always used with months. I was here in March. I am always here in April. I will still be here in May. Natalie, Aunt Helen's daughter, was at school in September. Henry, Uncle Edward's son, is always at school in October. Jessica, my 17 year-old cousin, will still be at school in November. Mr. and Mrs. Eisenhower were in Los Angeles in early December. Mr. and Mrs. Bush are never in Los Angeles in late January. Mr. and Mrs. Clinton will still be in Los Angeles in February. in is always used with years. I was in England in 1988. I will also be in England next year, in 20__. Their son, George, was in Asia in 1990. Their son, George, will also be in Asia in 20__. Charles and Diana were married many years ago, in 19__. John and Ashley will be married next year, in 20__. on on is always used with days. I was here on Monday. I am never here on Tuesday. I will still be here on Wednesday. Walter was at school on Wednesday. Right? Eugene is always at school on Thursday. William will still be at school on Friday. Dr. and Mrs. Washington were not at the party on Saturday. Dr. and Mrs. Buchanan are not at the library on Sunday. Dr. and Mr. Jackson will still not be at the class on Monday. on is always used with dates. Her husband was here on June l. Her husband will still be here on August 2. Their daughter, Mary, was with them on July 3. Their daughter, Mary, will still be with them on September 4. Elizabeth and Nicholas were married on May 7, 1989. Katherine and James will be married on June 25, 20__.8Who...? 1. Who is that old man? He is my father. 2. Who is that beautiful woman? She is my sweet heart. 3. Who is that happy boy? He is my big brother. 4. Who is that baby girl? She is my young daughter. 5. Who are those young children? They are my little cousins. 6. Who are those two people? They are my close friends. Whose...? 1. Whose hair is white? My uncle's hair is white. 2. Whose eyes are dark brown? My aunt's eyes are dark brown. 3. Whose name is John? My cousin's name is John. 4. Whose coat is light blue? My sister's coat is light blue. 5. Whose feet are big? My brother's feet are big. 6. Whose baby is wet? My friend's baby is wet. MY FAMILY There are only five people in my family: my mother, my father, and three children -my sister, my brother, and I. Our family name, or last name, is Wilson. My mother's first name is Helen. My father's first name is George. My brother's first name is David. My sister's first name is Ashley. And my first name is Andrew. Our family is from Houston. Houston is a big city in Texas. It is my birthplace and it is also the birthplace of all the other children in our family. Today, Texas is an important and interesting state of the United States of America. It is important because of its size and its oil. It is interesting because of its history. Until 1848, Texas was a part of Mexico. For our family, it was our "little corner of the world," until only a few years ago. It is a special place that will always be close to our hearts. It is very cold in some parts of Texas in January and February. My parents were married when they were very young. They were still university students. But that was a long time ago. Today my father is a mathematics teacher at a middle school on the big island of Hawaii, where it is almost never cold. My mother is also a teacher at the same school. She is a foreign language teacher. Our place is close to their school and not too far from the beautiful, dark blue water of the Pacific Ocean. Nicholas: How many people are there in your family? Andrew: There are five people in my family. Nicholas: Who are they? Andrew: The five people are: my mother, father, brother, sister, and I. Christine: What is your father's first name? Andrew: His first name is George. Christine: What is your mother's first name? Andrew: Her first name is Helen. Diana: What is your family name? Andrew: Our family name, or last name, is Wilson. Diana: Where is your family from? Andrew: We are from the state of Texas, where there are 20 million people or more. William: What city are you from? Andrew: We are from Houston, Texas. It is the birthplace of all the children in our family. William: What is your father? Andrew: He is a mathematics teacher at a middle school in Hawaii.9 How old...? 1. How old are you? I am 23 years old. 2. How old is her baby? Her baby is only six months old. 3. How old is your son? He is already 10 years old. 4. How old is his watch? It is almost three years old. 5. How old was the soup? It was two days old. 6. How old was the bread? It was only one day old. 7. How old were her shoes? They were only four weeks old. 8. How old will John be in June? He will be 29 years old. 9. How old will Susan be in July? She will be 19 years old. 10. How old will your grandfather be this year? He will be 72 years young! FAMILY BIRTHDAYS Birthdays are different things for different people. When a person is young, the time between birthdays is very long. But for an old person, a year is a very short time. For many people, young and old, a birthday is a special time. It is time for a party, a big party. In our family, birthdays are always happy times. My birthday is on July 8. I will be 18 years old on my next birthday. There will be a big party. Our family is very big and they will all be here for my birthday party. Not only my mother, my father, my two brothers, my four sisters, my grandmother and my grandfather, but also my aunts and uncles and all my cousins will be here. I am sure that almost every one of my friends will be here. There will be food and drinks for all. And there will also be cake and ice cream for 35 people or more. My mother's birthday is in late May. It is on May 29. Because her birthday was on Friday last year, it will be on Saturday this year. My mother is still a young woman. She is only 39 years old. My father is also a young man. His birthday is in early November, on November 4 or 5. I am not sure. My father's father is my grandfather. He is not an old man, but his hair is white already. He was a very important man in his time and he is still a very interesting person. The date of my grandfather's birth is April 21, 19__. Every year his birthday party is at our place. Last year there was a special party for him because it was his sixty-fifth birthday. The party was at night. There was food for 100 people. Among all the salads, vegetables, fried chicken, cold meats, and drinks there was a big, beautiful, chocolate cake with the words "Happy Birthday, Grandfather" on top. I am sure he was happy.10 WHO IS WHO? My father's father is my grandfather. His name is Peter. The name of my other grandfather, on my mother's side of the family, is Edward. My father's mother is my grandmother. Her name is Alexandra. The name of my other grandmother is Victoria. Another name for grandfather and grandmother is grandparents. My grandparents on my father's side of the family are from Holland. Their last name is Van Buren. My grandparents on my mother's side of the family are from Spain. Their last name is Diaz. My brother, Andrew, is their grandson and I am their granddaughter. The sisters and brothers of our parents are our aunts and uncles. Their children are our cousins. There are two sides in a family. The people on one side are "in-laws"* to the people on the other side. My mother's mother is my father's mother-in-law. And my mother's father is my father's father-in-law. My mother's brothers and sisters are my father's brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law. Our family is very big and almost always happy. There are many people on its two sides. Family history is special and always interesting and important for children. The Van Buren Family The Diaz Family Grandfather Grandmother Grandfather Grandmother (Peter) (Alexandra) (Edward) (Victoria) Uncle Aunt Father Mother Aunt Uncle (John) (Natalie) (Philip) (Helen) (Ann) (Edward) Brother I (Andrew) (Elizabeth) Richard: What is your name? Elizabeth: My name is Elizabeth Victoria Van Buren. Richard: That is a beautiful name. Is Victoria your middle name? Elizabeth: Yes. My first name is Elizabeth. My middle name is Victoria and my last name or family name is Van Buren. Jessica: Where is the name "Van Buren" from? Elizabeth: My father's family, the Van Burens, are from Holland. Jessica: Where is your mother's family from? Elizabeth: My mother's family are from Spain. Ruth: Where is your middle name "Victoria" from? Elizabeth: It is from my grandmother on my mother's side of the family. It is her first name. Ruth: What was your mother's family name before she was married? Elizabeth: My mother's family name before she was married was "Diaz." * "in-laws" shows that the relation between the people is not because of blood, but because of law, that is, marriage.11 TIME TODAY OR TONIGHT What day is today? Mary's birthday is today. All the students will be at school today. I am sad because not every answer was right on my test tonight. There is a map of North America on the blackboard tonight. What is all that good food for? Is there a party tonight? TOMORROW OR TOMORROW NIGHT What day will tomorrow be? Many of my friends will be here late tomorrow evening. Their daughter is happy because she will be married early tomorrow morning. We will be very happy to be there with you tomorrow night. Our class will be very interesting tomorrow night. How much time will there be for our English test tomorrow night? THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW What day will the day after tomorrow be? My sister and her husband will be here until the day after tomorrow. Will your son and daughter still be in San Francisco the day after tomorrow? YESTERDAY OR LAST NIGHT What day was yesterday? It was very hot yesterday. Our history lesson was very interesting yesterday morning. Paul's girlfriend was very afraid last night. Why was there some blood on his face last night? How many of those people were here last night? THE DAY BEFORE YESTERDAY What day was the day before yesterday? Some of my friends were among the people at your party the day before yesterday. Why were you not in science class the day before yesterday? DAVID ARTHUR HAYES My friend's name is David Arthur Hayes. His first name is David. His middle name is Arthur. It was the first name of one of his grandfathers. His last name, or family name, is Hayes. His family is very big. His father is from Chicago, Illinois and his mother is from Boston, Massachusetts. David is an only child. His birthplace is New York City. The date of his birth is January 1, 19__. Because his birth was a little after midnight, on January 1, he was a New Year's baby. David is a foreign language teacher at a school in California. This morning, he is in class. There are 15 girls and 16 boys in his class. All his students are still young. They are between 12 and 13 years old. Their class is three times a week: Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays from 8:15 to 10 o'clock. They are never late for class. It is a special class for top students only. David is a married man. He was married almost 6 months ago, on February 5, 20__. His wife's first name is Susan. She is from Los Angeles, California. Her family is very big. Both sides of her family are from Italy. There are four boys and three girls in her family. Susan was the last child. In other words, she was the baby of the family. I am afraid that in the eyes of her parents, Susan still is and always will be their beautiful, little baby girl. David was Susan's first and only boyfriend. At the time, they were both students. She is still a student. But, at this time, next year she will already be a teacher. She will be a geography teacher. Her birthday will be on Monday, the day after tomorrow. But because Monday is not a good day for a party, there will be a little one this evening. It will be at their place, not too far from school. Because their place is not very big, only a few of David's and Susan's close friends will be at her party tonight.12 Please put your answer on the line. 1.___Old________________ is the opposite of young. 2._______________________ is the opposite of sad. 3._______________________ is the opposite of night. 4._______________________ is the opposite of never. 5._______________________ is the opposite of before. 6._______________________ is the opposite of light. 7._______________________ is the opposite of uncle. 8._______________________ is the opposite of man. 9._______________________ is the opposite of grandfather. 10._______________________ is the opposite of grandson. 1. John's parents were already married _in_ 1985. 2. The baby's birthday is ___________ April. 3. My son will not be at school _________ Monday. 4. His new girlfriend will be here _________ June 21. 5. Mrs. Harrison's young daughter will not be at the party ________ Friday. 6. He was in New York __________ September. 7. There are not very many people in my class _______ Wednesdays. 8. Where were you ________ July 14, an important day in French history? 1. Our lesson was about world history on Monday. Our lesson will be about …. 2. Many people were at my place on Tuesday. ____________________________ 3. I was not in class on Wednesday. ____________________________ 4. She was far from her old boyfriend on Thursday. ____________________________ 5. Why was he close to Helen on Friday? ____________________________ 6. The boy was between his aunt and uncle. ____________________________ 7. My time, almost always, was for my family. ____________________________ 8. We were with our young cousins until 5:00. ____________________________ 9. It was a beautiful picture of her mother. ____________________________ 10. It was among the many other things on the table. ____________________________ already √ almost always still never before next ago until among 1. It is __almost__ midnight. 2. They were in Europe a few years ________. 3. When is our _________ class? 4. She is ________ a very special person to him. 5. Why is he _________ late for class? 6. Were you here ___________ ? 7. I am afraid that your baby is __________ wet. 8. I will be at the library __________ 9:30. 9. He is sad because he was ________ in a foreign nation. 10. ________ all the people at the party, William was the only boy with a clean white shirt and tie. My sweet mother is my father's _wife_. My mother and father are my _______________. Their other daughter is my _______________. My brother is their ___________. My father's father is my _____________________. The sister of my mother is my ____________. Her husband is my ________________. The children of my aunt and uncle are my ________________. The date of my birth is my ________________. The place of my birth is my _______________. My first name is __________________. My last name or family name is _________________. I am from ______________________ a city in _________________.13 CITY14 LESSON 2 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. church _______________ theater _______________ bank _______________ restaurant _______________ hospital _______________ office _______________ factory _______________ telephone _______________ university _______________ number _______________ store _______________ tree _______________ street _______________ branch _______________ film _______________ leaf _______________ doctor _______________ flower _______________ secretary _______________ grass _______________ ____________ market There is a fresh vegetable market close to the bank. _____________________________________________ ____________ hotel The hotel is not far from the theater. _____________________________________________ ____________ pharmacy There is a pharmacy next to the hospital. _____________________________________________ ____________ apartment My apartment is close to the university bookstore. _____________________________________________ ____________ start The start of the film is at 7:30. _____________________________________________ ____________ end The end of the film is at 9:45. _____________________________________________ ____________ park There are trees and flowers at the park. _____________________________________________15 ____________ at work The men were at work in the factory. _____________________________________________ ____________ rest The weekend is a good time for rest. _____________________________________________ ____________ building This is a city school building. _____________________________________________ ____________ address His address is 230 Market Street, Chicago, Illinois. _____________________________________________ ____________ spring Spring is from March 21 to June 20. _____________________________________________ ____________ summer Summer is from June 21 to September 20. _____________________________________________ ____________ fall Fall is from September 21 to December 20. _____________________________________________ ____________ winter Winter is from December 21 to March 20. _____________________________________________ ____________ living English is a living language. _____________________________________________ ____________ dead Latin is a dead language. _____________________________________________ ____________ open The bank is open from 10:00 to 3:00. _____________________________________________ ____________ closed The bank is closed after 3 o'clock. _____________________________________________ ____________ wonderful It was a wonderful summer day. _____________________________________________ ____________ terrible Last winter was cold and terrible. _____________________________________________ ____________ lucky He is very lucky that she is his wife. _____________________________________________ ____________ broken There was a broken branch on the tree. _____________________________________________ ____________ post Our postman is still at the post office. _____________________________________________ ____________ sorry I am sorry, but the bank is closed. _____________________________________________ ____________ both My two friends were both at work. _____________________________________________ ____________ kind of What kind of book is this? _____________________________________________ ____________ now We are at school now. _____________________________________________ ____________ then He was in Japan in 1991 and I was in Mexico then. _____________________________________________ ____________ across There is a good restaurant across the street. _____________________________________________ ____________ together My feet are together. _____________________________________________ ____________ apart My hands are apart. _____________________________________________ ____________ up His right hand is up. _____________________________________________ ____________ down His left hand is down. _____________________________________________ ____________ must You must be here before 8 o'clock tomorrow morning. _____________________________________________16 start ≠ end Theodore: When is the start of school in the USA? Jessica: The start of school is at the end of summer, in September. Theodore: When is the end of school? Jessica: The end of school is at the end of spring, in June. Walter: Where is the post office? Victoria: It is at the start of Adams Street. Walter: Where is your apartment? Victoria: It is at the end of Lincoln Street. open ≠ closed 1. There is an open book on the long, brown table. 2. I am sorry, but the shoe store is not open before 9 o'clock. 3. What time will the theater be open? 4. Both the eyes and ears of children are open. 5. You are lucky because there are still two places open in our class. 6. Why was the bank closed before 4:00? 7. The university hospital is not closed at night. Right? 8. The pink and yellow flowers are still closed. 9. The pharmacy will be closed next Sunday. Am I right? 10. Japan was a closed nation before 1854. now ≠ then Ann: John, where is your new secretary now? John: She is in her office now. Ann: Where were you last year at this time? John: I was at a beautiful, new hotel in Mexico then. Henry: Where are all the doctors now? Natalie: They are all at the hospital now. Henry: Where will you be a month from today? Natalie: I am afraid that I will still be here with you then. living ≠ dead 1. This broken branch is not living. There is not one leaf still on it. 2. Why are there still many dead leaves on this living apple tree? 3. Spanish is an important living language, but Latin is a dead language. 4. My grandfather is dead, but my grandmother is still living. 5. Are people still living in that dark, old building, without any water? 6. It was a wonderful film because it was in living color. 7. He was very happy when they were living together. Or, am I wrong? 8. Where were you? The party was dead without you. 9. Why are both these telephones dead? 10. It is interesting that after 8 o’clock, this part of the city is dead.17 for for may show purpose. Lisa: Why is he here? Katherine: He is here for his money. Lisa: Why are they there? Katherine: They are there for work. Ann: Why were you in London? Matthew: I was there for a few days of rest. Ann: Why was that little boy in the tree? Matthew: He was in the tree for apples, big, fresh apples. for may also show a relationship . Elizabeth: Who are these beautiful, red flowers for? Nathaniel: They are for my girlfriend. Elizabeth: What is this big ice cream cake for? Nathaniel: It is for her birthday party on Friday. James: Who are these milk chocolates for? Peter: They are for my new secretary. She is wonderful. James: What is this telephone book for? Peter: It is for your new office. at work/rest 1. The men are at work in the factory. 2. There is a time and place for both work and rest. Right? 3. A park is a wonderful place for a little rest in the hot days of summer. 4. Fall is a beautiful time of the year for a few weeks of rest at the ocean. 5. Two weeks ago, when we all were at work, Victoria was at the park for a rest. Right? one Natalie: Are any of those girls secretaries? Arthur: Yes. The one with the light green sweater is a secretary. Natalie: Are any of those girls from Mexico? Arthur: Yes. The one with the beautiful dark eyes is from Mexico. Edward: Are any of these work clothes Anthony’s? Richard: Yes. All the ones with his name on them are his. Edward: Are any of these people your friends? Richard: Yes. Every one of them is my friend. kind of There are many kinds of vegetables. A potato is a kind of vegetable. And a tomato is a kind of vegetable. There are many kinds of meat. Beef is a kind of meat. Pork is another kind of meat. There are many kinds of fruits: apples, oranges, and bananas. Banks, offices, stores, churches, theaters, hotels, hospitals, and factories are all different kinds of buildings. There are different kinds of trees, different kinds of books, different kinds of questions. There are different kinds of flowers. There are red ones and yellow ones, blue ones and pink ones, white ones and orange ones. There are different kinds of people. There are big ones and little ones, old ones and young ones, good ones and bad ones. What kind of person is John? Without question, he is the right kind of person for this work. In my eyes, John is one of a kind!18 across across gives the idea of "from one side to the other of a flat surface". Alexandra: Where is Japan? Katherine: It is across the Pacific Ocean. Alexandra: Where is England? Katherine: It is across the Atlantic Ocean. Andrew: Where is a good French restaurant? William: There is a very good one across the city. Andrew: Where is a good bookstore? William: There is a big one across the street from the theater. Mrs. Hayes: Where is the post office? Mr. Hoover: It is across the street from the bank. Mrs. Hayes: Where is your apartment building? Mr. Hoover: We are very lucky that it is only across the park from our school. together ≠ apart Diana: Who is that girl with her hands together? Charles: The girl with her hands together is Ann. Diana: Who is that boy with his feet apart? Charles: The boy with his feet apart is William. Susan: Were the buildings close together or far apart? Victoria: They were very close together. Susan: Are the cities close together or far apart? Victoria: They are very far apart. Nathaniel: Will the tables be together or apart? Martha: They will be together in one long table. Nathaniel: Will the boys and girls be together or apart? Martha: Because the table will be between them, they will be apart. up ≠ down Richard: Were his hands up or down? Christine: They were up. Richard: Was his head up or down? Christine: It was down. Helen: Were the arms of John's shirt up or down? Natalie: They were up. Helen: Were the legs of his pants up or down? Natalie: They were also up. Mrs. Reagan: Where are our new history books? George: They are up on the top shelf. Mrs. Reagan: Where are our pens and pencils? George: They are down on the bottom shelf. Mr. Truman: Where was the child? Nicholas: He was up in the tree, almost at the top. Mr. Truman: Where was the fish? Nicholas: It was down in the water, close to the bottom.19 MUST must (+) must (-) I must we must I must not we must not you must you must you must not you must not he must they must he must not they must not she must she must not it must it must not You must be at work early tomorrow morning. You must not be late tomorrow morning. He must be in his office until late at night. He must not be in his office after 6 p.m. We must be up before 6 o'clock. We must not be out after dark. The oil must be very hot. The vegetables must not be wet. They must be the women who were at the party. That must be the man whose arm was broken. This must be the place where the money is. Those must be the words that will be part of tomorrow's test. A. must may show logical necessity. 1. Because yesterday was Saturday, today must be Sunday. 2. Matthew must be in the library because he is not in class. Right? 3. Ashley must be a good student because all her grades are good. 4. This building must be a hospital because those men and women are doctors. 5. It must be spring because all the flowers are out. 6. This must be the place because there is the old tree with the broken branch. Right? 7. It must be 12 o'clock in New York because it is 9 o'clock in San Francisco. 8. He must be dead because he was not at your party last night. 9. She must be a wonderful wife because her husband is happy all the time. 10. This must be his telephone number because it is next to his name in her little black book. 11. They must be here already because their apartment is open. 12. Because thousands of people are in the street, he must be a very important person (VIP). B. must may show necessity or inevitability. Mary: Is there an answer to this mathematics question? Ann: Yes, there must be an answer to it. Mary: Where is the teacher for this class? Ann: She must be in the school office now. Peter: What time must we be at school tomorrow? Paul: I am sorry, but every student must be here before 8 o'clock in the morning. Peter: When must my friend, John, be here? Paul: I am afraid that he also must be here early tomorrow morning. Henry: Where are the children? James: They must be across the street at the ice cream store. Henry: Where are my important papers? James: They must be together with your money. David: Must the ice cream be chocolate and the cake lemon? Ashley: No, the ice cream must be lemon and the cake must be chocolate! David: Must all the students be good? Ashley: Yes, every one of them must be good, or no cake and ice cream for you or them!20 CONTRACTIONS I am You are He is She is It is We are They are I'm You're He's She's It's We're They're I will You will He will She will It will We will They will I'll You'll He'll She'll It'll We'll They'll is not are not was not were not will not that is those are isn't aren't wasn't weren't won't that's those're who is what is when is where is why is how is there is who's what's when's where's why's how's there's PRESENT I'm living with my parents now. I'm not living with my parents now. You're a sweet person. You aren't a sweet person. He's among the lucky ones. He isn't among the lucky ones. She's always across the street. She isn't always across the street. It's still a wonderful place for children. It still isn't a wonderful place for children. We're afraid of the boys at the corner. We aren't afraid of the boys at the corner. They're up on the top branch of the tree. They aren't up on the top branch of the tree. Walter: What's on your shirt? Eugene: That's only a little coffee. Walter: What're those people here for? Eugene: They're here for work. Ruth: Where's the sugar? Christine: There's some on the table. Ruth: Where're the potatoes? Christine: There're some in the corner, next to the onions. Nathaniel: When's your birthday? Martha: It's in the middle of July. Nathaniel: When're all the secretaries out of the office? Martha: They're out of the office every day before 5 o'clock. Victoria: Who's that man without a hat? Alexandra: That's Mr. Johnson, but he's never without his hat. Victoria: Who're those women with him? Alexandra: Those're his secretaries. They're always with him. James: Why’s your shirt open? Charles: It’s open, because I was at the park with my friends from school. James: Why’re your pants wet? Charles: They're wet, because there's water in the streets. It's already up to my knees.21 PAST I was at the university last fall. I wasn't at the university last fall. You were at the factory all day yesterday. You weren't at the factory all day yesterday. He was in the hospital all last week. He wasn't in the hospital all last week. She was living in Los Angeles last winter. She wasn't living in Los Angeles last winter. It was among the dead leaves. Right? It wasn't among the dead leaves. Right? We were across the street a few days ago. We weren't across the street a few days ago. Mary: Were you at John's apartment on Saturday? Diana: Yes, I was, but only for a short time. Mary: Was your brother there with his girlfriend? Diana: No, he wasn't. They weren't together on that day. David: Was your sister at the film last night? Jessica: Yes, she was. She was there with her new boyfriend. David: Was James at his doctor's office yesterday? Jessica: No, he wasn't because his broken arm is okay now. Andrew: Were your grandparents up in Alaska? Philip: Yes, they were. They were up there for two months last summer. Andrew: Were your cousins down in Chile? Philip: No, they weren't. But next winter they'll be down there. Richard: Wasn’t our summer terrible last year? Ann: Yes, it was cold and wet all summer long. Richard: Weren’t my broken glasses here yesterday? Ann: You’re right. They were here then. But yesterday’s not today, my sweet! FUTURE I'll be here tomorrow without my winter boots. I won't be here tomorrow without my winter boots. You'll be at work all day tomorrow. Right? You won't be at work all day tomorrow. Right? He'll be with us before this spring. He won't be with us before this spring. It'll be about Mr. Kennedy. It won't be about Mr. Kennedy. We'll be very far apart next summer. We won't be very far apart next summer. They'll be together next year. They won't be together next year. Elizabeth: When'll you be at your office tomorrow morning? Katherine: I'll be there between 9:30 and 10 in the morning. Elizabeth: Where'll you be living next winter? Katherine: I'll be living in Tahiti then. It'll be wonderful. Paul: Will Richard be here the day after tomorrow? Peter: No, I'm afraid that he won't be here. Paul: Where'll he be? Peter: He'll be at the flower market every day from morning to evening. Mrs. Tyler: When'll Mary and John be married? Anthony: They'll be married on Saturday. Mrs. Tyler: Who'll be there? Anthony: Both their families'll be there. There'll be other people also. Mr. Jefferson: Will there be a big party after church? Mrs. Bush: Yes, there'll be a very big party! Mr. Jefferson: Won’t it be wonderful to be together with all our old friends? Mrs. Bush: Yes, it’ll be a happy time for us all.22 NUMBERS Please say these numbers separately: Martha: What's your telephone number? Katherine: It's 232-4587. Martha: What's your brother's telephone number? Katherine: His number's 588-9030. Andrew: What's Ann's telephone number? John: It's 548-1230. Andrew: What's her telephone number at work? John: That's 908-7564. Mrs. Grant: What's Dr. Ford's telephone number? Mr. Grant: His number's 498-5476. Mrs. Grant: Isn't that Richard's number? Mr. Grant: Yes, you're right. Dr. Ford's number's 498-5467. Please put these numbers in groups: James: What's your address? Jessica: It's 3478 Park Street. James: Okay. What's your apartment number? Jessica: It's 689. Susan: What's our class number? Elizabeth: It's not difficult. It's 345. Susan: Okay. What's your office number? Elizabeth: It's also easy. My office number's 123. Ruth: What's your library book number? Natalie: It's 5938. Ruth: Okay. What's Mary's brother's address? Natalie: It's 6517 Flower Street. Please give these numbers in full. Helen: How many students are there at your university? Matthew: At this time, there are 14,825. Helen: How many of them are men and how many are women? Matthew: It’s far from 50/50. There are 9,567 men and 5,258 women. Richard: How many people are there in San Francisco? Christine: When I was there last year, there were 808,938 people in San Francisco. Richard: How many people are there in New York City? Christine: There are 19,500,000 or more people in New York City. Right? Nicholas: How many people are there in California? Mr. Pierce: There are between 36 and 37,000,000 people in California. Nicholas: How many people are there in the U.S.A.? Mr. Pierce: There must be close to 305,000,000 people in the U.S.A.23 MARY McKINLEY'S WEEK Yesterday was Monday, the first day of the week. It was February 12, the birthday of Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln was an important man in American history. Because of his birthday, not many people were at work yesterday. All schools, post offices and banks were closed. And, that's why many offices were also closed. But hospitals, pharmacies, stores, markets and restaurants were open. Mary McKinley, together with her husband, and their two children, Mary and George, was at a film theater last evening. The film was very interesting. It was about Abraham Lincoln's last years and all the problems between the North and South. Without question, that was a dark, terrible time in America's history. Today's Tuesday. Many people are already at work. Students and teachers are at schools. Doctors are at hospitals. Postmen are at post offices. Mary's husband, whose name is Paul, is already at his office. Paul's new secretary, Miss Adams, is also at the office. Paul and Mary's son, George, is at work in a shoe factory. Their daughter, Ann, who's still a student, is at her university. It's now 8:45 in the morning. Mary's one of many people, 20 or more, who are outside a pharmacy, but because it's still early, the pharmacy's closed. This morning, it won't be open until 9 o'clock. The pharmacy's up the street from Paul's office. It's across the street from the city post office, close to the corner of University and First Streets, not too far from the Japanese vegetable market. This evening the McKinleys must be at a party for their good friend Dr. Cleveland, who's a science teacher at the University of Florida. The party'll be at the restaurant of one of the city's new hotels. The McKinleys and the Clevelands are special friends. That's why it's important for both Mary and Paul to be there. And, because they’re all my close friends, I’ll be there also. It’s wonderful that their friends are my friends and my friends are their friends!24 Tomorrow'll be Wednesday, another work day. Wednesday's in the middle of the week. Mary must be at her doctor's office at 10:15 on Wednesday. Her doctor's Dr. Jefferson. His office is down the street from her husband's office and next to a big clothes store. The day after Wednesday's Thursday. On Thursday, Mary and her old friend, Mrs. Coolidge, will be at that new Chinese restaurant at the corner of Jackson and Madison Streets. It's across the street from the Flower Hotel. Inside, the restaurant's clean and beautiful. There're tables and chairs for up to 60 people. The restaurant, whose name is Lucky Star, is one of a kind. But that's not all! Its food's wonderful and not too expensive. Mary must be at her bank on Friday morning before 11:00. Mary's bank is in an old building next to the post office. The bank's open from 10:00 to 6:00 on Fridays. On the other weekdays, that is Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, the bank's open only until 4 o'clock. After work, on Friday, Mary and her husband'll be at their apartment. They're happy there. They'll be there all evening. Their apartment is in a big apartment building close to the city park. That's why the name of their street is Park. Their address is 425 Park Street. The number is on the side of the building. Their apartment number is 617. And, their telephone number is 433-9850.25 Saturday and Sunday are rest days for the McKinleys. Another name for these two days at the end of the week is weekend. Many stores're open from 9:00 to 5:00 or 5:30 on weekends. Mary and her sister, Martha, will be at two or three dress stores. There're many spring clothes in many beautiful colors at the stores now. Mary and Martha are lucky because both their dress and shoe sizes are the same. Mary and her family'll be at their church on Sunday morning at 10:00. Their church's up the street from their apartment. It's very close to the city park. After church, Mary and her husband'll be at the park. It's beautiful there at this time of the year. The leaves are out on many trees and almost all the spring flowers are up now. The grass is short and very green. Without question, the McKinleys are lucky people to be living down south, in Florida, where every day is out of this world. I'm sorry that I'm not down there with them. We're far apart. I'm up north, where it's still cold. For us, February's still the dead of winter. It is the time of year, when for us the days're short and cold and the nights're long and cold. Next year, at this time, my family'll be in Florida. I'm sure of that! Please put your answer on the line:26 I am __I'm_________ we are _______________ you are _______________ you are _______________ he is _______________ they are _______________ she is _______________ it is _______________ I will __I'll_________ we will ______________ you will _______________ you will ______________ he will _______________ they will ______________ she will _______________ it will _______________ down √ up together far across close 1. A boy was ___up_______ in that apple tree. 2. The baby was ___________ on his hands and knees. 3. Many fish were ____________ in the water. 4. The address was ______________ on the side of the building. 5. His apartment must be ___________ to my place. 6. The university is __________________ from the park. 7. There is a clothes store _______________ from that good French restaurant. 8. The children will be here _______________ with their parents. 1. What is a tree with lemons? A lemon tree 2. What is a bone in the shoulder? _________________________________ 3. What is a dress for summer? _________________________________ 4. What is a nation that is an island? _________________________________ 5. What is a place for rest? _________________________________ 6. What are gloves for work? _________________________________ out next heart mother's √ good e n d secretary far work one middle there old language in start from doctors about other weekend afraid lucky at wife with terrible wonderful My mother and I were at a _good__ film last _____________. The theater was open ________ 6:15. My _________ seat number was 133 and my seat was 132. Our seats were ______ to one another. There were two color films. The first one was _______ the history of Peru, one of the nations of South America. The ________ was about a family in New York City. The family was __________ Puerto Rico. Their first _____________ was not English, but Spanish. In the family ________ were four children: a boy and three girls. The father was a Spanish language teacher and the mother was a ___________. The three girls were students. __________ was a student at the University of New York. But the boy was not a student. He was only nine months ________. When the parents were at __________, the baby boy was ___________ his grandmother and grandfather. They were _________ to their grandchild. At the _________ of the film, the two grandparents were living ________ a beautiful, little apartment not _________ from the city park. But the grandfather's ________ was not very good. Before the __________ of the film, my heart was broken when the grandfather was in the city hospital. The _________ were with him day and night. It was a ________ time for all the family. They were ________. At the _______ of the film, the grandfather was _____ of the hospital. He and his _______ were at the park with their young grandson. He was a very _________ man!27 HOUSE28 LESSON 3 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. house _______________ kitchen _______________ roof _______________ stove _______________ door _______________ oven _______________ window _______________ sofa _______________ light _______________ carpet _______________ radio _______________ television _______________ shower _______________ bed _______________ sink _______________ chair _______________ bathtub _______________ curtain _______________ toilet _______________ garden _______________ box _______________ bottle _______________ ____________ room A room with a bed is a bedroom. _____________________________________________ ____________ home Home is where your heart is. _____________________________________________ ____________ wall There was a map up on the wall. _____________________________________________ ____________ floor Our feet are down on the floor. _____________________________________________ ____________ ceiling A light is up on the ceiling. _____________________________________________29 ____________ bath The water for the baby's bath is in the bathtub. _____________________________________________ ____________ furniture Their furniture is new. _____________________________________________ ____________ garage There is a big, long shelf on one wall of his garage. _____________________________________________ ____________ fun It was fun to be with you up in the treehouse. _____________________________________________ ____________ strong There was a good, strong roof on the house. _____________________________________________ ____________ weak The floor was a little weak. _____________________________________________ ____________ hard A floor without a carpet is cold and hard. _____________________________________________ ____________ soft A soft bed is not good for your back. _____________________________________________ ____________ high How high is the ceiling in your kitchen? _____________________________________________ ____________ low The ceiling is very low in my new apartment. _____________________________________________ ____________ thick The book is thick. _____________________________________________ ____________ thin There is a thin, white curtain on the window. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________ front The front door is open, but the back one is not. _____________________________________________ ____________ nice It was a very nice day at the park. _____________________________________________ ____________ dining The walls of their dining room are blue. _____________________________________________ ____________ own The walls of her own room are a light green color. _____________________________________________ ____________ so There is ice in the water, so it is cold. _____________________________________________ ____________ again He will be here again next week. _____________________________________________ ____________ over There is a light over my kitchen sink. _____________________________________________ ____________ under There is a carpet under my dining table. _____________________________________________ ____________ against Our nice, new sofa will be against that wall. _____________________________________________ ____________ by There is an apple tree by my window. _____________________________________________ ____________ along There are many flowers along the front wall. _____________________________________________ ____________ away The doctor will be away on Friday. _____________________________________________ ____________ which? Which color is this sofa, gray or white? _____________________________________________ ____________ should You should be at work every day at 8 o'clock. _____________________________________________ ____________ to have They have a new, color television. _____________________________________________30 about about may give the idea of more or less. Victoria: What time will you be home? Anthony: I'll be home about 7:30. Victoria: What time will the bank be open? Anthony: The bank will be open about 9 o'clock. John: How many windows are in your house? Paul: There are about 10 windows in my house. John: How many candies are there in every box? Paul: There are about 100 candies in every box. so so shows the outcome of a condition or action. 1. This is a table for coffee, so it is a coffee table. 2. This is a curtain for a shower, so it is a shower curtain. 3. There is a bathtub in this room, so it is a bathroom. 4. There is some sugar in my coffee, so it is sweet. 5. The bread was old, so it was dry. 6. These flowers are from our garden, so they are fresh. 7. They will be married tomorrow, so they will be husband and wife. 8. Tomorrow will be her 90th birthday, so there will be a big party. own own makes the idea of possession very strong. Walter: Is this your own radio? George: Yes, that is my own radio. Walter: Is this your own bathroom? George: Yes, that is my own bathroom. Ann: Is this John's own furniture? Edward: Yes, this is his own furniture. Ann: Are these beautiful, thick carpets his own also? Edward: No, they are not John's own carpets. They are his parents'. against against may give the idea of so close there is pressure between two things. 1. The table with the broken leg is against the wall. 2. A box of books was against the door. Right? 3. There will be a night table against the bed. 4. A branch of the tree is against the house. 5. Why is that child's dirty face against the clean window? 6. What's the problem? Why are you always against me? 7. That kind of film is against the law in our city. Right? 8. It is interesting that they are not for us or against us. We must not be important to them!31 by by shows a position very close to something. Henry: Where is there an apple tree? Ruth: There is a big apple tree by my bedroom window. Henry: Where are there flowers? Ruth: There are many beautiful flowers by the side of my house. James: Where are your kitchen shelves? Ashley: They are by my sink. James: Where is your stove? Ashley: It is by my icebox. hard ≠ soft 1. A hard bed is good for your back. 2. The seats and backs of kitchen chairs are hard. 3. A floor without a carpet is cold and hard. Am I not right? 4. Last winter was again very hard. 5. The girl's hair is long and soft. 6. The seat and back of our sofa are both soft. 7. For this kind of picture, the light on her face must be very soft. 8. Your chocolate ice cream is all soft now. Right? high ≠ low Eugene: What is high? Helen: The ceiling of this room is high. Eugene: Are there any high buildings in your city? Helen: Yes, there are some very high buildings in the central part of my city. Lisa: Will your new garden wall be high or low? Martha: My new garden wall will be low, but strong. Lisa: Is the neck of my new dress too low? Martha: No, it is not too low. It'll be okay for this evening's party. Which...? Which day is today, Monday or Tuesday? It is Monday. 1. Which book is this, science or English? 2. Which color is your coat, blue or black? 3. Which bottle is that, a beer bottle or a wine bottle? 4. Which room is this carpet for, the bedroom or the living room? 5. Which year was he there in, 1991 or 1992? 6. Which page is the map on, 28 or 29? 7. Which library was John at, the city library or the school library? 8. Which city is Mary from, Chicago or Boston?32 along along gives the idea of parallel. Andrew: Where will your kitchen shelves be? Jessica: They will be along the north wall, opposite the windows. Andrew: Where will your flowers be? Jessica: They will be along the front of my house. Christine: Are there many trees along the streets of your city? William: Yes, there are many beautiful trees along both sides of many of our city streets. Christine: Are there many high buildings in your city? William: Yes, there are many high buildings along both sides of Jackson Street. away away gives the idea of "any place, but here." Nathaniel: Where'll the doctor be on Friday? Elizabeth: He'll be away almost all day on Friday. Nathaniel: Will he be away on Monday also? Elizabeth: No, he'll be here then. But, he'll be away again next Friday. Mrs. Taft: It is nice to be away from all the problems of work for a day or two. Mrs. Polk: Yes, you're right. It's nice to be away from people, now and then. Mrs. Taft: It was nice to be with your family last Saturday. What about next Saturday? Mrs. Polk: I'm sorry, but we'll be away on both Saturday and Sunday. over ≠ under Natalie: Where is your kitchen light? Susan: It is over my sink. Natalie: Where is your dining room light? Susan: It is over our dining room table. Alexandra: Where is Martha's apartment? Nicholas: It is over Mr. Harding's garage. Alexandra: Will there be cities under the ocean? Nicholas: That is an interesting question. My short answer is yes. I am sure of it. Diana: Where are the baby's things? Charles: They are under the sofa again. Diana: Where is all our money? Charles: It is still under our bed. David: What is the name of a coat over your suit coat? Richard: That's easy. A coat over another coat is an overcoat. David: What are overshoes? Richard: They are shoes over other shoes. An overcoat and overshoes are winter clothes. Katherine: What is the name of the shirt under your shirt? Philip: That's easy. A shirt under another shirt is an undershirt. Katherine: What are underpants? Philip: They are pants under other pants. Undershirts and underpants are underclothes.33 SHOULD should (+) should (-) I should we should I should not we should not you should you should you should not you should not he should they should he should not they should not she should she should not it should it should not You should be here at 9 o'clock. You should not be here at 9 o'clock. We should be close to the front. We should not be close to the front. They should be by the sofa. They should not be by the sofa. It should be clean and strong. It should not be dirty or weak. Should may show: A. Requirement, obligation, or duty 1. Boys should be nice to girls all the time. 2. Your feet should be under the table, not on it. 3. There should be hot and cold water in every house. 4. There should be a light over the stove. Am I right? 5. Your dirty shoes should not be in my clean kitchen. 6. All those children should not be in my flower garden. 7. You should also be soft with young children. 8. You should not be happy now that he is dead. B. Expectation 1. I should be at your place before 5:00. 2. It should be a nice day again tomorrow. 3. It's not 6:00, so the pharmacy should still be open. 4. We should be at the restaurant about 7 o'clock. 5. There should be two kinds of ice cream in the icebox. 6. Apples should not be very expensive at this time of year. Right or wrong? 7. Your science book should be on the top shelf and a little to the right. 8. His leg muscles are a little weak, but they should be strong again in a very short time. C. Advisability, there is a reason: "It's a good/bad idea." 1. He should be nice to me because all his money is in my pocket. 2. There should be chairs along both sides of the room. Right? 3. He should not be away from his wife for months and months. 4. It is important that you should never again be afraid of him. 5. That little boy should not be up there, at the top of that high tree. 6. Those people should not be close to that open door. 7. All those wonderful spring flowers should be in fresh water. 8. The ice cream should not be out of the icebox for a long time.34 PRESENT to have (+) to have (-) I have we have I do not have we do not have you have you have you do not have you do not have he has they have he does not have they do not have she has she does not have it has it does not have I have a little, hard sofa. I don't have a little, hard sofa. You have a big, soft chair. You don't have a big, soft chair. It has thin walls and a weak floor. It doesn't have thin walls or a weak floor. She has some new, light blue curtains. She doesn't have any new, light blue curtains. to have (+?) to have (-?) do I have? do we have? don't I have? don't we have? do you have? do you have? don't you have? don't you have? does he have? do they have? doesn't he have? don't they have? does she have? doesn't she have? does it have? doesn't it have? Do I have your new telephone number? Don't I have your new telephone number? Do you have his old pencil box? Don't you have his old pencil box? Does it have any fresh, green leaves? Doesn't it have any fresh, green leaves? Does she have long, dark brown hair? Doesn't she have long, dark brown hair? My secretary has both the pictures and maps. My secretary must have both the pictures and maps. My secretary should have both the pictures and maps. Does every box have twelve bottles? Must every box have twelve bottles? Should every box have twelve bottles? The house has two toilets. The house must have two toilets. The house should have two toilets. Doesn't every room have a thick carpet? Mustn't every room have a thick carpet? Shouldn't every room have a thick carpet? We have fun with grandfather. We must have fun with grandfather. We should have fun with grandfather. Do you have a shower every day? Must you have a shower every day? Should you have a shower every day? The dirty children have a bath before bedtime. The dirty children must have a bath before bedtime. The dirty children should have a bath before bedtime.35 OUR HOUSE We do not have an apartment. We have a house. It's not a very big house, but it's our own. It is our home. We are very lucky because not every family has its own house these days. Our home is on a little street with many trees. Our address is 428. The number is high over our front door. The outside of our house is white. The roof is green. We have many flowers along the front of our house. There is also much green grass for the children. At the back, we have a few fruit trees. There is a big, beautiful apple tree by the back door, so we have many fresh, sweet, red apples every year. It's only the start of summer now, but it already has hundreds of little green apples. Two months ago, it was white with hundreds of little flowers. Its branches are high over the roof of our house. One of them is broken. It does not have one leaf on it this year, so it must be dead. Because it is summer, we have our garden furniture out in the garden, under our apple tree. After a hard day at the office, it is a wonderful place for a rest and a cold drink. Because we have our own vegetable garden, we have fresh vegetables all summer long. Our flower garden is not far from our vegetable garden. We have many different kinds of flowers in our garden. We have a high garden wall. Our garden is a very nice place. I'm happy with it and my husband is also. My husband and I are very different people. He has a workplace in a corner of our garage, where he has long shelves with many boxes for his things. His workplace is not always very clean. But, he has fun out there almost every weekend from morning to evening.36 Inside our house we have five rooms: a kitchen, a living room, two bedrooms and a bathroom. We do not have a dining room. But in place of a dining room, we have a very big kitchen. Our table and chairs are in it. Our kitchen is not new, but it is clean and has many windows, so it has good light almost all day long. Our kitchen walls are very light yellow and the ceiling is white. There is a big white sink with hot and cold water. There is a long workplace by the sink. We have a stove with a big oven and a new icebox. Our stove and icebox are both white. At the top of the icebox, there is a very cold place for meats and ice cream. There are some open shelves along one of the kitchen walls. On the opposite wall, there are closed shelves with doors. The shelves, that are white, have doors, that are light yellow. Our bathroom has white walls. It also has a sink with both hot and cold water. There is also a toilet, a shower, and a bathtub. The shower curtain is blue with pictures of fish on it. Our bathroom has one little window with a curtain that is blue and white. We have an ice blue carpet on the floor of our living room. In the middle of the carpet, we have another carpet. This second carpet, which is not very big, is very thick and beautiful. It is from Iran. It was expensive. Some of the furniture in our living room is new and some of it is old. Our long sofa is very light pink, almost a morning pink. At one end of it, there is a little table with a light. At the other end, there is a big, soft, coffee brown chair. It has arms, so it is an armchair. At the front of the sofa, we have a long, low table for coffee. It is our coffee table. Our coffee table has very thin legs. Our living room has three windows with long ceiling to floor curtains. One of the windows is a very big picture window. We also have a television in our living room. The telephone is on a little table not far from it. The telephone book is on the same table, but under the telephone. At one end of our living room, we have a wall with bookshelves from the ceiling to the floor. It is a bookshelf wall. We have about a thousand books on it. For us, our living room is a very special place.37 We have two rooms with beds. They are our bedrooms. Our bedroom has very nice, light blue wallpaper on the walls. Our curtains are blue also. All our bedroom furniture is new. We have a big bed that is between two little night tables, which have little green lights on them. There are always two or three books on our night tables, by the lights. At the head of our bed, there is a big mirror. We also have a big place for our clothes. There is a soft, white carpet on the floor. We have some family pictures on one wall. Among them there are two very old, black and white pictures of my grandparents. All the others are new, color ones. It is not only nice, but important for a person to have his own room. Our son, Peter, is lucky because not every boy has his own bedroom these days. Among the many things in his bedroom, there is a bed. It is hard, so it is very good for his back. His bed has a high headboard, but it does not have a footboard. Peter, whose bed is against a wall, has a little radio, which is on his night table. Next to the radio, there is a little light. Peter's work table is in a corner. It is a long, thick board between two low boxes. His school books and homework are on it. He also has a picture of his girlfriend, Diana, on it. On the wall up over his table, Peter has a world map and some bookshelves for his library. For a boy of only 16 years old, Peter has many books about different kinds of interesting subjects. Mothers will be mothers, so my questions every Saturday morning are always the same: "Peter, where are all your dirty clothes? What's under your bed? Socks? Underclothes? Shirt? Pants? All your dirty clothes should be down here, now!" There is only one problem with Peter's room -its colors. They are very special! The carpet is ocean blue. The ceiling is lemon yellow and the walls are blood red. His thin curtains are dirty brown. The colors are terrible, but it is not my room. It's okay with me because, after all, it is his room and a boy's bedroom should be a fun place for him and his friends.38 PAST to have (+) to have (-) I had we had I did not have we did not have you had you had you did not have you did not have he had they had he did not have they did not have she had she did not have it had it did not have We had a big icebox. We didn't have a big icebox. He had an old bathtub. He didn't have an old bathtub. She had some nice curtains. She didn't have any nice curtains. It had many big windows. It didn't have many big windows. to have (+?) t o have (-?) did I have? did we have? didn't I have? didn't we have? did you have? did you have? didn't you have? didn't you have? did he have? did they have? didn't he have? didn't they have? did she have? didn't she have? did it have? didn't it have? Did we have her new address? Didn't we have her new address? Did you have his theater seat? Didn't you have his theater seat? Did it have any apples this year? Didn't it have any apples this year? Did they have any fresh flowers? Didn't they have any fresh flowers? The man had his hat on. The other man had his hat off. The man had his hands up. The other man had his hands down. The man had his feet together. The other man had his feet apart. The man had his hands in his pockets. The other man had his hands out of his pocket. The man had his arm across his chest. The man had his shoulder against the closed door. The man had his fingers under the big box. The man had his hand over the hot stove. The man had his hand between the sofa and the wall. The woman had flowers along the front of her house. The woman had a book about different kinds of flowers. The woman had a nice carpet under her dining table. The woman had sugar in her tea. The woman had some chocolate candies for the children. The woman had a new house. The woman had a hot shower. The woman had a birthday party. The woman had fun at the park. The woman had a test about English. The woman had a good doctor. The woman had many children. The woman had some friends in Chicago.39 MY FATHER'S HOUSE When my father was a boy, his family had their own house. I still have a picture of it. It was a very big house. It was on a little street with many big trees along both sides. Their address was 899 Park Street. The number was on the front door. The outside of the house was white. The roof was dark green. They had many beautiful flowers along the front of their house. There was much grass at both the front and back of the house. At the back of the house, his family had a few fruit trees. There was a lemon tree, an orange tree, and two apples trees, so his family had their own fresh lemons, oranges, and apples every year. My father was lucky because high up on a big, strong branch of the apple tree he had his own little tree house. It was fun for the children to be high up in the tree house. His father had a vegetable garden between the two apple trees. By it was his mother's flower garden. She had flowers all year long. Their garage was not a part of the house. It was only a very short distance from the house.40 My father's house had seven rooms: a kitchen, a dining room, a living room, three bedrooms and a bathroom. The kitchen walls and high ceiling were all the same color-white. The kitchen shelves were also white. There was a big, white sink, but it did not have any hot water. There was also a big, black stove with two ovens. Both ovens had shelves. His mother did not have an icebox. In place o f one, she had a little room for the family's food. It was down under the house. Along one of its walls there were boxes of vegetables. There were long, open shelves on the opposite wall, where there were many big bottles of apple juice, which was from their own apples. My father's house had a very big dining room. The wallpaper had pictures of flowers on it. The ceiling was high with a big light over a long table that had fresh flowers from my grandmother's garden on it almost every day. There were two chairs at the left and right sides of the table. These were the children's chairs. At one end of the dining table was my grandmother's place. At the other end, there was an armchair with a high back for my grandfather. When he was away for a day or two, it was my father's seat. There was only one bathroom in the house. It had three green walls. The fourth wall had wallpaper with pictures of different kinds of fish on it. There was a bathtub and a sink, but there was no shower. Because this was all a long time ago, the toilet was not inside the house. It was outside, at the back of the house. The name of this kind of outside toilet that people had many years ago is "outhouse."41 In the living room, there were two big, soft armchairs and a long, green sofa along one wall. But there was no coffee table. The living room carpet had many colors. All this was many, many years ago, so the family did not have a radio or a television, but they did have long bookshelves, so every child had a special place for his or her books. My father had two sisters and one brother, so, all together, there were four children in the family. Their house had only three bedrooms, so every child did not have his own room. My father and his brother had one bedroom together, his sisters had one and his parents had the other. The boys, whose bedroom was up under the roof, had a big world map on one of their walls. They had many pictures on the others. There was a big window with thin, white curtains between their beds. They had a carpet on the floor boards. Against one wall, they had a table with two chairs. The girls' bedroom had the same kind of furniture in it, but I'm sure that they had different kinds of pictures on their walls and different colors for their curtains. The girls' room was always clean and things were always in their place. Girls' and boys' rooms are always different and in my eyes that's okay.42 FUTURE to have (+) to have (-) I will have we will have I will not have we will not have you will have you will have you will not have you will not have he will have they will have he will not have they will not have she will have she will not have it will have it will not have I will have my own television. I won't have my own television. You will have a nice, new bed. You won't have a nice, new bed. He will have his own workroom. He won't have his own workroom. She will have fresh white curtains. She won't have fresh white curtains. to have (+?) to have (-?) will I have? will we have? won't I have? won't we have? will you have? will you have? won't you have? won't you have? will he have? will they have? won't he have? won't they have? will she have? won't she have? will it have? won't it have? Will we have a white stove? Won't we have a white stove? Will you have a big garden? Won't you have a big garden? Will it have many windows? Won't it have many windows? Will they have much furniture? Won't they have much furniture? I will have my own room. I must have my own room. I should have my own room. The room will have a carpet on the floor. The room must have a carpet on the floor. The room should have a carpet on the floor. Will the children have a bath before bedtime? Must the children have a bath before bedtime? Should the children have a bath before bedtime? Won't the dining room have a high ceiling? Mustn't the dining room have a high ceiling? Shouldn't the dining room have a high ceiling? Every box will have two bottles in it. Every box must have two bottles in it. Every box should have two bottles in it. Every woman will have fresh flowers and a box of chocolates. Every woman must have fresh flowers and a box of chocolates. Every woman should have fresh flowers and a big box of chocolates.43 MY BROTHER'S HOUSE My brother, David, is a doctor and his wife, Susan, is a secretary. Next month, they will be in their new house. It will be a big house. It will be on a little street with many trees along both sides. His address will be 435 Flower Street. The number will be up on the front door. The outside of the house will be brown and white. The roof will be gray. I'm afraid that the colors are not my kind of colors for a big house, but there will be many flowers along the front of it. At the back, he will have much green grass and many fruit trees. In my eyes, he should have orange trees, lemon trees and a few apples trees. He will also have a big place for two gardens there. He should have a vegetable garden with potatoes, tomatoes, onions, corn, beans and other fresh vegetables. His wife should have her flower garden not far away. She should have many different kinds of beautiful flowers: big ones and little ones, red ones and yellow ones, pink ones, white ones and so on. With the right kind of garden furniture, their garden should be a nice place for a rest at the end of the day. But what should be is not always what will be, so what will be, will be! A very short distance from the house, there will be a big garage. The garage will have two big doors. Inside the garage, there should be a workplace with long shelves. It should be okay in the summer, but I'm sure that it will be terrible and cold in the winter. My brother and his wife will have a nice, clean, two room apartment over their garage. It will be the right size for a university student or a person who is not married. Without question, it will be a nice place for the right person.44 Inside the house, there will be seven rooms: a kitchen, a living room, a family room and four bedrooms. Every bedroom will have its own bathroom. I'm sorry that the house will not have a dining room. For me, a house must have a dining room. A house without a dining room is not a house. That's all! My brother and I are different people. We are worlds apart about some questions. In the house, the kitchen will be very big, so my sister-in-law, Susan, will have her dining table and chairs there. The walls of her kitchen will be white. The low ceiling will also be white. There will be a big, white sink with hot and cold water. On the left side of the stove there will be a long workplace. My sister-in-law will have a walloven in her kitchen. A walloven is an oven in the wall. The icebox, with its many shelves, will be by the sink. There will be many lights in the kitchen. There will also be many shelves in the kitchen. That's important! The house will have four bedrooms. The first one will be for my brother and his wife, the second one will be for their daughter, Victoria, who is away at the university now, the third one will be for their other daughter, Jessica, who is still at home and the fourth one will be for their friends. But, they don't have very many. There will be a new bed in every bedroom. By every bed, there will be a little night table with a light on it. Every bedroom will have a big ceiling light. Every bedroom will also have its own bathroom, where there will be mirrors, sinks, showers and toilets. Now there is no hot or cold water in the house, but the kitchen and all the bathrooms will have them both at the end of next month. The bathrooms will have very, very nice wallpaper on the walls. The windows are still not in, but they should be before the end of next week. Now, there are still dirty, old boards across the places where the windows will be. It's not important! It's all the same to me! 45 The living room will have three big ceiling-toflloo picture windows with beautiful, long, dark blue curtains. The ceiling of the living room will be very high. The living room will be long. It will have a light brown wall-to-wall carpet on the floor. It will also have much new furniture. There will be two sofas against the wall opposite the windows. There will also be some big, soft armchairs. Little tables, from the time of our grandparents, will be at the ends of the sofas. There will be a very low coffee table in the middle of the living room. And, there will be nice pictures on all the walls. It will be very expensive, but it's not my money! There will be a family room between the kitchen and the living room. My brother and his family will be in their family room much of the time, so that is where they should have their new, color television. The room should also have a sofa and three or four seats. But, the family room will not have a carpet on the floor. That's terrible. I'm sorry, but for me, a room without a carpet is cold, too cold! Carpets are important for a room, very important! Along one wall of his family room, my brother will have a long shelf for different kinds of books. Another wall will have old Spanish and Portuguese maps of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Without question, it be a very, very nice house for my brother and his family. They are lucky people and I am happy for them. I am also happy there is that little two room apartment up over their garage. I have my eye on it!46 Please put these sentences in the past and future. 1. I have an old radio. I had an old radio. I will have an…. 2. He has a color television. ____________________________________ 3. She has a baby boy. ____________________________________ 4. It has many fresh apples. ____________________________________ 5. We have much work. ____________________________________ 6. You have no time. ____________________________________ 7. They have bad seats. ____________________________________ 8. I have some easy questions for you. ____________________________________ 9. He has a terrible time with mathematics. ____________________________________ 10. She has very sad eyes. ____________________________________ 1. Do you have a brother? Yes, I have a brother. 2. Do you have a vegetable garden? ____________________________________ 3. Do you have your place? ____________________________________ 4. Does he have a weak heart? ____________________________________ 5. Does she have a hot water bottle? ____________________________________ 6. Does it have a big window? ____________________________________ 7. Do we have more time? ____________________________________ 8. Do they have clean clothes? ____________________________________ 9. Do they have dirty boots? ____________________________________ 10. Do they have fun at the park? ____________________________________ Re-write these sentences with "must" and "should." 1. He will have his own apartment. He must have …. He should have …. 2. You will have a hard bed. __________________ ___________________ 3. She will have a thick carpet. __________________ ___________________ 4. They will have new furniture. __________________ ___________________ 5. There will be a beautiful garden. _________________ ___________________ 6. He will have a hot bath tonight. __________________ ___________________ 7. I will have a good night's rest. __________________ ___________________ 8. She will be nice to him. __________________ ___________________ 9. He will be happy. __________________ ___________________ 10. It will be soft. __________________ ___________________ so own on in over again against by along under away still 1. Does she have her __own___ color television? 2. He had his shoulder ____________ the door. 3. There are many trees _____________ both sides of the street. 4. She has her stove ___________ the sink. 5. We were in Mexico ___________ 1996. 6. Matthew won't be here __________ Wednesday. 7. The bed is hard, ____________ it will be good for your back. 8. It was very nice to be _____________ for a few days. 9. I have a two room apartment ____________ my garage. 10. He has a nice, little workroom ____________ his house. 11. She is sad because she will never be young ___________. 12. It was cold outside, so the windows were ________ closed.47 FARM48 LESSON 4 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. horse ______________ car _______________ cow ______________ truck _______________ pig ______________ noon _______________ dog ______________ ball _______________ cat ______________ glass _______________ bird ______________ cup _______________ basket ______________ fork _______________ bucket ______________ spoon _______________ bridge ______________ knife _______________ hole ______________ plate _______________ fence ______________ bowl _______________ ____________ piece The dog has a piece of meat. _____________________________________________ ____________ land His grandfather has a big piece of land. _____________________________________________ ____________ animal A cat is a kind of animal. _____________________________________________ ____________ farm There are many horses at the farm. _____________________________________________ ____________ barn A barn is a house for animals. _____________________________________________ ____________ country They were in the country last summer. _____________________________________________49 ____________ field There are many cows in the field. _____________________________________________ ____________ road There are many trucks on the road. _____________________________________________ ____________ lake There are fish in the lake. _____________________________________________ ____________ river There is a bridge across the river. _____________________________________________ ____________ mountain How high is that mountain? _____________________________________________ ____________ valley The valley is only five miles long. _____________________________________________ ____________ neighbor The person in the next house is my neighbor. _____________________________________________ ____________ meal A big meal after much work is very good. _____________________________________________ ____________ breakfast The first meal of the day is breakfast. _____________________________________________ ____________ lunch The second meal of the day is lunch. _____________________________________________ ____________ dinner The evening meal is dinner. _____________________________________________ ____________ taste The taste of fresh vegetables is good. _____________________________________________ ____________ smell The flowers have a nice smell. _____________________________________________ ____________ perfect This place is perfect for cows and horses. _____________________________________________ ____________ clear The water is clean and clear. _____________________________________________ ____________ tall David is the tall boy among those short girls. _____________________________________________ ____________ hungry The children were hungry after school. _____________________________________________ ____________ thirsty I am not hungry, but I am very thirsty for a big glass of water. _____________________________________________ ____________ delicious The dinner was delicious. _____________________________________________ ____________ round The world is round. _____________________________________________ ____________ through The knife is through the meat. _____________________________________________ ____________ ready Dinner will be ready at 6 o'clock. _____________________________________________ ____________ soon Your car will be ready very soon. _____________________________________________ ____________ enough We do not have enough plates. _____________________________________________ ____________ can/could The truck can be there before noon. _____________________________________________ ____________ to go The animals go to the river every evening. _____________________________________________ ____________ to come Please, come to my house at 8:00. _____________________________________________50 TIME Eugene: What time is it? Andrew: It is 9:45. Eugene: What time will we be in New York? Andrew: We should be there soon. time may also have the meaning of occasion or period. Nicholas: Is this your first time at the lake? Alexandra: No, this is my second time. I was here two months ago for the first time. Nicholas: How many times were you in Paris? Alexandra: I was in Paris, the City of Lights, many, many times. It's a wonderful place. Martha: Wasn't this film on television last month? Ruth: Yes, it's on television from time to time because it's about an interesting subject. Martha: Aren't you and Elizabeth old friends? Ruth: Yes, she and I are long time friends. We're very close to one another. Richard: Will you be in Washington, D.C. anytime soon? Ashley: Yes, I'll be there sometime in May. Richard: Mary and John were together all the time last year. Why not now? Ashley: Mary has no time for John now. She has a new friend. His name is Paul. enough 1. There is enough food on the table for 100 people or more. 2. There isn't enough grass here for her six horses. 3. She doesn't have enough plates and bowls for 20 people. 4. She has enough knives, forks, and spoons for us all. 5. He'll soon have enough money for a new truck. 6. The kitchen is clean enough! 7. The pig isn't big enough for market. 8. He was not tall enough for basketball. 9. She was not old enough to be his wife. 10. It's not perfect, but it's good enough. through through gives the idea of "from one side to the other side," or "to the end." Helen: What's the problem? Is there a hole through the fence? Walter: Yes, there is a big hole through the fence. It's big enough for a cow! Helen: What's wrong? Is there a hole in the wall or through the wall? Walter: I am afraid that there are two holes, one is in the wall, the other is through it. Elizabeth: What time will the film be through? Philip: It will be through at 10:30. Elizabeth: When will you be through with the work on the truck? Philip: I'll be through very soon. It'll be all ready before dinner.51 but may show contradiction or exception. 1. Martha has long hair, but Susan has short hair. 2. They were hungry, but I was only thirsty. 3. The lake is clear, but it is not clean enough for me. 4. All my friends, but George, were at the river. 5. All the trees, but this young one, have delicious fruit. 6. Why are all the fields, but this one, green? 7. Why do all the roads, but this one, have names? 8. Every boy, but Nicholas, had a new football. to have to have may be used with all food and drink. Jessica: When do you have breakfast? Christine: I always have breakfast at 8:00. Jessica: When do you have dinner? Christine: I never have dinner before 6:00. Nathaniel: What did you have for breakfast today? David: I had a cup of coffee, two fresh eggs, and a piece of bread with butter and honey. Nathaniel: What did you have for lunch yesterday? David: I had a glass of milk and a bowl of vegetable soup, which was enough for me. George: Will you have dinner with me tomorrow night? Natalie: No, I will be at school tomorrow night. George: Will you have dinner with me on Friday night? Natalie: Yes, I'll be happy to have dinner with you then. of/for 1. When a shelf has books on it, it is a shelf of books. 2. When a shelf has no books on it, it is a shelf for books. 3. When a glass has water in it, it is a glass of water. 4. When a glass has no water in it, it is a glass for water. 5. When a plate has meat on it, it is a plate of meat. 6. When a plate has no meat on it, it is a plate for meat. 7. When a box has apples in it, it is a box of apples. 8. When a box has no apples in it, it is a box for apples. 9. When a bottle has wine in it, it is a bottle of wine. 10. When a bottle has no wine in it, it is a bottle for wine. William: Do you always have a cup of coffee with your breakfast? Mary: Yes, I always have one or two cups of black coffee with my breakfast. William: What did you have for lunch yesterday? Mary: I had a piece of cheese between two pieces of bread, but I was still hungry. Matthew: What is that bowl for? Arthur: That bowl is for salad, so it is a salad bowl. Matthew: What is this spoon for? Arthur: That spoon is for tea, so it is a teaspoon. Are you thirsty?52 PREPOSITIONS on surface 1. There are many plates on the table. 2. There was a boy on the horse. 3. He must have his black shoes on. 4. The tall, young woman with long, brown hair had a new, blue dress on. days 1. The children are never at school on Sunday. 2. Our neighbors will not be here on Saturday. dates 1. Katherine's birthday is on July 8. 2. They were married on December 2. off ≠ on surface 1. All the leaves will be off the trees before November. 2. Why is that car off the road? 3. It was okay for her to have her feet on the sofa; she had both of her shoes off. in interior 1. There was some more water in the bucket. 2. There were many beautiful birds in the tall trees. 3. She has enough soup in her bowl. 4. He has too much sugar in his cup of tea. months 1. Mary was at the farm in August. 2. The mother pig will have her babies in June. years 1. Elizabeth had her first dog in 1986. 2. Alexandra and Nicholas were married in 1989. interior out of ≠ in 1. All the animals are out of the barn. 2. My uncle's farm is 20 miles or more out of the city. 3. He should have his hands out of his pockets. distance together ≠ apart 1. She has her hands together. 2. Why are those birds close together? 3. The tall man has his feet apart. 4. The dogs and cats must be far apart. position up ≠ down 1. He has his hands up. 2. She has her hair down. 3. The ball is up in the tree. 4. All the sugar is down on the bottom of my cup position under ≠ over 1. Why was he under his truck? 2. She has her shoes down under the bed. 3. The bridge is up over the river. 4. He has his coat over the head of his horse, so the animal will not be afraid. circle round 1. She has a bracelet round her arm. 2. He had his hands round her neck. 3. Her hand was round a knife.53 CAN/COULD can (+) can (-) I can we can I can not we can not you can you can you can not you can not he can they can he can not they can not she can she can not it can it can not I can be at your office at 8 a.m. I can not be at your office at 8 a.m. We can be home before 5:30. We can not be home before 5:30. They can be on the lake until 6 o'clock. They can't be on the lake until 6 o'clock. It can be ready on Friday. It can't be ready on Friday. Can/could may show that something is or was possible. John: Can you be here on June 10? Peter: Yes, I can be here on June 10. John: Can John be with us on Friday? Peter: No, he can't be with us until Saturday. Ashley: Can I be first? Andrew: Yes, you can be first. Ashley: Can William be next? Andrew: No. He can be after Natalie. Elizabeth: Can the children have their ice cream up in the tree house? Alexandra: Yes, why not? It’s okay with me. Is it okay with their parents? Elizabeth: Could Paul have his own car when he was in England last year? Alexandra: No, he couldn’t, because he didn’t have enough money and was under 16! Mary: Why couldn't there be more milk in the bucket? Diana: I'm sorry, but there couldn't be more milk because there was a hole in it. Mary: Why couldn't James be here in March? Diana: He couldn't be here in March because he was at his parents' farm then. James: Could that be John’s new car? Katherine: No, that couldn’t be his new car. It’s too dirty and it has a broken light. James: It’s not clear to me how John and Mary could still be together. Katherine: I am afraid that is a question for which I have no answer. 1. He can be nice, but he can also be terrible. 2. She can be sweet, oh, so sweet. 3. It can be very hot in the summer. 4. You can be a very difficult person at times. 5. They can be tall or short. It's okay with me. 6. They can be high or low. It's not important to me. 7. They can be thick or thin. It's all the same to me. 8. They can be expensive or not. It's up to you. 9. Can I have a little more vegetable soup? 10. Can I have some more fried chicken? 11. Why can't I have a cup of hot tea with a little sugar and milk? 12. When can we have dinner together?54 PRESENT to go (+) to go (-) I go we go I do not go we do not go you go you go you do not go you do not go he goes they go he does not go they do not go she goes she does not go it goes it does not go I go to the river every day. I don't go to the river every day. He goes to the fields every day. He doesn't go to the fields every day. We go to the factory every morning. We don't go to the factory every morning. They go to the country every summer. They don't go to the country every summer. to go (+?) to go (-?) do I go? do we go? don't I go? don't we go? do you go? do you go? don't you go? don't you go? does he go? do they go? doesn't he go? don't they go? does she go? doesn't she go? does it go? doesn't it go? Do you go to his farm every year? Don't you go to his farm every year? Do you go to your neighbor's house? Don't you go to your neighbor's house? Does he go to the cow barn after work? Doesn't he go to the cow barn after work? Does she go to the lake every weekend? Doesn't she go to the lake every weekend? to come (+) to come (-) I come we come I do not come we do not come you come you come you do not come you do not come he comes they come he does not come they do not come she comes she does not come it comes it does not come He comes from Japan. He doesn't come from Japan. She comes from Mexico. She doesn't come from Mexico. It comes from Africa. It doesn't come from Africa. They come from Brazil. They don't come from Brazil. to come (+?) to come (-?) do I come? do we come? don't I come? don't we come? do you come? do you come? don't you come? don't you come? does he come? do they come? doesn't he come? don't they come? does she come? doesn't she come? does it come? doesn't it come? Do you come to school in a car? Don't you come to school in a car? Does he come home for dinner at 6:00? Doesn't he come home for dinner at 6:00? Does she come with her homework? Doesn't she come with her homework? Does it come through the car window? Doesn't it come through the car window?55 COUNTRY PEOPLE I have only one aunt and uncle. They are good country people. Every winter they come to our home in their truck. They are always very good to us children. We always have a wonderful time, when they are with us. My uncle, who is a tall man, has salt and pepper hair. Before it was very black, but now there is a little white in it, here and there. His nose is long and his teeth are very white. My aunt, whose name is Helen, has long, light brown hair that goes down to the middle of her back. She is a short, 45 year-old woman. She only comes up to her husband's shoulder. They are perfect together. Every summer, when it is hot and the days are long, our family goes to their place. They have their own farm in the country. It is a wonderful place for children. There are trees, birds, and different kinds of farm animals: horses, cows, pigs, and chickens. There is green grass for football and a place by the barn for basketball. Their farm is very big. It is about150 miles (240 kilometers) out of the city, so we must be on the road from about 8 a.m. to noon. The road goes across some low mountains, through a beautiful, little valley, and by a big, clear, blue lake, whose headwaters are high up in the mountains. At this time of year, the country is picture perfect. 56 Some of our uncle's land is for his animals and some is for vegetable fields. The vegetable fields all have high fences round them. There is also a nice, little river that goes through the farm. It is on one side of the farm. The water that comes from a lake high up in the mountains is cold, clear, and clean, so there are many fish in it. When the horses and cows are thirsty, they can go down to the river for a drink. It is always fun to go down by the river. There is a little bridge that goes across the river. When we go to the farm, we must go across that bridge. Uncle Edward and Aunt Helen's next-door neighbors are 5 miles (8 kilometers) or more away. A part of our uncle's farm is green fields of grass that are perfect for both work horses and milk cows. Another big part of the farm is potato fields. My uncle has a very old truck with a long bed for his field work. It is good enough for that kind of work, but he can not go on the roads with it because it does not have any doors and only a front window. He should have a new truck, but he does not have enough money for one now. Their farm house, which is almost 50 years old, has many rooms. All the rooms, but the kitchen, have high ceilings and many windows. The kitchen with its yellow walls and low, white ceiling has a stove, oven, sink, and icebox. All my aunt's plates, bowls, cups, and glasses are in big cupboards that are along one wall. Her kitchen always has the wonderful smell of fresh fruit pies, cakes, and bread. It should be clear to you that this is my kind of place: food and fun without end. 57 There is a nice little piece of land at the back of the farm house, where my aunt has her own vegetable and berry gardens. At one side of the garden, she has many different kinds of berries: black berries, red berries, blue berries, and so on. Along the fence, she also has a flower garden. This is why she can always have fresh flowers on her dining table. There is a high fence round her garden. There are also many fruit trees not far from her garden. Some of the apples should be ready before the end of August, which is when we must go back to the city. The smell and taste of fresh apples from the tree are out of this world. Their big, old, red barn, where all the animals are, is far away from their farm house because the smell of the animals is not very nice. The barn is big enough for all my uncle's horses, cows, pigs, and chickens. Some birds have their home high up under the roof. It is a perfect place for them. They are the kind of birds that go south every year, in the dead of winter, that is, the middle of winter. My uncle, who has a soft place in his heart for animals, has three big dogs and many, many cats. One of the cats is all black with a little white at the ends of both ears. His name is "Big Boy." His sister, whose name is " Little Girl," is all white with black round both of her eyes and along her backbone. In the evening, soon after all the cows come back to the barn for the night, not only "Big Boy " and "Little Girl," but also many other hungry cats come through the open windows and doors for some of the delicious, fresh milk thick with cream that my uncle always has in big, milk buckets by the front door of the barn. There is no question that they are all very lucky animals.58 PAST to go (+) to go (-) I went we went I did not go we did not go you went you went you did not go you did not go he went they went he did not go they did not go she went she did not go it went it did not go I went to the horse barn. I did not go to the horse barn. We went through the tall grass. We did not go through the tall grass. He went down to the river. He did not go down to the river. It went up over the mountain. It did not go up over the mountain. to go (+?) to go (-?) did I go? did we go? didn't I go? didn't we go? did you go? did you go? didn't you go? didn't you go? did he go? did they go? didn't he go? didn't they go? did she go? didn't she go? did it go? didn't it go? Did you go with your neighbor? Didn't you go with your neighbor? Did he go up the apple tree? Didn't he go up the apple tree? Did she go out of the valley? Didn't she go out of the valley? Did they go up on the roof? Didn't they go up on the roof? to come (+) to come (-) I came we came I did not come we did not come you came you came you did not come you did not come he came they came he did not come they did not come she came she did not come it came it did not come I came to class yesterday. I did not come to class yesterday. He came from France last month. He did not come from France last month. She came with me on Wednesday. She did not come with me on Wednesday. We came across that bridge. We did not come across that bridge. to come (+?) to come (-?) did I come? did we come? didn't I come? didn't we come? did you come? did you come? didn't you come? didn't you come? did he come? did they come? didn't he come? didn't they come? did she come? didn't she come? did it come? didn't it come? Did he come round the corner? Didn't he come round the corner? Did she come up out of the water? Didn't she come up out of the water? Did it come in through the hole? Didn't it come in through the hole? Did they come down out of the tree? Didn't they come down out of the tree?59 A DAY AT THE FAMILY FARM My aunt and uncle have a farm that is about 150 miles (240 kilometers) out of the city. Our family went to their place last summer in our car. We had a wonderful time together. The days were long and hot. Because the farm house has only a few bedrooms, my brother and I could not have our own rooms. The two of us were together in one big bedroom that was up on the second floor. It was perfect for two young boys. We always went to bed before midnight, that is, 12 o'clock at night, and we were up at 6:30 every morning. Because there was much work at the farm, every day we had three big meals: breakfast, lunch, and dinner. In the morning, when we came down to the table, all the plates, bowls, glasses, cups, knives, forks, and spoons were already on it. There was always a basket of fresh fruit and sometimes a bottle or two of cold milk on the table. For breakfast, we almost always had a tall glass of orange juice fresh from my aunt's garden, a plate of eggs fried in butter, some cheese and meat, with fresh bread from my aunt's oven, together with a cup of coffee with cream and sugar. What food! What wonderful smells and tastes came from those "mountains" of delicious country food! At noon, or 12 o'clock in the daytime, we had another big meal -lunch. For lunch, now and then, we had a bowl of soup-potato, tomato, or onion, a plate with fried chicken or thick pieces of beef or pork-in its own juice, different kinds of boiled vegetables-potatoes, green beans, or corn, a salad or two, bread and butter together with a tall glass of delicious, ice cold milk. My father's side of our family is from Germany, so nine out of ten times, he and my uncle had a big glass of beer with their meals. But only one! And, some good, country bread, fresh from the oven. Oh me, oh my!60 From time to time, in place of breakfast and lunch, we had "brunch," which is both breakfast and lunch. Because brunch is part breakfast and part lunch, it is a big meal. On Sundays, we never had any food before we went to church, so we always had a nice brunch when we came back home from church. On Sunday afternoons we never had any work. It was always a day of rest. In the evening, with all of us round the kitchen table, there was always more of my aunt's delicious food. For dinner, one or two times a week, we had fresh water fish, which was from a beautiful, little lake close by, rice, tomato salad, bread, butter, and sweet, strong tea. I always had a thin piece of lemon in my tea. No one could go away hungry or thirsty from our aunt's table. It is clear to me now that living on a farm is not easy. There is no end to farm work. It is the same day after day: work, work, and more work. But sometimes work can be fun. After a good night's rest and with clear heads, my brother and I were fresh and ready for more of the work and fun that together are part o f living on a farm. On weekdays, that is, Monday through Friday, right after breakfast, all the men, or "farmhands," with their work clothes and old boots went to the fields on trucks. There were about 10 men on the bed, that is, the back of every truck. It was fun to be all together. The work was difficult and it was almost always hot, and that is why, now and then, we had a little rest. Also, we always had some cold water and some clean glasses for those who were thirsty. 61 One day, last summer, my brother and I were a little hungry, so we went up in one of our uncle's big apple trees. Here and there, at the fork of some branches, birds had their homes. Some had little, blue eggs in them. Many of the sweet, red apples were out at the ends of the branches, among the leaves, so my brother and I went out on many of the branches. The apples had that special smell and sweet taste that only fresh apples can have. After some time, when my brother and I had enough apples, we came down out of the tree. We had a short rest at the bottom of the tree. What a perfect place! Our uncle is not against fun. So, together with the two boys from the next farm down the road, we went through a corn field and across an old bridge. The bridge goes across a little river that is almost always dry in mid-August. The river, with its dirty, brown water, is on one side of our uncle's farm. We all went down to the river. But there were not any fish, so we went to the cow barn, where our father and uncle were still at work. One of the neighbor boys had a dog, whose name was "Big Foot," and my brother and I had a ball, so we were all ready to have some fun with their dog before dinner time. But then, our Aunt Helen came to the barn for the men. She was not at all happy. It was clear to us all that something was wrong, very wrong. To my uncle's question -"What's wrong, my sweet?" -her answer was that many animals were in her garden! And that we must come right now. There was a big hole through the high fence that goes round her vegetable garden. The hole was big enough so that all the farm animals, but the cows, could go through it, one after another. The horses and pigs, together with the chickens and many other animals, were very happy to be among the beautiful, delicious, fresh vegetables in her garden. What lucky animals! They all had fun. Only our aunt was sad.62 FUTURE to go (+) to go (-) I will go we will go I will not go we will not go you will go you will go you will not go you will not go he will go they will go he will not go they will not go she will go she will not go it will go it will not go I will go across the bridge. I won't go across the bridge. He will go up the mountain. He won't go up the mountain. She will go round the barn. She won't go round the barn. It will go under the fence. It won't go under the fence. to go (+?) to go (-?) will I go? will we go? won't I go? won't we go? will you go? will you go? won't you go? won't you go? will he go? will they go? won't he go? won't they go? will she go? won't she go? will it go? won't it go? Will we go up in the tree? Won't we go up in the tree? Will he go up on the roof? Won't he go up on the roof? Will she go down to the river? Won't she go down to the river? Will it go down in the lake? Won't it go down in the lake? to come (+) to come (-) I will come we will come I will not come we will not come you will come you will come you will not come you will not come he will come they will come he will not come they will not come she will come she will not come it will come it will not come I will come with my brother. I won't come with my brother. He will come before noon. He won't come before noon. She will come along the river side. She won't come along the river side. It will come through the hole. It won't come through the hole. to come (+?) to come (-?) will I come? will we come? won't I come? won't we come? will you come? will you come? won't you come? won't you come? will he come? will they come? won't he come? won't they come? will she come? won't she come? will it come? won't it come? Will you come at 7:00? Won't you come at 7:00? Will you come for dinner? Won't you come for dinner? Will he come outside? Won't he come outside? Will she come inside? Won't she come inside?63 NEXT SUMMER AT THE FARM Next winter, my aunt and uncle, who have a big farm in the country, will come to our home. They have a big, black, four-door car. We always have a wonderful time when they are with us. Next summer, soon after the end of school, all of us will go to their place. They have a big, beautiful piece of land with many animals and fruit trees in the country. Their place is picture perfect and wonderful for children! Their farm house is very big. It has many rooms, so my brother and I can have our own room. Our bedroom will be up on the second floor. It will have two big, soft beds. All the windows, but the one by the head of my bed, will be open day and night, round the clock. The living room, which is under our bedroom, is a big, long room with a high ceiling. It has a sofa and a few armchairs. From the living room, you can go into a big, beautiful dining room with a round table and enough chairs for us all. My aunt always has a basket of fresh fruit in the middle of her dining table. Many of the fruits, both apples and grapes, are fresh from her own garden, which is by her back door. 64 Because they have their own apples and grapes, my aunt and uncle also have their own apple juice, grape juice, and wine. My aunt's kitchen has many cupboards, a new stove, an old icebox, and a big sink that has both hot and cold water. There is only one thing wrong with their house: it has only one bathroom! This is why there are always many people at the bathroom door every morning, before breakfast, and every evening, at bedtime. It is clear to me that my aunt and uncle's house should have one more bathroom. There is always much work at the farm, so all of us must be up early, with the birds, about 6 o'clock. We will have three big meals every day: breakfast, in the morning, lunch, at noon, and dinner, in the evening. Now and then, between breakfast and lunch, my brother and I will go to the barn, where there are many boxes with farm things. That is also where our uncle's expensive, new car is. Outside, close by the barn door, there is an old bathtub with fresh water for the thirsty animals. It is not perfect, but it is good enough for them. Inside the barn, there are some clean buckets for milk and many big boxes for fruits and vegetables. Our uncle has some big knives and forks and other things for field work up on one wall. There is also a big, open place for the cows, and another for the horses. The pigs never come in the barn. They are always outside because they have a terrible smell. 65 The barn is very old and I am afraid that there are a few holes in its roof. They should not be there, but they are! When light from outside comes through them, it's not bad. But it's not too nice when the cold comes through in the winter time. That's when all the birds that have their homes up under its roof go south. There are a few boards off the sides of the barn, here and there. In place of this old barn that is ready to come down at any time, a new one should go up before next year, when we come again. I am sure that all of us will be happy when our uncle's new barn is up and ready. But, because we will be in the city, all the work will be up to our uncle. I am happy because our uncle still has "Boy," an old yellow dog, whose long ears go down under his chin. Boy has his own red ball. He is always ready to have fun, to go out in the fields or down to the river with us children. There are many special places for us to go at the farm. Where and when we go are up to us. On some days, in the afternoon, after we have our lunch, some neighbor boys, whose house is on the other side of the valley, will come to the farm. All of us will go across the bridge and down to the river. Before, when the water was clean and clear, there were always many fish in it. But now there is something wrong with the water. It is not clear to me why, but the number of fish is down. The water must not be clean enough for them. But, fish or no fish, I'm sure we will have fun down by the river. Close to dinner time, when our friends must go home, we will go up to the farm house. We are always dirty at the end of the day, so, before we can have some more delicious fresh, farm food, we must have a bath or a shower. After dinner, when we are all in the living room with our pajamas on, those who are a little thirsty or hungry can have a cup of tea with a piece of lemon, a bowl of chocolate ice cream, or a piece of honey nut cake with a tall glass of milk. All the children must be ready to go to bed at 10:00.66 Please put who, that, when, where, or whose on the lines. 1. The barn, __where____ the animals are, is very old. 2. My aunt, ______________, car is outside, went to our neighbor's house. 3. Next summer, ____________ we go to the country, I will be 18 years old. 4. The lady, ___________ husband comes from New York, is on a seat under the tree. 5. The boy, ___________ ball went through our window, is our neighbor. 6. Last winter, ___________ I was in Detroit, I went to a truck factory. 7. The restaurant, ___________ we had dinner yesterday, is by the lake. 8. The name of the girl _____________ had your cat is Mary Taylor. 9. The flowers ______________ are in the basket are from my garden. 10. The bone _____________ your dog had is from Dr. Kennedy's office. 1. He is at the _farm. 2. He is in the ___________________________________ . 3. He is on the __________________________________ . 4. He is by the ___________________________________ . 5. He is with the _________________________________ . 6. He is against the _______________________________ . 7. He went among the _____________________________ . 8. He went under the _____________________________ . 9. He went over the _______________________________ . 10. He went across the _____________________________ . 11. He went round the _____________________________ . 12. He went through the ____________________________ . 13. He went along the ______________________________ . 14. He went up in the ______________________________ . 15. He went down on the ___________________________ . 16. He went away from the ___________________________ . 1. I go to the top of the mountain. I went to the top of the mountain. 2. My neighbor comes home at 5:45. __________________________________. 3. The children go round the tree. __________________________________. 4. They still come down to the valley. __________________________________. 5. She comes out of her big car. __________________________________. 6. The birds come down out of the tree. __________________________________. 7. The cow goes across the road. __________________________________. 8. The girls come through the knee high grass. __________________________________. 9. I have breakfast at 7:30. __________________________________. 10. We have dinner about 6:00. __________________________________. up for o n among in through down √ to with by across at 1. Can you come __to____ my house after school? 2. They will soon have enough land ___________ a farm. 3. We went __________ the bridge in a big truck. 4. He is never cold ________ winter because he has a big coat. 5. She is the only person in her family ________ long hair. 6. The boys should come __________ from the high mountains. 7. Your brown horse is __________ the barn door. 8. The old cat was ___________ the chickens. 9. We never have bad meals _________ the farm. 10. The clean plates must be ____________ the bottom shelf. 11. The light came ___________ the window. 12. The cold water came _____________ to my chin.67 WEATHER68 LESSON 5 -WORD LIST Please put these words and sentences in your own language. Be an artist; make some pictures. sun _______________ rain _______________ moon _______________ wind _______________ star _______________ snow _______________ cloud _______________ lightning _______________ bus _______________ drop _______________ train _______________ stop _______________ ship _______________ police _______________ airplane _______________ taxi _______________ bicycle _______________ bag _______________ ____________ news The news was on the radio at 6 o'clock. _____________________________________________ ____________ weather Why is the weather so hot this summer? _____________________________________________ ____________ report The weather report is on the back page of the newspaper. _____________________________________________ ____________ fog There was too much fog by the ocean. _____________________________________________ ____________ sky There were many big, white clouds in the sky yesterday. _____________________________________________ ____________ air The air is cold and dry in winter. _____________________________________________ ____________ storm The airplane went through a terrible lightning storm last night. _____________________________________________ ____________ thunder Thunder comes only a short time after lightning. _____________________________________________ ____________ walk Our hotel is only a short walk from here. _____________________________________________69 ____________ sleep You can go to sleep after lunch, but not now! Please! _____________________________________________ ____________ in love She is in love with a wonderful man. _____________________________________________ ____________ look at They went to the garden for a look at the moon. _____________________________________________ ____________ idea She has no idea how far the sun is from us. _____________________________________________ ____________ airport What time must you be at the airport? _____________________________________________ ____________ station Who went to the train station with you? _____________________________________________ ____________ second A second is a very short time. _____________________________________________ ____________ minute A minute has 60 seconds. _____________________________________________ ____________ hour An hour has 60 minutes. _____________________________________________ ____________ cheap Taxis in New York are not cheap. _____________________________________________ ____________ bright How far are those bright lights from here? _____________________________________________ ____________ heavy Farm work is heavy work. _____________________________________________ ____________ light I had a light meal two hours before I went to bed. _____________________________________________ ____________ necessary for Clouds are necessary for rain, but they are not enough. _____________________________________________ ____________ busy Were you very busy at work today? _____________________________________________ ____________ tired of I am tired of rain every day. _____________________________________________ ____________ worried about She is worried about her son because he is an hour late. _____________________________________________ ____________ angry with He should not be angry with me. _____________________________________________ ____________ back He always goes back to his apartment after class. _____________________________________________ ____________ into When did the man go into the police station? _____________________________________________ ____________ often They come to our home very often. _____________________________________________ ____________ most Most people are tired at the end of the day, but not Peter! _____________________________________________ ____________ if I am sure that we will have a good time, if you come with us. Please! _____________________________________________ ____________ may/might I may go to my uncle's farm again next summer. _____________________________________________ ____________ to put I put my son on the horse. _____________________________________________ ____________ to take I take my son off the horse. _____________________________________________70by by is used with all forms of transport. David: How do you come to school? Andrew: I come to school by bicycle every day. David: How does your sister come to school? Andrew: She often comes to school by bus. Katherine: How will you go to Europe? Natalie: My idea is to go by airplane. Katherine: How did Columbus come to America? Natalie: He came by ship. back 1. I went to the factory at 8:00 and then I went back to my house about 6:00. 2. He went to the airport and then he went back to his apartment. 3. She has lunch at 12:30 and then she goes back to her office at 1:30. 4. I came from Brazil in late September and I must go back in early May. 5. It is important that Mr. Roosevelt come back from San Francisco by airplane today. 6. The doctor is still at the hospital, but he should be back soon. 7. The only important question for me is: When will you be back, my love? 8. After some milk, the baby went back to sleep without any problem. if Helen: If you're afraid of high places, then you shouldn't go up to the mountain top. Nathaniel: You're right. I shouldn't go up to the mountain top and so I won't. Helen: If you have a problem with your heart, you should go to a doctor. Nathaniel The only problem is money. I don't have the necessary money to go to a doctor! Charles: If the weather is nice, we can go across the lake by ship. Alexandra: We're lucky! There won't be any fog! It's perfect weather! I'm almost ready to go. Charles: If you're ready, we must go now or we'll be late. Alexandra: No problem! I'm all ready! Why don't we go to the lake by taxi so we won't be late? most 1. Most people are at work from 8 to 5 on weekdays. 2. Most boys have bicycles before they are 10 years old. Right? 3. Most girls have a pink dress or blouse. Am I right? 4. Most of my good ideas come to me when I am in the shower. 5. Most of the time we were hungry, cold, and wet. I'll never go there again. 6. Most of the fog went away before noon, so we went for a walk with our dog. 7. John was in bed most of last week because something is wrong with his back. 8. Mary was up most of the night because her baby had stomach problems. into Richard: What time did the man in this picture go into the hotel? Ashley: He went into the hotel about 8 o'clock. Richard: Whose bright idea was it to go into the river with all your clothes still on? Ashley: It was John's idea for all of us to go into the river with our clothes on. Elizabeth: Did the airplane go up into those dark gray clouds? Victoria: Yes, it went up into them a few minutes ago. Elizabeth: Did you go out into the rain without a raincoat or boots? Victoria: No. I didn't go out into the rain. I only went into the garage.71 MAY/MIGHT may (+) may (-) I may we may I may not we may not you may you may you may not you may not he may they may he may not they may not she may she may not it may it may not I may go to bed early tonight. I may not go to bed early tonight. He may go to the party with Mary. He may not go to the party with Mary. There might be rain tomorrow. There might not be rain tomorrow. We might go by ship. We might not go by ship. will shows that an action is 100% sure. may shows an action is 80% possible. 1. There will be rain tonight. (100%) There may be rain tonight. (80%) 2. The sky will be bright and clear on Saturday. The sky may be bright and clear on Saturday. 3. She will not be back until 8:30. She may not be back until 8:30. 4. It will be interesting for you. It may be interesting for you. 5. She will come by taxi from the airport. She may come by taxi from the airport. 6. He will come by bicycle tomorrow morning. He may come by bicycle tomorrow morning. 7. The police will come in a few minutes. The police may come in a few minutes. 8. We will come again next week. We may come again next week. 9. They will have good weather at the ocean. They may have good weather at the ocean. 10. We will have a terrible storm. We may have a terrible storm. 11. She will have dinner with him next week. She may have dinner with him next week. 12. There will be too much sunlight. There may be too much sunlight. 13. There will be too many people on the bus. There may be too many people on the bus. 14. The wind will be too strong for you. The wind may be too strong for you. 80% possibility: I am afraid that you might have a broken arm. I am sorry that you might be angry with me. I am worried that you might go without me! Permission: May I come in? May I have the salt? May I have some more fried chicken? May I have a few minutes of your time, if you are not busy now? IMPERATIVE VERB FORMS 1. Be at the bus stop tomorrow morning at 7:30. 2. Be at the airport this afternoon at 4:30. 3. Be at the train station before 9:00. 4. Have your reports ready before the middle of next month. 5. Have your books open to page 27. 6. Have your bags together. 7. Have a big breakfast. 8. Have a drink of my coffee. 9. Have a look at those beautiful stars. 10. Come here right now! 11. Come with me. 12. Come again! 13. Go away. 14. Go to the police. 15. Go back to sleep.72 REVIEW OF PREPOSITIONS on ≠ off Americans were first on the moon. (surface) The seat is off my bicycle. in ≠ out of What is in that bag? (3 dimensions) A car came out of the garage. under ≠ over Ships often go under the bridge. Some clouds were over the city. before ≠ after Lightning always comes before thunder. The sky is clear after a storm. together ≠ apart Our chairs were close together. The sun and the moon are far apart. up ≠ down Hot air goes up. A light rain came down. with ≠ without A dog came with the policeman. The doctor came without his black bag. to (end point) ≠ They went to the police station. from (starting point) They came from the train station. by (very close) Who is that man by the taxi? (transport) Your neighbor went to the airport by taxi. between (two) Our world is between the sun and the moon. among (many) The airplane is among those low clouds. against The snow is against the north side of the house. at (a point in time) She will be there at 8:15. (a point in space) She will be at the bus stop. across (flat surface) She went across the river. into The car went off the bridge and into the river. through (side to side) A cold wind came through the open window. (start to end) She went through all his money in a very short time. round The ship went round the world. back After school, she went back to her home. along (parallel) The train went along the side of the lake. away (not here) All the clouds went away. about (concerning) This book is about English. (more or less) It was about 5:00 in the afternoon. of (organic connection) It is a map of North America. (partive) How much is this box of chocolate candy? for (connection) This beautiful necklace is for you, my sweet. (purpose) I went to the airport for my friend.73 MORE ABOUT PREPOSITIONS on ≠ off 1. The boy is on his bright red bicycle. 2. There are rain drops on the front window of the car. 3. The policeman has his hat on. 4. The cat went up on the fence again. 1. A button is off my sweater (but it was on my sweater before). 2. The leaves are off the branch (but they were on the branch before). 3. He has his shoes off (but he had them on before). 4. The cat came down off the fence (but it went up on the fence before). in ≠ out of 1. Some chocolate ice cream is in the icebox. 3. We have a nice room in that hotel. 3. John is in love with Diana. 4. The report was in yesterday's newspaper. 1. The bread is out of the oven (but it was in it before). 2. The cows are out of the barn (but they were in it before). 3. I have my hand out of my pocket (but I had it in it before). 4. He came out of the train station (but he went into it before). up ≠ down 1. The moon is up. 2. I am up almost every morning at 7:00. 3. He often has his hand up. 4. Hot air always goes up. 5. The boy went up in the tree for some fruit. 6. The workman went up on the roof of the building. 1. The sun is down (but it was up before). 2. The car window is down (but it was up before). 3. She has her umbrella down (but she had it up before). 4. The airplane came down (but it went up before). 5. The boy came down out of the tree (but he went up in it before). 6. The man came down off the roof (but he went up on it before). come ≠ go come is always in the direction of the speaker or his eyes; go is away from the speaker or his eyes. 1. Rain comes down and hot air goes up. 2. If the man went into the pharmacy, he will soon come out of it. 3. The sun comes up in the morning and goes down in the evening. 4. If the cat can go up on the roof, it can come down off it. 5. The boy, who went up in the tree, will come down out of it. 6. The ship went down to the bottom of the ocean and didn't come back up. 7. I am worried that if much rain comes down, the river will come up. 8. Her dress goes down almost to her knees. 9. The snow comes up almost to his knees. 10. The lightning came down from the clouds. 11. The airplane went up through the clouds. 12. The cat went out through the door. 13. Sunlight came in through the window. 14. The angry man went out of the house, into the rain. 15. The angry man came back into the house, out of the rain.74 PRESENT to put (+) to put (-) I put we put I do not put we do not put you put you put you do not put you do not put he puts they put he does not put they do not put she puts she does not put it puts it does not put I put my hands in my pockets. I don't put my hands in my pockets. He puts his money in the bank. He doesn't put his money in the bank. She puts some water in the glass. She doesn't put any water in the glass. They put their things in the big bags. They don't put their things in the big bags. to put (+?) to put (-?) do I put? do we put? don't I put? don't we put? do you put? do you put? don't you put? don't you put? does he put? do they put? doesn't he put? don't they put? does she put? doesn't she put? does it put? doesn't it put? Do you put butter on your bread? Don't you put butter on your bread? Does he put any salt on his meat? Doesn't he put any salt on his meat? Does she put her pictures up on the wall? Doesn't she put her pictures up on the wall? Do they put their ideas down on paper? Don't they put their ideas down on paper? to take (+) to take (-) I take we take I do not take we do not take you take you take you do not take you do not take he takes they take he does not take they do not take she takes she does not take it takes it does not take I take my hands out of my pockets. I don't take my hands out of my pockets. He takes his money out of the bank. He doesn't take his money out of the bank. She takes her horse out of the barn. She doesn't take her horse out of the barn. They take all their things out of the box. They don't take all their things out of the box. to take (+?) to take (-?) do I take? do we take? don't I take? don't we take? do you take? do you take? don't you take? don't you take? does he take? do they take? doesn't he take? don't they take? does she take? doesn't she take? does it take? doesn't it take? Do you take you son off his horse? Don't you take your son off his horse? Does she take the skin off the potato? Doesn't she take the skin off the potato? Do we take the words off the board? Don't we take the words off the board? Do they take the tops off the bottles? Don't they take the tops off the bottles?75 A WINTER WALK Today's a beautiful winter day. It's beautiful weather for a walk in the country. The air's cold and fresh, the sky's clear and blue, and the fields are white with clean snow. I'm in love with this place. It's wonderful at this time of year. It's early in the morning. I'm not tired because last night I had eight hours of sleep. After I take a shower, I have my breakfast: a plate of fried eggs, some bread with butter and honey, and a cup of coffee with a little cream. A good breakfast is important in winter. Because it's early in the morning and still very cold outside, I put on my special winter underclothes and my heavy overcoat. I also put on my heavy winter boots. Heavy winter clothes are necessary in many parts of North America. Before I go outside, I put on my winter hat. I put it down over my ears. The sunlight on the snow is too bright for my eyes, so I also put on my sunglasses. When I'm all ready, I go out of my house. My dog goes with me. He is very special to me. We often go for walks together. The sun's up. There's not a cloud in the sky. And there's only a light wind. How clear and beautiful the day is! I am very happy to be living in this part of North America. The city streets are clean, all clear of snow. My dog and I go along University Street. We go by the police station. At the corner of University and Park Streets, where there's a stop light, we go right. We go along Park Street for a few minutes. We go by some stores and a nice, little hotel. When we come to the city park, we go through it. On the other side of the park there's a bridge for a train. We go across the train bridge without any problem. 76 The river's under the bridge. The river comes down a valley, from a lake that is not too far away. There's still ice on the river. But I'm afraid that it's not thick enough for me. If we go on the ice, we may be too heavy and go through it and into the water. That is why my dog and I go along the side of the river. Then we go down a country road until we come to some big, tall trees. We are about three miles out of the city now. We come to a stop here. One of the trees has the names of many people on it. Some boys, who were in love, put their girlfriends' names together with their own there with knives a long time ago. Oh, oh! We have a problem! Today's weather report is wrong again! After 20 or 30 minutes, some big, heavy, dark gray clouds come from the west. They are storm clouds. More and more come until the sky is almost all black. The clouds are between the sun and us. I'm not worried! Then, I take a look down at my dog, round at the trees, and up at the sky. How different things are now, without bright sunlight! There's lightning and thunder now and then. It's not too far away. A few drops of rain come down. It's clear to me that there may be much more rain. If rain does not come down, snow will. Yes, yes, it's snow! At first, the snow's light. It's cold and wet on my face. My dog's by my side. He's a little afraid. I'm a little worried that his feet might be too cold. I take him in my arms for a few minutes, but he's too heavy. How cold we both are! This is terrible! After 30 or 40 minutes, we are too cold to be in this open place, so we go in among the trees, under their branches, heavy with snow. Because it's very cold, I must go round and round one of the trees. I'm tired of all this snow. Enough is enough! There's far too much of it. We're ready to go home, but we can't. After an hour or more, the snow storm comes to an end. A cold, north wind comes down from the high mountains and across the lake. I'm happy that the wind can't come through my heavy, cold weather coat. Soon all the clouds go away. It's very late for us to be so far from home. It's almost dark. Soon the sun goes down and the moon comes up. The sky's very black. The stars come out. The bright light from the moon's on the snow. It's a beautiful night, but it's also far too cold for my dog and me. It's high time to go home! We should be home in about 45 minutes, if we go now.77 My dog and I go back up the road and back along the river. There's not very much ice on it now, only some thin pieces here and there. At some places, in the middle of the river, where there is a hole in the ice, dark black water comes through. There's fog, here and there, along the side of the river. We go back across the bridge. We go back through the park. We go back by the stores. All of them, but Mr. Grant's Meat Market, are closed now. The little hotel's still open. There are many people in the hotel restaurant. The lights inside are bright. We go back along Park Street until we come to University Street. At the corner of Park and University Streets, where there's a stop light, we go left. We go along University Street until we come to our house. Soon, we are back inside, out of the cold, wet snow. What a day! How lucky we are to be back home again! It's almost 6:30. I take off my hat and heavy overcoat. I put them away. I take off my winter boots, put them on a piece of newspaper, and put on my house shoes. My boots are very good for this kind of weather. All day long, my feet were never wet. They are still dry now. But, because the outsides of my boots are a little wet, I put them by the stove. It's important that I do not put them too close to the hot stove or there may be a problem! It's dinner time, and both my dog and I are very hungry. I put a bowl of water down on the floor for my dog. Clean water's necessary for a dog. I also put a bone that still has some meat on it down for him. It's easy for him to take the meat off the bone with his teeth. He's very happy with his dinner. I put some water on the stove for tea. I take a piece of boiled beef and yesterday's potato salad out of the icebox. I put the meat in my oven and the bowl of salad on the table. I also put my plate and tea cup on the table, together with a knife, fork and spoon. In a few minutes, when the beef's hot enough, I take it out of the oven and put it on the table. My dinner's all ready! Where's my newspaper? It always has one or two pieces of interesting news on the front page. Also, I must take a look on the back page at tomorrow's weather report. At the end of dinner, my dog goes close to the stove and takes his place. I go into the living room, with a second cup of tea, and take my own place on the sofa at the front of my television. There should be a good film on television tonight about an airplane that went down in a snow storm not too long ago.78 PAST to put (+) to put (-) I put we put I did not put we did not put you put you put you did not put you did not put he put they put he did not put they did not put she put she did not put it put it did not put I put some sugar in my coffee. I didn't put any sugar in my coffee. She put the necessary things in her bag. She didn't put the necessary things in her bag. We put new wallpaper on the wall. We didn't put new wallpaper on the wall. He put new heels on the shoes. He didn't put new heels on the shoes. to put (+?) to put (-?) did I put? did we put? didn't I put? didn't we put? did you put? did you put? didn't you put? didn't you put? did he put? did they put? didn't he put? didn't they put? did she put? didn't she put? did it put? didn't it put? Did you put your things away? Didn't you put your things away? Did he put his hand up? Didn't he put his hand up? Did she put her hands over her ears? Didn't she put her hands over her ears? Did they put a ship into the water? Didn't they put a ship into the water? to take (+) to take (-) I took we took I did not take we did not take you took you took you did not take you did not take he took they took he did not take they did not take she took she did not take it took it did not take I took my sweater off. I didn't take my sweater off. We took the fruit off the tree. We didn't take the fruit off the tree. He took the page out of the book. He didn't take the page out of the book. She took the fish out of the water. She didn't take the fish out of the water. to take (+?) to take (-?) did I take? did we take? didn't I take? didn't we take? did you take? did you take? didn't you take? didn't you take? did he take? did they take? didn't he take? didn't they take? did she take? didn't she take? did it take? didn't it take? Did he take the seat off his bicycle? Didn't he take the seat off his bicycle? Did she take the skin off the orange? Didn't she take the skin off the orange? Did you take the knife away from him? Didn't you take the knife away from him? Did they take their plans with them? Didn't they take their plans with them?79 A DAY IN THE COUNTRY I am lucky because a few days ago, my neighbors, the Madisons, took me to the country with them. Mr. Madison is a policeman and his wife is a secretary at our city high school. They have three children: Ann, Edward and William. The weather was very beautiful. The air was hot and dry. There were only a few clouds in the sky. It was a very clear day. Mrs. Madison put some food for lunch in a big basket and her husband, George, put the basket in the back of their car, together with a bag of clothes and a box with balls and other things for their children. Then, when we were all ready, they put their three young children in the back seat of the car. The children put their own seatbelts on. This is important because seatbelts are necessary under today's law. We all put on our sunglasses because the day was very bright. And then, away we went! At first, we went along Flower Street. Then, at the corner of Flower and Church Streets, we went right. We went along Church Street for some distance until we came to Sundown Road, which goes by the airport. When we went by the airport, an airplane took off and went up into and then through a soft, white cloud. How wonderful! After the airport, there was only open country. How beautiful it was! And how nice it was to be away from all the cars, buses, trucks and people! The flowers were out. Almost every tree had fruit on its branches. For miles and miles there were only fields of green grass in all directions. The grass came up to the knees of the horses and cows that were out of their barns. We went through a beautiful little valley with family farms along both sides of the road. Here and there, in the valley, there was still some early morning fog.80 A few minutes before noon, we came to a little river. We went across a little bridge and at last, came to a stop. It was a perfect place for a day of fun in the sun. We all took the basket, bag and box out of the car and put them under a big tree. Then, all the children took their clothes off and went into the river. Because the weather was nice and hot, we all took off our clothes and went into the river. At first, the water was a little cold for me. But after a minute or two, it was okay and we all had fun for an hour or more. When we came out of the water, we all took a sun bath. After only a few seconds, our skin was all dry. There were some drops of water still in our hair. But soon our hair was dry also. I was a little angry because I almost went to sleep, so my back and shoulders had almost too much sun. When people take a sun bath, they should put some body oil on and be in the sun for only a short time. Too much sun can be very bad for your skin. The children took their places under a big umbrella until lunch was ready. Early in the morning, when she was still at her house, Mrs. Madison took the juice out of 20 or 30 oranges. Then she put it, together with some ice, in a bottle and some newspapers round the outside. In mid-afternoon, when we had our outdoor lunch by the river, there was still some ice in the bottle, which is why the children's orange juice was cold, but not too sweet. So with lunch, there were two kinds of drinks, orange juice for the children and beer for us. A bottle of cold beer was wonderful with our lunch. For lunch, we all went under the branches of a big tree, out of the sun. It was then that Mrs. Madison took the food out of the lunch basket. We had bean and onion salad, cold beef and chicken legs, bread and butter, fruit and a thick piece of her special dark chocolate cake. What a heavy meal! It was almost too much, but it was all very delicious. 81 After we had our outdoor lunch, we went for a long walk along the side of the river. We took a look round at the country, which was wonderful in the soft light of late afternoon. We went back to the car and put all the things back into it. Because there was a light wind, we put our clothes back on. The sun was almost down when we were all ready to go back home. We went back across the bridge, back down the valley and back through the beautiful farm country. All the animals were back in their barns. Because the children were tired, they went to sleep before we went too far. The moon came up and the stars came out before we came back to our homes. Because no one was hungry and it was already very late, we did not have dinner. Mr. and Mrs. Madison and I took the children out of the car and into the house where we put their pajamas on them. Then we put them in their beds and soon they all went back to sleep. I was worried about how late it was and the problem with my bus, so Mr. Madison was nice enough to take me back to my apartment. I was too tired to take a look at what was on television, so I had a hot shower, put on my pajamas, and went to bed. It was already about 11 o'clock, but what a wonderful day we had!82 FUTURE to put (+) to put (-) I will put we will put I will not put we will not put you will put you will put you will not put you will not put he will put they will put he will not put they will not put she will put she will not put it will put it will not put I'll put a picture up on the wall. I won't put a picture up on the wall. He'll put a light up over the sink. He won't put a light up over the sink. She'll put her feet down into the water. She won't put her feet down into the water. They'll put a bridge across the river. They won't put a bridge across the river. to put (+?) to put (-?) will I put? will we put? won't I put? won't we put? will you put? will you put? won't you put? won't you put? will he put? will they put? won't he put? won't they put? will she put? won't she put? will it put? won't it put? Will you put these words on the board? Won't you put these words on the board? Will she put buttons on her dress? Won't she put buttons on her dress? Will he put his son in that school? Won't he put his son in that school? Will they put our bags in the train? Won't they put our bags in the train? to take (+) to take (-) I will take we will take I will not take we will not take you will take you will take you will not take you will not take he will take they will take he will not take they will not take she will take she will not take it will take it will not take I'll take the stomach out of the fish. I won't take the stomach out of the fish. He'll take her to the restaurant. He won't take her to the restaurant. She'll take him back to her place. She won't take him back to her place. They'll take the car apart. They won't take the car apart. to take (+?) to take (-?) will I take? will we take? won't I take? won't we take? will you take? will you take? won't you take? won't you take? will he take? will they take? won't he take? won't they take? will she take? won't she take? will it take? won't it take? Will you take this to your family? Won't you take this to your family? Will she take her bicycle to work? Won't she take her bicycle to work? Will he take the head off the chicken? Won't he take the head off the chicken? Will they take you away from me? Won't they take you away from me?83 NEW YORK CITY New York City is at the mouth of the Hudson River. A part of the city is on an island, the name of which is Long Island. To the east of Long Island is the Atlantic Ocean. New York City has hundreds of miles of streets, thousands of buildings and millions of people -almost 9,000,000 all together. Another name for New York City is "The Big Apple." This may not be a bad name for it because living there has both a "sweet and sour" side. People living in New York City and outside of it often take a look at the pages of the New York Times, one of the city's and world's important newspapers, for up-to-theminnut reports about what takes place on the streets and in back of closed doors in The Big Apple. Some parts of the city are very beautiful with tall, new office buildings, some of which go up 100 floors or more. But New York is an old city, so there are parts of it that are far from beautiful, where there are old buildings with boards across the windows and doors. People are afraid to go out on the streets at night in those parts of the city. And they are right! They should be afraid. It is not a good idea to be out on those streets at night without a friend! New York has an important place in American history. The first Europeans came to where New York is today in 1626. They were from the Netherlands. They took the place away from the Indians for a few mirrors, bracelets, necklaces, rings and so on. A few years later, the English took it away from the Dutch. It was not long before New York came to be (became) a market place with goods from both Europe and North America, where a European knife could be had for three animal skins, or an Indian basket could be had for two mirrors. But problems soon came up between the Indians and the Europeans, so the Europeans put up a wall against the Indians. Today the name of the place, where that wall was, is Wall Street. New York was the first capital city of the United States of America. Early next spring, my family and I may go to New York City. Our idea is to be there for a few days at the end of March. When we go, we will go by airplane. The last time I was in New York, which was three years ago, I was only at Kennedy Airport for two hours. But that was enough for me! It was a very busy place. Only, people, people, people! Wall-to-wall people! And many of them were angry. It was terrible! I was soon tired of it all and very happy to go back home. But this time, it will not be the same. Things will be different, very different. You have my word! If we are lucky and the weather is nice, we will have fun outdoors. If the sky is clear and it is not too cold, we will go for a walk through Central Park, a big park in the middle of the city. If the flowers and leaves are out, the park will be very beautiful, without question. I'm sure that we will also take a look at some of New York's big stores with their beautiful and expensive goods from round the world. Some of the goods are one of a kind. The clothes are always up-to-date.84 We will also go for a walk along Wall Street. We will take a look at it. America does not have a central bank, so Wall Street is a very important place in not only America's, but also the world's money markets. Without question, New York City is one of a kind, a world class city. It is the home of the United Nations, which we will also take a look at, both inside and outside. 45 minutes or an hour should be enough time for us to take a look at the many beautiful rooms of the United Nations. The UN is close to the East River, which is always very busy with many ships on it. It is easy to be in love with this side of living in The Big Apple. New York is in the northeast part of the United States, where the weather can always be a problem. From one day to the next the weather is often very different. There may be terrible storms: rain storms, ice storms or snow storms all in the same week. That is why it is necessary to be ready for different kinds of weather, if you or your friends go to New York in the springtime. We will take both our raincoats and umbrellas. My wife is always worried about the weather, so we will also put our overcoats in our bags. Then we will be ready for March in the Big Apple. If there is a little spring shower or a big thunder storm, we will put on our raincoats and put up our umbrellas. If the weather is very cold, there may be snow and ice on the streets and sidewalks, so we will also take our overshoes and winter overcoats. Because New York City is on an island and has water all round it, there may be fog, heavy fog.85 One or two evenings, I will take my family out to one of New York's many first class restaurants. When we go out, I will put on my new, blue suit, my black shoes and socks, a white shirt and a new tie. My wife will put on her long, black evening dress that I came back from Paris with, last year. It has a low "v" neck, in the both front and the back, and little white buttons round the middle and down the right side. It is perfect on her. Our children, whose names are Elizabeth and Andrew, will also put their good clothes on. I am always happy when I can take my family out for an evening of fun. I am sure that it will be a wonderful time. When we go from our hotel to the restaurant, we will take a taxi. When we go into the restaurant, we will take our coats and hats off. We will put them, together with our umbrellas, by the door. Then, we will take our seats at a table by a window. For dinner we may have beef, pork, chicken or fish. We may also have two or three different kinds of vegetables and a green salad. Our children, who are only 10 and 8 years old, will have a glass of milk with their meals. Milk is a very good drink for them. My wife and I always have a glass or two of wine with our meal. If we have white meat, we will have a light white wine. White meat and white wine always go together. If we have red meat, we will have a heavy red wine because red meat and red wine also go together. At the end of our meal we may have some cheese and fruit, or cake and ice cream. Because New York cheese cake is very good, my wife and I may have it with a cup of strong black coffee. After dinner, we might go for a walk along Fifth Avenue and take a look at the goods in the windows of the expensive stores. Or we might take a taxi to Radio City Music Hall, which is another wonderful place with beautiful, bright lights. Radio City Music Hall is a first class theater, where people from round the world go. If we go there, we will not be back at our hotel until very late. Without question, our children will be tired, but happy when, at last, they put their heads down to go to sleep at the end of the day. It will be the same for my wife and me. Rest, how sweet it is at the end of a long day!86 Please put your answers on the lines. goes by goes out goes between goes down √ goes round goes under go to go away go along go across go back go through 1. The earth ___goes round____ the sun. 2. When will he _______________ to Brazil? 3. The bus _______________ my house. 4. Don't __________________ !!! 5. Airplanes ______________ oceans. 6. That train ______________ Baltimore and Philadelphia. 7. Buses ____________________ city streets. 8. People _______________ theaters in taxis. 9. Airplanes _________________ clouds. 10. The ship _____________________ the bridge. 11. The sun _____________________ in the evening. 12. My neighbor ________________ of his house every morning at 7:00. come down come to comes after come into √ come from comes up 1. Where did the ship __come from? 2. Lightning may ________________ from that storm cloud. 3. Cars ________________ a stop at a red light. 4. Thunder _______________ lightning. 5. Don't __________________ my room, if the door is closed! 6. The moon always ____________________ in the east. put in √ put up put on puts round puts through puts under 1. I ___put____ my hands __up___. 2. ______________ your coat ____________. 3. They ____________ him ______________ the police car. 4. He _________________ his book _____________ his arm. 5. She _________________ her hands _______________ his hair. 6. He ___________________ his arms ________________ her. take away take from take to √ take off take in take out 1. _Take____ your wet shoes __off___ before you come in the house. 2. _____________ the knife ______________ from the baby. 3. We ______________ some air _____________ our lungs. 4. She will _______________ us ______________ the city library. 5. They will _____________ the old sink _____________ of the kitchen. 6. Those red taxis __________ people ___________ the airport to their hotels and back. went across came from came between came down went back went with √ come up went out was up came out went in put down put on took out was under The sun did not _come up__ until almost 6:30 this morning, but I __________. I __________ some water ________ the stove for coffee. I ____________ some things ____________ of the icebox. My dog ______________ the table, but when I ___________ a bone ________ for him, he _______________ from under the table. He _____________ of the house with his bone. After breakfast, my dog ________ me to the store. We _____________ the bridge. Then, some rain clouds ____________ the west. They ____________ us and the sun. Much rain _______________, so my dog and I ________________ to our house. We ___________ where it was nice and dry. 87 REVIEW88 FAMILY A year ago this month, my parents went to Europe. They went with my aunt and uncle, who are from Chicago. My aunt is a teacher and her husband is a doctor. Their three (3) children, who are my cousins, and I went to our grandparents' farm, which is in the country. We four (4) children were at the farm one month when our parents were in Europe. We had a very good time at the farm. My cousin, Helen, was 14 years old. She had her birthday when we were at the farm. It was on August 20. There was a very big cake. Grandfather's fruit juice drink, in which he put some lemons, oranges and some sugar, was very good. It was a very hot day, so he also put some ice in. Mr. and Mrs. Grant and their five (5) children came from the next farm. Dr. Tyler and his wife came also. Many people came for Helen's birthday party. We had the cake with ice cream and fruit juice drink at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. That evening, after all the people went back to their farms, we children took off our clothes, had a shower, and put on our pajamas. We took our places at the front of the television. Grandmother took her place on the sofa with grandfather. There was a film on television about the south of France, which was where our parents were. It was a very beautiful film. After the film, we went straight to bed. BUILDINGS Not all buildings are the same. There are different things in different kinds of buildings. Theaters have many seats, but no tables. Restaurants have both seats and tables. Hospitals have many beds, but banks have no beds. Some churches have seats and others don't have any. Some offices have windows and others don't have any. Universities have both seats and windows. All buildings have rooms. Some have only one room, and others have many. Every room has a door. There may be one or more windows in a room. Every building has a roof, walls and a floor. Every building on my street has its own number. The number of my apartment building is 421. The number of the building across the street is 422. The name of my street is Park Street. It is one of the big streets in my city. The post office is on Park Street. Park Street goes to the city park. On one side of the park is a milk store. When I go for milk, I go straight along Park Street until I come to Flower Street. At the corner of Park and Flower Streets, there is a stop light. When it is red, all the cars come to a stop. When the stop light is green for me, I go across the street. HOUSE All houses are buildings, but not all buildings are houses. My brother still does not have his own house. He and his new wife have a fourrooo apartment. They have a kitchen, a bedroom, a bathroom and a living room. The kitchen is not very big. The bedroom is on the east side of the apartment, so the sun comes through their window very early. The bathroom is a little room with a sink, a toilet and a bathtub. In the living room there is a sofa and two or three armchairs. My brother was in Africa, so he has many beautiful animal pictures on his walls. He also has a lot of books about African flowers and trees. My brother is a doctor. He may go back to Africa next fall. His wife, who is a mathematics teacher, will go with him. If they go back to Africa together, they will take some American things with them for their new apartment. They will take a good radio, a new icebox and their car. But they will not take their furniture. They will not take their bed, sofa, tables or lights. They have a beautiful carpet from Iran, so they may take it with them. My brother may take his books with him, or he may put them under the roof of my house.89 COUNTRY Mr. Cleveland, whose first name is Walter, and his wife, whose first name is Natalie, have a farm, which is not too far from the city, where they go every Saturday. They go to the city for things which they do not have at the farm. There are many kinds of stores in the city. They go to a food store for sugar, tea, and coffee. They go to another store for bread and cake. It is a bread store. They go to a special store for beef and pork. It is a meat store. When Mr. and Mrs. Cleveland go back to their farm, Mrs. Cleveland puts the meat in the icebox. At the time she puts the other things away, Mr. Cleveland goes to the barn. All his animals are in the barn. There are horses, cows, and pigs. He also has some chickens, but he does not put them in the barn when he goes away. WEATHER The weather is different in different parts of the world. In some places it is dry, and in others it is wet. If the weather is too dry, it will not be good for animals or plants. In wet weather, there may be too much rain. The rivers may go over their sides. The water may take away the bridges, which go across the rivers. If there is too much rain, and the rivers go over their sides, there may be a lot of people who do not have food. If there is very dry weather for a long time, the river beds may be dry. If they are, there will not be any water or fish for people. In some other parts of the world, the weather may be very cold. There may be snow. If there is much snow, the fields and all the trees and buildings will be white. In the winter the days are very short and the nights are long. On cold winter nights, when there are no clouds or wind, the sky is very clear. On those nights, the moon and stars are very beautiful. People may put on their coats and go for long walks. When they come back to their houses, they may be happy to have some hot tea and cake by their stoves.90 Intentionally left blank91 APPENDIX92 Intentionally left blank93 PREPOSITIONS: THEIR BASIC MEANINGS on ≠ off A book is on the table. (surface) A button is off my coat. in ≠ out He is in the room. (3 dimensions) His tongue is out. under ≠ over A dog is under the table. A light is over the table. before ≠ after A is before B. 6 is after 5. together ≠ apart My fingers are together. My feet are apart. with ≠ without John is with Mary. This coffee is without sugar. by (very close) A tree is by my window. (transport) She went to school by bicycle. between (two) May is between April and June. among (many) A horse was among the trees. against A table was against the wall. at (a point in time) She will be there at 8:15. (a point in space) She was at the blackboard. to (end point) ≠ They went to New York. from (starting point) They came from Los Angeles. up ≠ down Hands up. Head down. into He went into the bank. out of He came out of the bank. across (flat surface) She went across the street. through (side to side) The rain came through the roof. (start to end) We went through the book. round The world goes round the sun. back After coffee, we went back to work. along (parallel) There are trees along both sides of the street. away (not here) She went away. about (concerning) This book is about English. (more or less) It was about 5:00 in the afternoon. of (organic connection) Blue is the color of the sky. (partive) That is a piece of paper. for (connection) This beautiful ring is for you. (purpose) I went to the airport for my friend. Some were for him and others were against him.94 This is a mapof Africa, from Paul, for you. There was a bookabout Indonesia, at the corner, on the table, in the library. Will it beon the seat, under the sofa, over the window, among the socks, by the door, in the house, with the radio, or against the wall? Mary will be herewith Anthony, at 9 o'clock a.m., on Wednesday. John has hischin up, stomach in, chest out, shoulders back, feet apart, fingers together, and hands at his sides. They had maps of East Europe, books about American history, pictures on the wall, plants by the windows, flowers from the garden, food in the icebox, a light over the sink, a television against the wall, and a coffee table between the seats. The cat goesto the house, along the wall, into the garden, up the tree, out on the branch, among the leaves, and on the roof.95 The dog went through the door, after the cat, round the corner, between the cars, along the street, across the bridge, and away with the bone. The woman will goto the store, before 5:00, with her son, for ice cream. The cows came out of the field, down to the river, across the bridge, among the trees, and back to the barn. The man camefrom Mexico, with his daughter, after her birthday, to an English class, at an evening school, in Los Angeles. The rain will come down, through the roof, in the room, on the floor, under the sofa, and out the door. He took the clock down off the wall, the hands off the face, the face off the clock, and the clock apart. He put the clock back together, the face back on the clock, the hands back on the face, and the clock back up on the wall. She tookthe meat of the icebox, the skins off the potatoes, and the knife away from the child.96 Before we put the flowers along the sides of our new house and the pictures up on the walls, the workmen put it together. First, they put the walls up. Then, they put the roof on, the floorboards down, the windows in, the sinks in, the bathtub in, the toilet in, the carpet down, and the wallpaper on. I was up at 6:45, went into the bathroom at 6:48, came out of the bathroom at 7:00, took off my pajamas at 7:03, put on my work clothes at 7:05, had my breakfast at 7 :15, went out the door at 7:30, was at work at 8:00, had some coffee at 10:30, had lunch with my friends at 12:00, went back to work at 12:30, was through work at 5:00, went to the store for bread at 5:30, came back to my apartment at 5:45, put the bread away at 5:51, put my dinner in the oven at 6:12, went into my bedroom at 6:15, took off my work clothes at 6:18, had a hot shower at 6:20, put my pajamas back on at 6:45, went back into the kitchen at 6:50, took my dinner out of the oven at 6:52, had my dinner at 7:00, put my dinner things in the sink at 7:17, put some water on the stove for tea at 7:20, had some tea with lemon and sugar at 7:25, took my place before the television at 7:30, and went to bed at 11:00. She put her fingers on his shoulder, down his back, in his hand, along his arm, across his chest, under his chin, round his neck, through his hair, over his eyes, against his lips, and between his teeth.97 Review of Modal Verbs WILL be I will be on the train tomorrow. have I will have a new red bicycle. have I will have some orange juice for breakfast. go I will go to the bus station. come I will come back at 6 o'clock. put I will put my sweater on after lunch. take I will take my shoes off before I go in the house. MUST be You must be at work before 8 o'clock. have You must have fun when you go down the river. have You must have some of my mother's chocolate cake. go You must go to the police. come You must come to our party. put You must put your clean clothes away. take You must take her to the hospital now. SHOULD be He should be a good student. have He should have more time next week. have He should have an apple every day. go He should go to the country. come He should come with us. put He should put his hands together. take He should take that old radio apart. CAN/COULD be She can be a very good secretary. have She can have this box of candy. have She can have a glass or two of wine with her dinner. go She can go to the store without me. come She can come to our house any time of the day or night. put She can put all the potatoes in this bucket. take She can take a taxi to the airport. have When he was young, he could have a glass of wine at dinner. go When he was young, he could go all day on a bicycle without a rest. come When he was young, he could come home at any hour of the day or night. put When he was young, he could put a young cow up over his head with one hand. MAY be We may be at the hotel before 5 o'clock. have We may have a little farm with our own horses and cows. have We may have a bottle of beer with our bread and cheese. go We may go for a walk along the river after lunch. come We may come back very late. put We may put the children in bed at 8:30. take We may take some beautiful flowers and a basket of fruit to the party.98 MATHEMATICS + [and] Mary: How much is 5 and 4? 5+4=? John: 5 and 4 is 9. 5+4=9 Mary: How much is 3 and 6? 3+6=? John: 3 and 6 is also 9 3+6=9 Mary: How much is 2 and 17? 2+17=? John: 2 and 17 is 19. 2+17=19 -[from] Nathaniel: How much is 5 from 7? 7-5=? Alexandra: 5 from 7 is 2 7-5=2 Nathaniel: How much is 6 from 10? 10-6=? Alexandra: 6 from 10 is 4. 10-6=4 Nathaniel: How much is 9 from 16? 16-9=? Alexandra: 9 from 16 is 7. 16-9=7 -[take away] Andrew: How much is 7 take away 3? 7-3=? Jessica 7 take away 3 is 4. 7-3=4 Andrew: How much is 35 take away 30? 35-30? Jessica: 35 take away 30 is 5 35-30=5 Andrew: How much is 10 take away 3? 10-3=? Jessica: 10 take away 3 is 2. 10-3=2 x [by] Katherine: How much is 2 by 6? 2x6=? Elizabeth: 2 by 6 is 12. 2x6=12 Katherine: How much is 3 by 5? 3x5=? Elizabeth: 3 by 5 is 15. 3x5=15 Katherine: How much is 2 by 2? 2x2=? Elizabeth: 2 by 2 is 4. 2x2=4 -[into] Ashley: How much is 3 into 6? 6-3=? Natalie: 3 into 6 is 2. 6-3=2 Ashley: How much is 5 into 20? 20-5=? Natalie: 5 into 20 is 4. 20-5=4 Ashley: How much is 4 into 12? 12-4=? Natalie: 4 into 12 is 3. 12-4=399 MORE ABOUT PREPOSITIONS: THEIR BASIC MEANINGS POSITIONS on ≠ off A book is on the table. A button is off my coat. in ≠ out He is in the room. The dog's tongue is out. under ≠ over My cat is under the table. A light is over the table. before ≠ after A is before B. 6 is after 5. together ≠ apart My hands are together. My feet are apart. with ≠ without Mary is with John. Mary went to the film without him. by (very close) A tree is by my window. between (two things) May is between April and June. among (many things) A horse is among the trees. against A table is against the wall. at ( a point in time) The bus will be here at 9: 32. ( a point in space) The teacher is at the blackboard. DIRECTIONS to ≠ from They went to New York. He came from Mexico. up ≠ down Hot air goes up. Rain comes down. into He went into the bank. out of He came out of the bank. across She went across the street. through A cold wind came through my coat. round I went round the world. back He went to Boston in April and came back in May. along We went along the side of the river. away (not here) He went away without a word. RELATIONSHIPS about This book is about English. of (shows an almost unbreakable connection) Blue is the color of the sky. for (purpose) I went to the market for milk. (shows a loose or breakable connection) This ice cream is for you.