METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR WORKING WITH CHLDREN PLAY 10 Hrs. RESOURCES AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (2009) CARING FOR YOUR BABY AND YOUNG CHILD, BANTAM 5TH EDITION BERK, LAURA (2009) INFANTS, CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, PEARSON NJ. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN – TOYS TOOLS FOR LEARNING(1999) It is often said that the work of the child is “PLAY “. FUNCTION OF PLAY Play has components across the domains. One cannot do certain kinds of physical play if the child does not have the motor skill to engage in these activities. This is true across the domains. Hence individuals who care for children must consider what is developmentally appropriate as play that requires a skill level high than what the child has mastered may result in high levels of frustration which then has other implications. Play also provides a form of social problem solving. Play allows children to rehearse adult roles. TYPES OF PLAY SOLITARY GROUP PLAY STRUCTURED PLAY UNSTRUCTURED PLAY DRAMATIC PLAY PLAY CATEGORIES Berk (2009) -P. 375 There is three categories of play. FUNCTIONAL PLAY Simple repetitive movements sometimes with object at other times without. Such as running around the room aimlessly. Rolling a car with wheels back and forth, kneading clay or using paints without making anything CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY Common among three and four year olds. Creating and constructing something. Look at the Block Play of children. The blocks become a range of things. Making a house, a bridge, drawing a picture, doing a puzzle. MAKE BELIEVE PLAY Common to the 2 – 6 year olds. Acting out every day roles as well as imaginary roles. Playing the role of teacher, doctor and other community roles with which they are familiar. NONSOCIAL ACTVITY -Child is essentially an onlooker PARALLEL PLAY -Limited form of interaction found among young children. Play is near other children ASSOCIATIVE PLAY -Children engage in limited form of activity. Play separately but might exchange toys. COOPERATIVE PLAY -More advanced level of interaction. Children work towards a common goal. CENTERS IN EARLY CHILD HOOD CLASSROOMS PLAY AREAS IN THE HOME GAMES -That support mental health, literacy and math, problem solving. GAMES – OUTDOOR GAMES – INDOOR SAFETY AND THE PLAY ENVIORNMENT Playgrounds -swing sets Children under five should not play with older children Suitable mats etc. so that if children fall they do not run the risk of hurting themselves e.g. head Injuries. Swings should be of soft and flexible materials Make sure that children use the ladder to go up slides and not use the shine surface Between 3 and 5 children should not use the see saw with older children Backyard -if no fence child should no boundaries Ensure that there are no poisonous weeds etc. in the yard. Teach children not to pick and eat from plants When cooking outdoors ensure that the grill is screened. Coal Pots should not be used with Children in close proximity. Be sure charcoal is out before it is thrown out. Do not use power tools around young children Children should not play unattended near traffic of any kind. Children should not play in or around cars or other vehicles. Water Safety CHILDREN CAN DROWN IN SMALL AMOUNTS OF WATER. Children should not be allowed to swim without supervision Children playing in water should not be allowed to swallow water. There is danger of “ water Intoxication” this can result in convulsions, shock and extreme cases death. Enforce safety rules such as “no running by the pool” Safety around animals -dogs, cats, birds, etc. NEVER LEAVE CHILDREN ALONE WITH ANIMALS Tell children if approached by strange dogs they should stand still. Tell children not to pet other people’s animals Tell your child what to do if he/she suffers a nose bleed. TOYS AND PLAY Toys should be age appropriate Toys for infants should build strength Encourage movement -Bouncy chair/baby swings Encourage crawling – push toys, balls Selection of toys Have toys with different textures; make noise, bold patterns so movements will stimulate the senses Crib mobiles, stuffed animals, soft toys, and soft blocks. Small enough to hold not small enough to choke. Toys should have smooth round edges. Soft rattles, music boxes, squeaky toys, teethers, stuffed animals Make noises, whisper, giggle, Red picture books with simple bright pictures. Encourage baby to make noises. Do activities that involve listening. Make different sounds, wind chimes. Play and the child Birth – 6 months Babies can enjoy gentle active play One can move his/her arms and legs Touch hands, finger and toes. Playing games that allow touch and naming body parts are good for the child so that they can learn their own boundaries. What is the child and what is someone else. Take a ball and with a short string to the hold the ball above the baby and encourage them to kick it. Give a gently “horsey” ride Sing while doing this ‘Ride a grey horse to bam berry cross, to see a white lady on a grey horse. Rings on her fingers and rings on her toes she shall have music wherever she goes. Roll a ball to within the reach of the baby. Encourage the baby to crawl after the ball. Older babies like the excitement of being in a race. TOYS AND ACTIVITIES (NAEYC) BIRTH TO THREE MONTHS INFANTS can begin to smile at people, coo, following moving objects with eyes. Seem to like faces and bright colors. Reaches, discover hands, kicks feet, and lifts head sucks with obvious pleasure. TOYS -Rattles, Large Rings, squeeze or sucking toys, Lullabies, nursery rhymes, poems, bright pictures, bells. BOOKS -or Cardboard vinyl books with high contrast illustrations to stand in babies view. Brightly patterned crib sheets, mobiles visible from babies position. Infant 4 -6 months Prefers parents/caregivers and siblings to other people, repeats actions that have the same results. Listens intently, responds when spoken to. Smiles often, laugh, gurgle imitate sounds Explores hands and feet. Put objects in mouth. Sits when propped, rolls over, scoots, bounce, grab objects without using thumb, bats at hanging objects. Soft doll, texture ball, sock with bright designs, Toys that makes noise when batted or squeezed or mouthed, teething toy. Pictures of faces covered in plastic and hung at child’s level unbreakable mirror, finger play. Simple songs. Socks with bright faces, peek a boo, Infant 7 – 12 months Remember simple events, form simple concepts, identify themselves, body parts, voices of familiar people, understand own name and other common words, Explore, bang, or shake objects with hands, find hidden objects, find hidden objects, put objects in and out of containers. Sits alone, creep, pull to a stand, walk. May seem shy or become upset with stranger Toys mentioned previous for -6 months. Rag and baby dolls, stuffed animals, puppets. Container for large beads, blocks and balls, nesting toys or plastic containers. Cloth and soft vinyl books with bright pictures to grasp, chew, shake. Recordings of voices, animal sounds, music. Large soft blocks, small wooden cubes. Water toys that float, Rubber or large plastic balls. Soft plastic or wooden cart or car /truck with wheels, games like peekaboo. Toddler 1 – 1 ½ years Child will imitate adult actions, Say meaningful words, Enjoy stories, Experiment with objects, Walk steadily, climb stairs, Assert Independence but strongly prefers familiar people., recognizes ownership of objects, engages in parallel play. Plays side by side with peers. Begins to understand what adults want them to do but aren’t yet able to control themselves. Toys 6 months – 1 year plus the following – surprise or music box, Board Books to read old magazines to tear. Books/recordings with songs, rhymes, simple stories and pictures, Wide water color markers, fat nontoxic crayons, large blank paper, geometric, unit or cardboard blocks. Activities for engagement -People, Animals, and vehicles made of wood or rubber. Sand and water play with plastic measuring cups, boats, containers, washable doll, large cardboard box to crawl in, Toys that jingle or move when used. Kitchen cupboards or safe pots, pans, lids, utensils. (no sharp edges). Child I ½ to 2 Years Solves problems, Speaks and understands more, Show pride in accomplishments. Likes to help with tasks. Exhibits more body control, runs, plays more with others. Begins to PRETEND PLAY Toys -self help toys, sorting box, holes with pegs, puzzles with 2 – 6 pieces with knobs, Large spools or beads strings, Books with large colorful illustrations, short stories. Activities -Soft dough clay, bells, drum, small broom, camera, pots pans. Shopping cartm wagon, riding toy, toy telephone, washable doll.