________ is the degree of impact the job is believed to have on others.
_______ is the extent to which employees have the freedom and discretion to plan, schedule, and perform their jobs as desired.
A motivation theory without empirical support but one that is widely and popularly accepted as valid by managers is:
Cognitive evaluation theory
Alderfer’s ERG theory
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Herzberg’s two-factor theory has been criticized on several bases, including the fact that
It has a heavily negative bias about human nature
There is no empirical support for his theory
The key needs that drive individual motivation are not addressed
The reliability of his methodology is questionable
Alderfer’s ERG theory argues that:
There are two core groups of needs
People of all cultures rank needs the same way
More than one need may be operative at the same time
Human needs appear in a sequential hierarchy and lower needs must be met before higher needs can be
According to McClelland’s theory of needs, those individuals dominated by achievement needs:
Seek moderate risks, feedback and personal responsibility
Desire to have an impact, to be influential and to control others
Want to be liked and accepted by others
None of these
_________essentially argues that extrinsic rewards like pay can actually decreases motivation when it replaces intrinsic rewards such as satisfaction from doing a good job.
Cognitive evaluation theory
According to goal-setting theory individuals will perform better if they:
Participate in their goal-setting.
Receive continuous reinforcement.
Are given relatively easy goals.
According to the integrating contemporary theories of motivation model offered in your text, motivation will be highest when:
An individual is provided with the opportunity to perform.
Rewards reinforce individual performance.
Employees perceive a strong relationship between effort and rewards.
All of these elements are present.
When applying motivation theories across cultures it is important to remember that:
There are no cross-cultural consistencies in motivation.
All cultures share the same motivational values.
Maslow’s theory applies across cultures while cognitive evaluation theory does not.
The elements that motivate vary from culture to culture.
If you want a motivational program that allows employees to translate corporate objectives into their own specific objectives and that encourages their maximum participation, your best choice of program would be:
Flexible benefit plans.
Management by objectives
MBO and goal-setting are similar in several respects including:
Employee participation in goal-setting.
The use of specific goals or objectives.
That both see easy goals as more effective motivators than difficult goals.
All of these.
Employee involvement programs:
Use the entire capacity of the employee and are designed to increase commitment.
Recognize individuals for their efforts by noting superior employee performance.
Permit employees to manage their own benefits through a flexible-benefits program.
Are exemplified by programs using goal-setting theory.
Studies of participative management programs:
Find universally negative results.
Show significantly increased levels of stress and turnover for managers.
Show mixed results.
Show little if any improvement in employee performance or job satisfaction.
_____________ link employees with management. They are elected or nominated by workers, and they must be consulted when management makes decisions involving personnel issues.
Quality circle facilitators.