_____________ link employees with management. They are elected or nominated by workers, and they must be consulted when management makes decisions involving personnel issues.
Quality circle facilitators.
Studies of participative management programs:
Show little if any improvement in employee performance or job satisfaction.
Show mixed results.
Show significantly increased levels of stress and turnover for managers.
Find universally negative results.
Employee involvement programs:
Are exemplified by programs using goal-setting theory.
Permit employees to manage their own benefits through a flexible-benefits program.
Recognize individuals for their efforts by noting superior employee performance.
Use the entire capacity of the employee and are designed to increase commitment.
MBO and goal-setting are similar in several respects including:
All of these.
That both see easy goals as more effective motivators than difficult goals.
The use of specific goals or objectives.
Employee participation in goal-setting.
If you want a motivational program that allows employees to translate corporate objectives into their own specific objectives and that encourages their maximum participation, your best choice of program would be:
Management by objectives
Flexible benefit plans.
When applying motivation theories across cultures it is important to remember that:
The elements that motivate vary from culture to culture.
Maslow’s theory applies across cultures while cognitive evaluation theory does not.
All cultures share the same motivational values.
There are no cross-cultural consistencies in motivation.
According to the integrating contemporary theories of motivation model offered in your text, motivation will be highest when:
All of these elements are present.
Employees perceive a strong relationship between effort and rewards.
Rewards reinforce individual performance.
An individual is provided with the opportunity to perform.
According to goal-setting theory individuals will perform better if they:
Are given relatively easy goals.
Receive continuous reinforcement.
Participate in their goal-setting.
_________essentially argues that extrinsic rewards like pay can actually decreases motivation when it replaces intrinsic rewards such as satisfaction from doing a good job.
Cognitive evaluation theory
According to McClelland’s theory of needs, those individuals dominated by achievement needs:
None of these
Want to be liked and accepted by others
Desire to have an impact, to be influential and to control others
Seek moderate risks, feedback and personal responsibility
Alderfer’s ERG theory argues that:
Human needs appear in a sequential hierarchy and lower needs must be met before higher needs can be
More than one need may be operative at the same time
People of all cultures rank needs the same way
There are two core groups of needs
Herzberg’s two-factor theory has been criticized on several bases, including the fact that
The reliability of his methodology is questionable
The key needs that drive individual motivation are not addressed
There is no empirical support for his theory
It has a heavily negative bias about human nature
A motivation theory without empirical support but one that is widely and popularly accepted as valid by managers is:
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Alderfer’s ERG theory
Cognitive evaluation theory
_______ is the extent to which employees have the freedom and discretion to plan, schedule, and perform their jobs as desired.
________ is the degree of impact the job is believed to have on others.